[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Available data on plasma homocysteine level in patients with nephrotic syndrome (NS) are controversial with increased, decreased and unchanged values reported. Therefore, plasma homocysteine and serum B vitamins in Nigerian children with NS were assessed in this study
Methods: Fasting blood samples were analysed for plasma homocysteine, serum folate and B vitamins in 42 children with NS and 42 age and sex-matched healthy controls in this case control study. Data were compared between NS and control using t test and Chi square. Relationships were tested with regression analysis with p set at 0.05.
Results: Prevalence of hyperhomocysteinaemia, low folate and cyanocobalamin in NS was 57.1%, 14.3% and 9.5% respectively. The mean homocysteine level was significantly higher in NS than control (11.3±2.6µmol/L versus 5.5±2.3µmol/L). Also, NS had lower folate and cyanocobalamin than control: 9.1±3.9ng/mL versus 11.2±3.1ng/dL and 268.5±95.7pg/mL versus 316±117.2pg/mL respectively. Weak but significant correlation between homocysteine and serum albumin (r = 0.347), folate (r = -0.607) and vitamin B12 (r = -0.185) were found in the NS group. Significant relationship was also found between homocysteine and vitamin B12 (ß = -0.64, 95% CI = -1.20, -0.08) after controlling for folate and vitamin B6 levels.
Conclusion: Clinically important hyperhomocysteinaemia and low B vitamins occur in Nigerian children with nephrotic syndrome. This data suggest that potential usefulness of folate and vitamin B supplementation for reducing high homocysteine levels in nephrotic syndrome need to be further investigated.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Pan African Medical Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: To assess the prevalent components of metabolic syndrome (MSC) and their related determinants of lipid metabolism in the Nigerian for early diagnosis, prevention and management of the metabolic syndrome (MS) and its associated diseases.
Study Design: Cohort study.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan between March and August 2010.
Methodology: 534 apparently healthy Nigerian traders aged 18–105 years were participants of a cohort study. The IDF (2005) criteria was used for MS diagnosis. Anthropometric indices and blood pressure (BP) were obtained by standard methods. Fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) were determined by enzymatic methods while low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) was calculated. Data analysed were statistically significant at P<0.05.
Results: 60.1% of traders had 2 and 3MSC. 0.6%, 1.1% and 9.6% of traders had all 5MSC, ≥3MSC without elevated waist circumference (WC) and zero MSC respectively. Elevated WC, reduced HDLC and high BP were more frequent MSC representing 70.2%, 63.1% and 47.9% while FPG and TG were less frequent representing 11.2% and 2.2% of traders respectively. This pattern was similar in MS and non-MS groups. 25.3% of males and only 2.2% of females had no MSC. Reduced HDLC and elevated WC were the most frequent MSC in males and females respectively. All metabolic risk factors (MRF) except TC were significantly different in comparison between MS and non-MS groups as well as among traders with 0-5 MSC. WHR was the only parameter that correlated significantly with all MRF.
Conclusion: Elevated waist circumference, reduced high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high blood pressure may be prevalent metabolic syndrome components and important in managing metabolic syndrome in Nigeria. Regional specific cut-offs for these components for the African population is needed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome (MS) amplifies hypertension (HTN) associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). MS components and other CVD risk measures were investigated in different stages of hypertension. 534 apparently healthy Nigerian traders aged 18-105 years were participants of a cohort study. The International Diabetes Federation (2005) and the National High Blood Pressure Education Program Coordinating Committee criteria were used for MS and HTN classifications, respectively. Anthropometric indices were obtained by standard methods. Levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) were determined by enzymatic methods, while low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) was calculated. Data analysed statistically were significant at P < 0.05. 143 (26.8%), 197 (36.9%), and 194 (36.3%) of the traders had normotension, pre-HTN and HTN (stages 1 and 2), respectively. All indices tested except HDLC were significantly different among BP groups (P < 0.05). Waist to hip (WHR) and waist to height (WHT) ratios were significantly different between HTN groups (P < 0.05). HTN was associated with MS and female gender (P < 0.05). Metabolic alterations and significant HTN were observed. Treatment of the individual components of the syndrome and improvement of modifiable metabolic factors may be necessary to reduce MS and high BP.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · International Journal of Hypertension
