[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IGF-binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) is produced by porcine embryonic myogenic cell (PEMC) cultures and is secreted into the medium. IGFBP-5 may play some role in myogenesis and/or in changes in myogenic cell proliferation that accompany differentiation. IGFBP-5 reportedly may either suppress or stimulate proliferation or differentiation of cultured cells depending on cell type and culture conditions. Additionally, IGFBP-5 has been shown to possess both IGF-dependent and IGF-independent actions in some cell types. The goal of this study was to produce recombinant porcine IGFBP-5 (rpIGFBP-5) and assess its IGF-I-dependent and IGF-I-independent actions on the proliferation of PEMCs. To accomplish this, we have expressed porcine IGFBP-5 in the baculovirus system, purified and characterized the expressed rpIGFBP-5 and produced an anti-porcine IGFBP-5 antibody that neutralizes the biological activity of porcine IGFBP-5. rpIGFBP-5, purified to 98% homogeneity using nickel affinity chromatography and IGF-I affinity chromatography, suppressed IGF-I-stimulated proliferation of PEMCs in a concentration-dependent manner (P>0.05). rpIGFBP-5 also suppressed Long-R3-IGF-I-stimulated proliferation of PEMCs (P>0.05), even in the presence of significant molar excess of Long-R3-IGF-I compared with rpIGFBP-5, demonstrating the IGF-independent activity that rpIGFBP-5 possesses in PEMCs, since Long-R3-IGF-I is an IGF analog that has very low affinity for the IGFBPs but retains its ability to bind to the type I IGF receptor and thereby can stimulate proliferation. The anti-rpIGFBP-5 IgY produced against rpIGFBP-5 specifically recognized native porcine IGFBP-5 in PEMC media that also contained porcine IGFBP-2, -3, and -4. This antibody is capable of neutralizing the effects of both rpIGFBP-5 and endogenously produced porcine IGFBP-5 on PEMCs as well as detecting IGFBP-5 in Western blots. The production of rpIGFBP-5 and a neutralizing antibody to porcine IGFBP-5 provides a powerful tool to investigate the role of IGFBP-5 in porcine myogenic cell proliferation and differentiation. The data provided here demonstrated that IGFBP-5 has the potential to affect proliferation of PEMCs during critical periods of in vitro muscle cell development and therefore may impact the capacity for ultimate postnatal muscle mass development in vivo.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2005 · Journal of Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Supplementation of exogenous growth hormone (GH) during prepuberty advances onset of spermatogenesis in boars, but the mechanism of action is unknown. The present study is an investigation of the presence and characteristics of testicular growth hormone receptors (GHR). A total of 36 boars were castrated, three boars every 10 days, between the ages of 10 and 120 days. Testicular membrane preparations of 10, 20, 30, 50, 70, 100 and 120-day-old boars were used to determine (125)I-bGH binding and Scatchard analysis. Liver from a 60-kg barrow was used for comparison. Specific (125)I-bGH binding to testicular membrane preparations occurred in all age groups with the exception of 20-day-old boars at levels of 30-40% of liver binding. At 30 days of age the unlabelled bGH at 1.1 ng/tube achieved half maximal inhibition (ID(50)). Results of Scatchard analysis indicated a single class of binding sites. Binding affinity was 2.89 x 10(9) m with a binding capacity of 12 fmole/mg membrane protein. The results from this study suggest that GH may act directly on the cells of the prepubertal boar testis.
