[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With use of dental implants on the rise, there is also a tandem increase in the number of implant fracture reports. To the end of investigating the stress occurring in implants, elasticity and plasticity analyses were performed using the finite element method. The following results were obtained: (1) With one-piece type of implants of 3.3 mm diameter, elasticity analysis showed that after applying 500 N in a 45-degree direction, stress exceeding 500 MPa which is the proof stress of grade 4 pure titanium - occurred. This suggested the possibility of fatigue destruction due to abnormal occlusal force, such as during bruxism. (2) With two-piece type of implants that can tolerate vertical loading of 5,000 N, plasticity analysis suggested the possibility of screw area fracture after applying 500 N in a 45-degree direction. (3) On the combined use of an abutment and a fixture from different manufacturers, fracture destruction of even Ti-6Al-4V, which has a high degree of strength, was predicted.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · Dental Materials Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate, in a rat model, the effects of age on the amount of tooth movement and concomitant changes in alveolar bone turnover activity adjacent to orthodontically treated tooth roots. Rats (n = 48) of four different age groups (10, 30, 50, and 80 wk of age) were used in the experiment. Maxillary first molars were tipped mesially with a nickel titanium alloy coil-spring for 2 wk by a continuous force of 10 cN. Forty-eight age-matched untreated rats were used as controls. The changes in alveolar bone turnover were assessed histomorphometrically. Two weeks after the start of tooth movement, the amount of tooth movement was found to decrease with age and was significantly different among the four age groups. The histomorphometric study demonstrated that, in all experimental groups, turnover of alveolar bone increased significantly compared with that of each age-matched untreated group. However, the rate of increase decreased in an age-related manner. These results suggest that the age-dependent decrease in alveolar bone turnover activity, in response to mechanical forces, may negatively affect the amount of tooth movement.
No preview · Article · May 2007 · European Journal Of Oral Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of age on alveolar bone turnover adjacent to maxillary molar roots of male rats was assessed histomorphometrically with special focus on bone formation and resorption.
A total of 110 male Wistar rats ranging in age from 6 to 100 weeks were used for this study. Histomorphometric parameters were measured in fluorescence-labeled undecalcified ground and paraffin-embedded decalcified sections of the alveolar wall around the disto-lingual roots of the maxillary first molars. Bone formation was measured statically by determining the percentage of the bone surface that was double-labeled surface (dLS/BS), bone formation rate (BFR/BS), and mineral apposition rate (MAR). Bone resorption was quantified statically in terms of the number of osteoclasts (N.Oc/BS) and the percentage of the bone surface covered with osteoclasts (Oc.S/BS).
For the total surface of the alveolar wall, the values obtained for all parameters of both bone formation and resorption decreased with advancing age. All these values rapidly decreased during the early part of the life span, from 6 to 30-40 weeks of age, of the rats. A site-specific difference between the distal and mesial sides of the alveolar wall was found for each age group. dLS/BS and BFR/BS were significantly greater (p < 0.0001) on the mesial side than on the distal one. On the other hand, the distal side showed significantly greater (p < 0.0001) value for N.Oc/BS and Oc.S/BS did the mesial one. However, there were no significant age-related changes in dLS/BS and BFR/BS on the distal side or in N.Oc/BS and Oc.S/BS on the mesial side throughout observation period.
The results of the present study demonstrate that alveolar bone turnover of male rats decreased rapidly with advancing age but that in order to maintain the integrity of the tooth function mechanical stress may still have participated in bone formation and resorption of the alveolar wall even in rats 100-week old.
No preview · Article · Feb 2007 · Archives of Oral Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of H(2)O(2)-treatment of titanium surfaces on cement shear bond strengths, and characterized H(2)O(2)-treated titanium surfaces.
Using 34.5% hydrogen peroxide solution, cp Ti plates (10 mm x 10 mm x 1 mm) were treated by (1) an immersion method, and (2) halogen irradiation while immersed in H(2)O(2) for varying times. A cylindrical block (6 mm diameter, 4 mm height) of four different cements was bonded onto H(2)O(2)-treated surfaces. The cement bond strengths were evaluated under shear mode. Treated surfaces were also characterized for color change, wettability, AC impedance, and transmission electron diffraction of stripped oxide film.
The cement shear bond strength of cp Ti treated with H(2)O(2) and halogen for 160 s was the highest and was approximately 14 times higher than the un-treated control cp Ti plates. Bond strengths are correlated linearly to wettability. The more surface wetted with the cement material, the higher the resultant shear bond strength value.