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Metabolic Syndrome (MS) increases the risk of developing type-2 diabetes (DM2) and cardiovascular
diseases (CVD) and it is thought to be prevalent in Nigeria. This study aims at determining the prevalence of MS and its component risk
factors among apparently healthy traders in a local market in Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods: 534 apparently healthy traders from a local
market in Bodija, Ibadan, Nigeria aged (18–105) years with neither DM2 nor CVD were participants of a cohort study on risk
assessment of type 2 diabetes and dementia in Nigerians with metabolic syndrome. The International Diabetes Federation (2005) and
the World Health Organisation (1998) criteria were used for MS and BMI respectively. Anthropometric indices (weight, height, body
mass index (BMI), percentage body fat (PBF), waist and hip circumferences (WC & HC) and their ratio (WHR), waist circumference to
height ratio (WHT)) and blood pressure (BP) were obtained by standard methods. Blood samples (6 ml) were obtained for the
determination of glucose (FPG), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) by enzymatic
methods while low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was calculated. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and ANOVA were
among the analyses conducted. Results: 301 (56.4%) of traders studied were overweight (176, 33.0%) or obese (125, 23.4%) while 17
(3.4%) and 125 (40.4%) were underweight and normal weight respectively. The prevalence of MS and obesity were 87 (16.3%) and
125 (23.4%) respectively. There was significant association between obesity and MS (p < 0.05). Both MS and obesity were
significantly associated with gender (p < 0.05). The prevalence of MS and obesity was higher in female (20.9%; 31.0%) than male
traders (6.5%; 7.1%) respectively. The prevalence of MS increased from normal weight (8.3%) to overweight (18.8%) to obesity
(28.8%). There were significantly higher differences in age, BP(systolic and diastolic), weight, BMI, WC, HC, WHT, WHR, and PBF
but lower difference in height when overweight/obese groups were compared with normal weight group (p < 0.05). TC and LDL-C
were significantly higher in only obese than normal weight traders. However, FPG, TG and HDL-C were similar in all groups (p >
0.05). Conclusion: There is high prevalence of MS and obesity among Nigerian traders. Female gender, hypercholesterolemia,
hypertension, increasing age, general and abdominal obesity appear to be important metabolic risk factors of CVD and not DM2 among
Nigerian traders. Health care strategies for effective modulation of diet and lifestyle are needed urgently. In addition, screening
programs for indices of MS in all Nigerians irrespective of BMI could be considered.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The storage of urine samples at 2-8°C and at -20°C for several weeks is a common laboratory practice in research and epidemiological studies to facilitate batch analysis. Despite numerous studies, there is no agreement on how stable albumin is in urine and the best way to store such urine specimen. Random urine samples were obtained from 15 patients with nephropathy and end stage renal failure. Urinary pH and specific gravity of freshly voided urine were determined before storage. A portion of each urine samples were stored at voided pH and another portion stored at neutral pH (7.0) after adjustment with acid or base at 4°C and -20°C for 10 weeks. Pre -analytical treatment of samples involved vortex mixing or centrifuging urine samples before measurement of urinary albumin. Albumin levels were determined at 0, 2, 4 and 10 weeks in both vortex mixed and centrifuged samples using standard spectrophotometric methods. Mean pH and specific gravity of fresh urine samples were 5.82 ± 0.71 and 1.009±0.004 respectively. Significant decreases (p< 0.05) were observed in urinary albumin levels at 4°C at the 4 th week. Significant changes were seen at the 10th week in samples stored at -200C in pH unadjusted samples. Vortex mixing or centrifuging of sample of did not restore decreases in albumin level. No significant difference was observed in the pH adjusted group after 10 weeks of storage at -20°C.These results suggest that where long term storage (6-10 weeks) of urine samples is required, samples should be stored at -20°C. However, in medium term storage (2-4 weeks) storage at 4°C may require the adjustment of the pH to neutral (7.0) before storage to obtain reliable results.