No preview · Article · Nov 2002 · Reproduction in Domestic Animals
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objectives were to 1) develop a rapid and accurate method for detection of clusterin-positive spermatozoa (CPS) in bull semen and 2) determine the utility of incidence of CPS for prediction of fertility of bull semen in comparison to routine semen quality traits. Semen from 3 bulls was immunostained with anti-bovine clusterin antibody and with FITC-conjugated anti-rabbit IgG for method development. Clusterin-positive spermatozoa were determined by flow cytometry (FCM) and fluorescence microscopy, and results were compared by paired t test. There was no difference between FCM and microscopic techniques (P = .81). Flow cytometry was then used for determination of CPS in semen of 48 bulls with known fertility. Significant inverse relationships were found between the percentage of CPS and raw nonreturn rate (r = -.30), adjusted nonreturn rate (r = -.58), and estimated relative conception rate (ERCR; r = -.60). Estimated relative conception rate is potentially a very accurate method for determining fertility, and it resulted in highest correlation with CPS. An inverse relationship was observed between the percentage of CPS and prefreeze and postfreeze motility (r = -.51), whereas a direct relationship was found between CPS and primary, secondary, tertiary, and total sperm abnormalities (r = .52, .77, .32, and .58, respectively). The fractions of motile and abnormal spermatozoa, with the exception of tertiary abnormalities, were inversely correlated with 2 or more of the fertility estimates, but none of them showed the characteristic increase in correlation with improvement of accuracy of fertility estimate as demonstrated by CPS. We conclude that FCM is useful for objective and efficient detection of CPS in bull semen. The results suggest that the percentage of CPS in bull semen is potentially a better predictor of fertility than sperm motility or abnormal morphology.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2000 · Journal of Andrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clusterin from bull rete testis fluid (RTF), cauda epididymal fluid (CEF), and octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside extract of cauda epididymal sperm (CES) was identified and characterized using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies (Abs) developed against ram clusterin and a beta-subunit-specific oligopeptide of porcine clusterin. One-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting showed that bovine RTF clusterin had dimeric and monomeric molecular weights (M(r)s) of approximately 94 kDa and of 42 and 43 kDa, respectively. Clusterin in CEF and CES had similar dimeric M(r)s (74 kDa). Reduced CEF clusterin appeared as three monomers (M(r)=40, 39, and 38 kDa), whereas reduced CES clusterin appeared only at M(r)40 kDa. Enzymatic deglycosylation resulted in similar M(r)s of clusterin from RTF, CEF, and CES. The M(r) of RTF clusterin decreased from 94 kDa to 51 kDa, indicating a carbohydrate content of 45%. After deglycosylation, the M(r) of the CEF clusterin decreased from 74 kDa to two distinct bands at 51 and 50 kDa (with carbohydrate contents of 31 and 32%, respectively), suggesting that two isoforms of the heterodimeric protein are present because of the two isoforms of the alpha-subunit. Under nonreduced conditions, a beta-subunit-specific Ab reacted with M(r) of 36-38 kDa, indicating the existence of free clusterin beta-subunits in CES. RTF, CEF, and CES extracts all caused mouse fibroblastic L-cell aggregation. CEF cell aggregation was inhibited by Hyb-17 Ab but not by other Abs. Both RTF and CEF caused a dose-dependent inhibition of complement-induced cytolysis, although RTF clusterin was more potent than CEF clusterin. We conclude that several isoforms of clusterin occur in the bull reproductive tract and that the variation in carbohydrate content among these isoforms may affect the biological or functional activity of the protein.
Full-text · Article · Mar 1999 · Journal of Andrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of exogenous growth hormone (GH) and FSH on development of the testes in intact prepubertal boars was investigated. Twenty-four boars received one of four daily treatments from 8 through 40 days of age: 1) 90 micrograms porcine (p) GH/kg body weight (BW), 2) 100 micrograms pFSH/kg BW, 3) GH + FSH, or 4) vehicle only (control). Plasma testosterone levels, measured at 10-day intervals, were similar among groups of boars throughout the study. Body weights among groups were similar during treatment, and testicular weight between treatment groups did not differ at castration (100 days of age). However, total length of the seminiferous tubule per testis in FSH-treated boars was 59% greater than in GH-treated animals (2705 vs. 1704 m; p < 0.05). Diameter of the tubule in GH-treated boars was 58% greater than in FSH-treated boars (p = 0.03). Relative mass of spermatocytes and spermatids in GH-treated animals exceeded that in controls by 2.5-fold and that in FSH boars by 75-fold (p = 0.05). There were no differences in effects of GH + FSH treatment as compared to control treatment; none of the treatments affected any interstitial tissue parameter measured. These results suggest that exogenous FSH had a mitogenic effect on Sertoli cells while delaying tubular maturity, whereas exogenous GH promoted tubular and Sertoli cell maturation, defined as increased Sertoli cell size, lumen formation, and onset of spermatogenesis.