These results suggest that a combined treatment of hydrogen peroxide and halogen light irradiation provides an effective surface condition with appropriate oxide film thickness to enhance the cement bond strength.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The thermal expansion rate, coefficient of thermal expansion, and high temperature strength of two types of commercially available alloy for metal-bond porcelain, KIK-HII (KIK) and Degubond-J2 (J2), were evaluated up to the liquidus point temperature using a thermo-mechanical analyzer. Furthermore, microstructure in the solid-liquid coexisting region was observed for evaluation. Our results revealed the following findings: 1. For KIK, solidus point was 1,209.3 +/- 3.2 degrees C, liquidus point was 1,308.3 +/- 7.10 degrees C, and melting expansion rate was 0.41+/- 0.16%. 2. For J2, solidus point was 1,198.3 +/- 0.6 degrees C, liquidus point was 1,253.0 +/- 4.4 degrees C, and melting expansion rate was 4.50 +/- 0.80%. 3. At high temperature, the mechanical characteristics of KIK greatly differed from those of J2. The risk of causing deformation during porcelain baking was suggested for KIK. Removal of segregation during casting was considered difficult in J2.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dolomite, a mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate (CaMg (CO3)2), is used as a food supplement that supplies calcium and magnesium. However, the effect of magnesium supplementation on bone metabolism in patients with osteoporosis is a matter of controversy. We examined the effects of daily supplementation with dolomite on calcium metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Dolomite was administered daily to OVX rats for 9 weeks. The same amount of magnesium chloride as that supplied by the dolomite was given to OVX rats as a positive control. Histological examination revealed that ovariectomy decreased trabecular bone and increased adipose tissues in the femoral metaphysis. Dolomite or magnesium supplementation failed to improve these bone histological features. Calcium content in the femora was decreased in OVX rats. Neither calcium nor magnesium content in the femora in OVX rats was significantly increased by dolomite or magnesium administration. Urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion was significantly increased in OVX rats, and was not affected by the magnesium supplementation. Serum concentrations of magnesium were increased, and those of calcium were decreased, in OVX rats supplemented with dolomite or magnesium. However, there was a tendency toward decreased parathyroid hormone secretion and increased calcitonin secretion in OVX rats supplemented with dolomite or magnesium. Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) and osteocalcin levels were significantly increased in the supplemented OVX rats. These results suggest that increased magnesium intake improves calcium metabolism in favor of increasing bone formation, through the modulation of calcium-regulating hormone secretion.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2005 · Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously, high temperature properties of the silver-palladium-copper-gold alloy were investigated. In this study, the thermal expansion percentage and coefficient, and high temperature strengths of ADAS Type 3 gold alloy were investigated up to the liquidus temperature. Furthermore, microstructural and compositional changes in the solid/liquid dual phase were studied. The following conclusions were obtained. (1) The solidus point of the Type 3 gold alloy was 899.3+/-11.7 degrees C, and the liquidus point was 962.3+/-2.4 degrees C. (2) The thermal expansion percentage at the solidus point was 1.636+/-0.046%, while it was 4.853+/-0.213% for the liquidus point. The thermal expansion percentage of the melt was 3.217+/-0.257%. (3) The melt expansion was observed even under the measuring pressure of 373.75 HPa, which was quite different from the fact that the melt expansion disappeared at the pressure of 20.87 HPa for the silver-palladium-copper-gold alloy. (4) The morphology of solid phase in the solid/liquid dual zone of this alloy was quite different from those observed with the silver-palladium-copper-gold alloy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dental casting accuracy is influenced by the setting expansion of investment materials. Although setting expansion can help compensate for casting shrinkage, it cannot be fully realized under a confined wax pattern. Exactly how soft a wax pattern should be to ensure optimum setting expansion has not been determined.
In this study, the relationship between wax characteristics and the casting accuracy of a three-quarter crown was investigated.
Four different wax materials were used: paraffin 135 with a softening temperature of 37.5 degrees C (P38), paraffin 1080 with a softening temperature of 63.5 degrees C, Shofu Red with a softening temperature of 41.5 degrees C, and Shofu Hard with a softening temperature of 51 degrees C. Two mixtures of phosphate-bonded investment were prepared: one with 100% special liquid and another with 75% special liquid plus 25% distilled water. For both, the liquid/powder ratio was 16:100. A type IV gold alloy was cast into a three-quarter crown mold. The discrepancy at 6 locations (1 lingual, 1 mesial, 1 distal, and 3 facial) was measured with a traveling microscope. Five readings were collected. Means and standard deviations were calculated for all data. A 2-way analysis of variance followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test for multiple comparisons was used to identify significant differences between groups at the 95% confidence level.