No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · African Journal Biomedical Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gar l ic has been repor ted in some populat ions to posses s hypol ipdemic ef fect in par t icular on low densi ty l ipoprotein choles terol , thus prevent ing cardiovascular disease r isk. Sixteen male albino rats of seven weeks old were purchased for this study. These weredivided into four groups of four per group. Group A was fed on a high choles terol diet and gar l ic, group B was fed on high choles terol diet only, group C was fed on normal diet (cont rols ) and group D was fed on normal diet and gar l ic. The plasma l ipids, l ipoproteins and t issues his tological appearances were determined us ing standard procedures. Resul ts showed s igni f icant decreased in the mean wet t issue weight of the kidney (p<0.001) in the group fed on high Cholesterol+gar l ic diet . The plasma LDLC was markedly reduced in the groups fed on high choles terol diet + gar l ic as wel l as normal diet+gar l ic. The meanplasma HDLC al though not s tat ist ical ly signi f icant was higher in these groups. Histological f indings showed pronounced atheromatous changes in the coronary ar tery of rats fed on high choles terol diet . The consumption of raw garlic has beneficial effect on plasma totalcholesterol, and LDLC in rats fed on high cholesterol diet.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are conflicting reports on the role of plasma lipids in depressive illness. Very little is known about the lipid and lipoprotein status in Nigerian adults suffering from depression. One hundred subjects consisting of sixty (60) depressed patients with mean age (40.3±12.3 yrs) and forty (40) apparently healthy controls (40.1±10.1 yrs) were selected for the study. All subjects were free from medication at least one month prior to the start of the experiment. The anthropometric indices were also determined. There was a significant increase in plasma triglyceride concentration in depressed subjects when compared to control values (p<0.01). However, the plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and body mass index (BMI) did not significantly differ from control values. The mean plasma triglyceride was significantly increased in female patients in comparison to corresponding female controls. Plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels did not demonstrate any definite pattern with increasing level of depression in patients. In conclusion, plasma lipid levels could play a significant role in depressive illness in Nigerians
Full-text · Article · Feb 2010 · African Journal Biomedical Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are speculations that electrolyte concentrations may play a role in depressive illness but despite a number of studies, no agreement has been reached about blood electrolyte status in depression. One hundred subjects made up of sixty (60) depressed patients with mean age (40.3±12.3) and forty (40) normal controls with mean age (40.1±10.1) were recruited for this study. All patients were free from medication for a period of one month prior to the start of the study. Anthropometric indices of all subjects were also determined. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale were used for diagnosis and measurement of severity of depression respectively. The mean plasma sodium (p<0.05) and potassium (p<0.01) were significantly decreased in depressed patients when compared with corresponding normal controls while the mean plasma calcium (p<0.05) and urea (p<0.01) were significantly increased in depressed subjects in comparison to normal controls. There were no significant differences in blood parameters determined between male and female patients. Similarly, the mean plasma concentrations of biochemical parameters did not significantly change from mild through to severe depression (p>0.05). The results from this study suggest that plasma electrolyte levels could be altered in Nigerian Africans suffering from depressive illness and this may not be gender specific.
No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · African Journal Biomedical Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Artemether has been shown to be a very reliable antimalarial drug particularly because of its potency against multidrug resistant strain of malaria parasite; however, there is concern about its potential toxic effects. This study was designed to evaluate the neurotoxic effect of artemether using a mouse model. The photomicrographs of brains of the mice in the different artemether treated groups showed neurodegeneration. This observation is an indication that artemether may be neurotoxic in mice.
No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effects of artemether administration on liver and selected biochemical parameters were evaluated. Eighty albino mice were divided into four equal groups. Group 1 was given water which served as control, while groups 2, 3, and 4 were given 1.2, 2.4, or 4.8 mg kg−1 body weight artemether intramuscularly for five consecutive days. On day 6 all mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and blood was collected for analysis of alanine and aspartate transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, copper, and total proteins. Liver tissues were prepared for histological studies. It was found that the serum alanine and aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities were higher in groups treated with artemether compared to control. The serum concentrations of copper and total proteins were lower than control. The histological features of liver tissues after administration of artemether showed histopathological alterations. These findings showed that artemether administration may have reversible adverse effects on mouse hepatocytes.
No preview · Article · Jun 2009 · Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Various antimalarial drugs have been shown to exert different adverse effects; however, scanty information is available for artemether-induced potential side effects. The present study assessed effects of artemether on lipid profile, sperm count, and histological features of testes in an animal model. The mean total cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, triglyceride, and total proteins in mice-administered artemether were higher compared with controls. The mean sperm counts in mice treated with artemether were reduced when compared with controls. In addition, it was observed that artemether affected the histopathology of seminiferous epithelia and Leydig cells. Evidence indicates that artemether exerts adverse effects in mice testes.