Full-text · Article · Nov 1995 · Biology of Reproduction
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Twenty-four Holstein bull calves represented two divergent genetic groups with a 2940-kg difference in milk production in estimated breeding value. These bulls were used to determine the blood plasma concentration of bST under normal feeding management, after a 24-h feed and water deprivation, after stimulation with a bST secretagogue, and to evaluate whether selection for dairy merit affected pubertal testicular development and sperm production. Calves selected for higher estimated breeding value had greater average, but similar stimulated, plasma bST concentrations. Age of calves, but not short-term feed and water deprivation, influenced average plasma bST concentrations both before and after stimulation with growth hormone-releasing factor. Body weight tended to be higher at 350 to 400 d of age in bulls selected for higher estimated breeding value. Scrotal circumference was similar in the two groups at all times, as were seminal characteristics at 1 yr of age. The study implied that plasma bST measurements may be used as an aid in selection of young dairy sires for AI.
No preview · Article · Feb 1993 · Journal of Dairy Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Development of the prepubertal interstitium of the right testes was characterized every 14 days from 10 to 122 days of age in intact boars (I) and boars hemicastrated (HC) at 10 days of age from two herds (Trial 1 and Trial 2). Comparisons were made between the remaining testis of Group-HC boars and one testis in Group-I boars. The relative mass (mass of component/body mass) of interstitium was 151% greater (P less than 0.001) in Group-HC than Group-I boars by 52 days of age. The relative mass of interstitium was greater (P less than 0.01) in Trial-1 than Trial-2 boars within each treatment from 80 to 122 days of age. The relative mass of interstitial space was 76% greater (P less than 0.05) in Group-HC than in one testis of Group-I boars by 52 days of age and greater (P less than 0.05) in Trial-1 than Trial-2 boars within each treatment from 80 to 122 days of age. The relative mass of Leydig cells was 254% greater (P less than 0.0001) in Group-HC than Group-I boars by 52 days of age and remained greater (P less than 0.05) in Group-HC than Group-I boars from 52 to 122 days of age. By 52 days of age the relative mass of Leydig cell nuclei and cytoplasm was 235% and 265% greater (P less than 0.0001) in Group-HC than Group-I boars, respectively, and both remained greater (P less than 0.05) in Group-HC than in Group-I until 122 days of age.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Development of the prepubertal seminiferous tubules of the right testis was characterized morphometrically every 14 days from 10 to 122 days of age in intact boars (I) and boars hemicastrated (HC) on Day 10 of life from two herds (Trial 1 and Trial 2). Comparisons were made between the remaining testis of Group HC boars and one testis in Group I boars. By 38 days of age seminiferous tubule length in Group HC boars was double (P less than 0.0001) that in Group I boars. Seminiferous tubule length did not differ between trials within treatments. The diameter of the seminiferous tubule was similar in Group HC and I boars but was greater (P less than 0.05) in Trial-1 than Trial-2 boars from Day 80 to 122 of life. Relative mass (mass of tissue/body mass) of Sertoli cells became 2-fold greater (P less than 0.0001), in Group HC than in one testis of Group I boars by 38 days of age and this difference was maintained throughout the experimental period. The relative mass of Sertoli cells was greater (P less than 0.05) in Trial-1 than Trial-2 boars within each treatment between 80 and 122 days of age. The relative mass of gonocytes was similar for all groups and treatments of boars. By 122 days of age the relative mass of spermatogenic cells was greater (P less than 0.05) in Group HC than in one testis of Group I boars and greater (P less than 0.01) in Trial-1 than Trial-2 boars within each treatment. Onset of spermatogenesis was first observed at 80 and 94 days of age in boars in Groups HC and I, respectively. Development of seminiferous tubule lumen was first observed at 94 and 108 days of age in boars in Groups HC and I respectively. Seminiferous tubule lumen, taken as a measure of fluid secretion of the Sertoli cells, occupied a greater (P less than 0.01) portion of seminiferous tubule in Trial-1 than Trial-2 boars within each treatment at the end of the experimental period. It is concluded that neonatal hemicastration of boars rapidly caused a compensatory seminiferous tubule elongation apparently due to Sertoli cell proliferation and an earlier