For the gingival measurement sites (lingual, mesial, and distal), there was no significant difference in cast adaptation when Shofu Hard and paraffin 1080 waxes were used. However, the results with these 2 waxes were different than with Shofu Red and P38. For the 3 facial measurement sites, significantly different measurements were found for each wax; P38 demonstrated the best results. Casting shrinkage was smaller with the use of 100% special liquid.
Within the limitations of this study, casting shrinkage was affected by the type of wax used and was sensitive to the site at which dimensional measurements were performed. The higher the softening temperature, the larger the casting shrinkage.
No preview · Article · Feb 2002 · Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Membranes made of 65, 70, 80, 94, and 100% deacetylated chitin (chitosan) were implanted subperiosteally over the calvaria of 100 rats. Reactions were studied at 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after implantation. Membranes prepared with 65, 70, and 80% deacetylated chitin initially elicited marked inflammatory reactions that subsided in time with granulation tissue formation and osteogenesis. Osteocalcin-positive cells were detected immunohistochemically in the granulation tissue. On the other hand, membranes made of 94% deacetylated chitin and chitosan showed mild inflammation and minimal osteogenesis. The results indicate that membranes made of 65, 70, and 80% deacetylated chitin enhance osteogenesis at the site of their implantation. However, the initially severe inflammatory reaction associated with these materials needs to be controlled before the materials would be suitable for clinical application.
No preview · Article · Oct 1999 · Journal of Biomedical Materials Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the effect on certain physical properties of adding various amounts of hydroxyapatite (HAP) to chitosan sol. Also investigated were connective tissue reactions to a composite membrane that is being developed for possible use in guided tissue regeneration and for the limitation of HA particle migration at sites of implantation. The physical properties evaluated were shrinkage, tensile strength, hardness, calcium ion release, and morphology. Assessment of physical properties indicated that a ratio of HA to chitosan sol of 4/11 by weight is optimal in the preparation of the composite membrane. Subperiosteal implantation of the membranes over rat calvaria revealed that the membranes were well tolerated, with fibrous encapsulation and occasional areas of osteogenesis. Increasing the hydroxyapatite content seems to enhance membrane degradation.
No preview · Article · Jul 1999 · Journal of Biomedical Materials Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study investigated properties of various mixtures of organic acids (malic and malonic) and calcium phosphate compounds (beta-tricalcium phosphate, ashed bovine bone, and synthetic hydroxyapatite) with the objective of determining the optimum combination of organic acid and calcium phosphate compound for components of a chitosan-bonded bone-filling paste. beta-tricalcium phosphate was decomposed by malic acid and malonic acid, but these two acids did not decompose synthetic hydroxyapatite and ashed bovine bone. Assessment of ion release from a set paste containing either synthetic hydroxyapatite or ashed bovine bone indicated that only calcium ions were appreciably released after storing and stirring the set paste in physiologic saline for 7 days.
No preview · Article · Sep 1996 · Journal of Biomedical Materials Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone filling substances are needed to meet several requirements including nontoxicity, setting time, changes in pH values, and amount of dissolved elements as well as mechanical properties. In this study, the bone-generating composites were prepared by employing the in vivo absorbable beta-tricalcium phosphate as a parent matrix kneaded with CaO, MgO, and ZnO as bone mineral additives with different compositions. The setting time, pH values, compressive strength were investigated as a function of the amount of these bone mineral additives. It was found that the setting time was shortened by increasing CaO, MgO, and ZnO contents. Increasing ZnO contents resulted in the pH value lower, while the pH values increased by increasing CaO and MgO contents. Increasing ZnO contents caused the compressive strength stronger, on the other hand, the compressive strength was weakened by increasing MgO contents. Furthermore, calcium appears to be selectively released from the hardened composite sample.
No preview · Article · Feb 1994 · Bio-medical materials and engineering
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For clarification of the histological details of the shedding of human deciduous teeth, exfoliated and extracted deciduous teeth were examined by light and electron microscopy. After the roots were completely resorbed, the dentogingival junction migrated along the inner resorbing surface and finally reached the pulpal surface of the crown. At the same time, the gingival epithelium also proliferated and migrated under the crown of the deciduous tooth in such a way that part of it lined the residue of the pulp and another part lined the surface overlying the erupting successional tooth. This phenomenon took place from various sides of the tooth surface. Therefore, just before exfoliation, the migrated gingival epithelium formed narrow necks of tissue, and the crown was only superficially attached to the gingiva by them. The final shedding of the tooth appeared to occur by a tearing of these narrow tissue regions. The results of the present study suggest that the dento-gingival junction as well as gingival epithelium play important roles in the process of exfoliation of human deciduous teeth.
Full-text · Article · Apr 1993 · Journal of Dental Research