No preview · Article · Apr 2009 · Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In animal in-vivo study, we have reported some significant changes such as reduced sperm counts, degeneration ofseminiferous epithelium and interstitial leydig cells in the testicle. Therefore human study was designed to assess theeffects of artemether on some biochemical parameters in individuals treated with artemether. Moderate and transientside effects were observed after administration. This implies that administration of artemether is still tolerated and themoderate side effects are not comparable with the debilitating effects of malaria infection it is meant to cure.Artemisinine is still a tolerable antimalaria drug with no major side effects on human.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elevated plasma lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) and total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations, as well as fat distributions, are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The purpose of this study was to evaluate plasma Lp(a), tHcy, percentage body fat, anthropometric indices, and blood pressure (BP) and their relationships with each other in well-defined, hospital-based, CVD patients in a Nigerian African community. One hundred seventy patients suffering from hypertensive heart disease, hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, and myocardial infraction with the mean age of 45.3 +/- 1.3 years and 58 apparently healthy volunteers with the mean age of 44.8 +/-1.2 years were selected. Anthropometric indices and BP were measured. Percentage body fat, body mass index, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. Plasma Lp(a) and tHcy concentrations were determined. The results showed significant increases in BP, skinfold thickness (SFT) variables, and WHR in all of the CVD patients. Plasma Lp(a) was also significantly increased (p < 0.001), whereas the slight increase in the mean tHcy was not statistically significant. Positive significant correlations were found between systolic BP, triceps, SFT, and percentage body fat (p < 0.01), whereas significant correlations were found between some body composition variables, tHcy, and systolic BP (p < 0.05). Our findings provide supportive evidence for altered plasma Lp(a) concentration in addition to some other traditional CVD risk factors in Nigerians. The role of homocysteine is not well defined.
No preview · Article · Apr 2008 · Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have examined the cumulative effects of the protoberberine alkaloidal fraction (AF) of the stein bark ethanolic extracts of Enantia chlorantha on some body tissues and organs as well as on certain biochemical and metabolic parameters in mice. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies of the alkaloidal fractions of Enantia chlorantha were carried out in 120 mice using oral and intraperitoneal administrations. Fatality was not recorded in mice injected intraperitonealy with 100 mg kg(-1) and 150 mg kg(-1) dose level but larger doses resulted in death and the mean lethal dose (LD50) toxicity studies showed neither behavioural/untoward reactions nor death in any of the animals. The histopathological examination of the test animals when compared with the control revealed that, the sub-chronic use of the alkaloidal fractions does not have any pathological effects (lesion) on the organs examined (the stomach, the kidney, the oesophagus and the liver) except the lungs which showed mild and moderate oedema. The biochemical and metabolic analysis of the mice plasma did not show any significant difference when the corresponding values for the test mice were compared with the control mice (P > 0.05) at the end of the 14 days treatment using both 20 mg kg(-1) and 2 mg kg(-1) dose levels. The results obtained in this study suggest the relative safety of short-term use of preparations containing E. chlorantha, a very popular antimalarial herbal remedy in Southern Nigeria.
No preview · Article · Dec 2007 · African journal of medicine and medical sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Free radicals have been implicated in the pathology of several diseases including cataract. Ascorbic acid functions as the major chain breaking antioxidant vitamin in the aqueous phase. Bilirubin, albumin and uric acid are regarded as natural antioxidants. There are conflicting reports on plasma concentrations of these antioxidants in cataract patients. 89 subjects consisting of 55 cataract patients and 34 control subjects were recruited for the study. The mean age of the subjects was 61± 11yrs. Mean plasma ascorbic acid level was significantly lower in cataract patients (0.33± 0.27) when compared with age matched control group (0.59 ±0.37) (p< 0.05). A significant increase in mean plasma bilirubin was observed in cataract patients when compared to the corresponding controls. Plasma uric acid levels showed a positive correlation with ascorbic acid (r =0.40, p <0.05). A positive correlation between plasma albumin and bilirubin levels in cataract patients (r=0.33, p <0.05) was also observed. A positive correlation between plasma ascorbic acid and uric acid levels is in agreement with the established antioxidant interaction theory. The disease process of the cataract and the resulting oxidative stress due to the chronic nature of the disease may result in an increased consumption and subsequent demand of ascorbic acid by the body to efficiently combating the excess free radical load generated in cataract patients. These results therefore suggest that there may be a need for increased ascorbic acid intake in cataract patients especially before surgery or other forms of therapy..