onset of spermatogenesis. However, the gonocytes do not proliferate until they transform into spermatogonia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adult male turkeys were treated orally with furazolidone at doses of 1, 2.5, 5 or 20 mg/kg for 14 days and their plasma analysed for luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone and prolactin (PRL) concentrations before, during and after treatment. At 20 mg/kg the drug produced a significant decrease in the plasma levels of LH and testosterone at the end of treatment, whereas at 5 mg/kg the drug had no significant effect. Prolactin concentrations were unaffected by any of the drug doses used. Intramuscular injection of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) at a dose of 5 micrograms/kg produced after 30 min a significant rise in plasma levels of LH, an effect that was decreased significantly by treatment with 20 mg/kg furazolidone. Incubation of normal turkey semen with graded doses of furazolidone or nitrofurazone for up to 30 min resulted in a dose- and time-dependent decrease in sperm motility. At a concentration of 20 mg/ml a complete absence of sperm motility was observed after incubation with either drug, although, on the whole, nitrofurazone seemed more potent than furazolidone as a sperm-immobilizing agent. Histological changes occurred in the 20 mg/kg group and consisted of a decrease in spermatocyte production, corrugation of sperm cell nuclear envelopes and distention of the endoplasmic reticulum of elongate spermatids. It is concluded that furazolidone depresses pituitary LH output but may, in addition, directly affect spermatogenesis and sperm motility.
No preview · Article · May 1988 · International Journal of Andrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bovine GH and testosterone profiles were determined in plasma collected at 20 min intervals during 3 hr bleeding periods on day 25 of life and every 15 days thereafter in six intact (I) Holstein bull calves and in six others which had been hemiorchidectomized (HO) at 10 days of age. In I bulls average plasma GH concentrations varied between 7.9 and 14.5 ng/ml (P greater than 0.05) until 130 days of age, after which the GH level gradually rose (P = 0.007) to a maximum of 19.4 ng/ml on day 205 of life. Episodic release of GH was apparent in 55 day-old and older I bulls and in HO bulls of all ages. Plasma GH concentrations in HO bulls were higher than in I bulls 15 and 30 days after surgery (P = 0.07), at which times the levels in HO bulls averaged 19.6 and 22.5 ng/ml and in I bulls 10.3 and 10.2 ng/ml, respectively. Plasma GH in HO bulls again exceeded that of I bulls at ages of 130-190 days (P = 0.04). Plasma testosterone was virtually nondetectable before 130 days of age in I bulls but thereafter exhibited the typical episodic pattern. In HO bulls, plasma testosterone concentrations began to rise 15 to 30 days before those in I bulls, resulting in an age X treatment interaction (P less than 0.0001). Furthermore, average testosterone levels were higher (P = 0.07) in HO than I bulls at 235 and 250 days of age.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
No preview · Article · Feb 1988 · Domestic Animal Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mass (TM) and relative mass (organ mass/body mass; RTM) of the right testis and epididymis (EM and REM, respectively) were determined every 14 days from 10 to 122 days of age for intact boars (I) and boars hemicastrated on Day 10 (HC) in two crossbred herds (Trial 1 and Trial 2). Plasma follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, growth hormone (GH), and testosterone were determined in four blood samples from each pig, three collected 24 h prior to castration and one immediately prior to castration. Values for TM and RTM of HC boars were approximately double (p less than 0.0001) those of I boars by 38 days of age, and these differences were maintained through Day 122. Both EM and REM were greater (p less than 0.05) in HC than in I boars from Day 52 to Day 122. The TM, RTM, EM and REM were greater (p less than 0.05) in Trial 1 than in Trial 2 for both I and HC boars from Day 80 to Day 122, indicating an earlier onset of pubertal testicular growth in the Trial-1 boars. Plasma GH concentration was greater (p less than 0.05) in HC than in I boars from Day 16 to Day 38. A transient increase in plasma FSH (p less than 0.05) was observed from Day 24 to Day 38. After Day 38, there was no difference (p greater than 0.05) in FSH or GH between HC and I boars, or between trials. Plasma LH, prolactin, and testosterone concentrations were also similar in HC and I boars.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Full-text · Article · Jul 1987 · Biology of Reproduction