[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although kidneys of equal size can vary 10-fold in nephron number at birth, discovering what regulates such variation has been hampered by a lack of quantitative parameters defining kidney development. Here we report a comprehensive, quantitative, multiscale analysis of mammalian kidney development in which we measure changes in cell number, compartment volumes, and cellular dynamics across the entirety of organogenesis, focusing on two key nephrogenic progenitor populations: the ureteric epithelium and the cap mesenchyme. In doing so, we describe a discontinuous developmental program governed by dynamic changes in interactions between these key cellular populations occurring within a previously unappreciated structurally stereotypic organ architecture. We also illustrate the application of this approach to the detection of a subtle mutant phenotype. This baseline program of kidney morphogenesis provides a framework for assessing genetic and environmental developmental perturbation and will serve as a gold standard for the analysis of other organs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ureteric bud is an epithelial tube that undergoes branching morphogenesis to form the renal collecting system. Although development of a normal kidney depends on proper ureteric bud morphogenesis, the cellular events underlying this process remain obscure. Here, we used time-lapse microscopy together with several genetic labeling methods to observe ureteric bud cell behaviors in developing mouse kidneys. We observed an unexpected cell behavior in the branching tips of the ureteric bud, which we term "mitosis-associated cell dispersal." Premitotic ureteric tip cells delaminate from the epithelium and divide within the lumen; although one daughter cell retains a basal process, allowing it to reinsert into the epithelium at the site of origin, the other daughter cell reinserts at a position one to three cell diameters away. Given the high rate of cell division in ureteric tips, this cellular behavior causes extensive epithelial cell rearrangements that may contribute to renal branching morphogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Relative positions of neurons within mature murine pelvic ganglia based on expression of neurotransmitters have been described. However the spatial organization of developing innervation in the murine urogenital tract (UGT) and the gene networks that regulate specification and maturation of neurons within the pelvic ganglia of the lower urinary tract (LUT) are unknown. We used whole-mount immunohistochemistry and histochemical stains to localize neural elements in 15.5 days post coitus (dpc) fetal mice. To identify potential regulatory factors expressed in pelvic ganglia, we surveyed expression patterns for known or probable transcription factors (TF) annotated in the mouse genome by screening a whole-mount in situ hybridization library of fetal UGTs. Of the 155 genes detected in pelvic ganglia, 88 encode TFs based on the presence of predicted DNA-binding domains. Neural crest (NC)-derived progenitors within the LUT were labeled by Sox10, a well-known regulator of NC development. Genes identified were categorized based on patterns of restricted expression in pelvic ganglia, pelvic ganglia and urethral epithelium, or pelvic ganglia and urethral mesenchyme. Gene expression patterns and the distribution of Sox10+, Phox2b+, Hu+, and PGP9.5+ cells within developing ganglia suggest previously unrecognized regional segregation of Sox10+ progenitors and differentiating neurons in early development of pelvic ganglia. Reverse transcription-PCR of pelvic ganglia RNA from fetal and post-natal stages demonstrated that multiple TFs maintain post-natal expression, although Pax3 is extinguished before weaning. Our analysis identifies multiple potential regulatory genes including TFs that may participate in segregation of discrete lineages within pelvic ganglia. The genes identified here are attractive candidate disease genes that may now be further investigated for their roles in malformation syndromes or in LUT dysfunction.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Frontiers in Neuroscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lengthy developmental programs generate cell diversity within an organotypic framework, enabling the later physiological actions of each organ system. Cell identity, cell diversity and cell function are determined by cell type-specific transcriptional programs; consequently, transcriptional regulatory factors are useful markers of emerging cellular complexity, and their expression patterns provide insights into the regulatory mechanisms at play. We performed a comprehensive genome-scale in situ expression screen of 921 transcriptional regulators in the developing mammalian urogenital system. Focusing on the kidney, analysis of regional-specific expression patterns identified novel markers and cell types associated with development and patterning of the urinary system. Furthermore, promoter analysis of synexpressed genes predicts transcriptional control mechanisms that regulate cell differentiation. The annotated informational resource (www.gudmap.org) will facilitate functional analysis of the mammalian kidney and provides useful information for the generation of novel genetic tools to manipulate emerging cell populations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies into the molecular basis of morphogenesis frequently begin with investigations into gene expression across time and cell type in that organ. One of the most anatomically informative approaches to such studies is the use of in situ hybridization, either of intact or histologically sectioned tissues. Here, we describe the optimization of this approach for use in the temporal and spatial analysis of gene expression in the urogenital system, from embryonic development to the postnatal period. The methods described are applicable for high throughput analysis of large gene sets. As such, ISH has become a powerful technique for gene expression profiling and is valuable for the validation of profiling analyses performed using other approaches such as microarrays.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nephron number in the mammalian kidney is known to vary dramatically, with postnatal renal function directly influenced by nephron complement. What determines final nephron number is poorly understood but nephron formation in the mouse kidney ceases within the first few days after birth, presumably due to the loss of all remaining nephron progenitors via epithelial differentiation. What initiates this event is not known. Indeed, whether nephron formation occurs in the same way at this time as during embryonic development has also not been examined. In this study, we investigate the key cellular compartments involved in nephron formation; the ureteric tip, cap mesenchyme and early nephrons; from postnatal day (P) 0 to 6 in the mouse. High resolution analyses of gene and protein expression indicate that loss of nephron progenitors precedes loss of ureteric tip identity, but show spatial shifts in the expression of cap mesenchyme genes during this time. In addition, cap mesenchymal volume and rate of proliferation decline prior to birth. Section-based 3D modeling and Optical Projection Tomography revealed a burst of ectopic nephron induction, with the formation of multiple (up to 5) nephrons per ureteric tip evident from P2. While the distal-proximal patterning of these nephrons occurred normally, their spatial relationship with the ureteric compartment was altered. We propose that this phase of nephron formation represents an acceleration of differentiation within the cap mesenchyme due to a displacement of signals within the nephrogenic niche.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The podocyte is a remarkable cell type, which encases the capillaries of the kidney glomerulus. Although mesodermal in origin it sends out axonal like projections that wrap around the capillaries. These extend yet finer projections, the foot processes, which interdigitate, leaving between them the slit diaphragms, through which the glomerular filtrate must pass. The podocytes are a subject of keen interest because of their key roles in kidney development and disease.
In this report we identified and characterized a novel transgenic mouse line, MafB-GFP, which specifically marked the kidney podocytes from a very early stage of development. These mice were then used to facilitate the fluorescent activated cell sorting based purification of podocytes from embryos at E13.5 and E15.5, as well as adults. Microarrays were then used to globally define the gene expression states of podocytes at these different developmental stages. A remarkable picture emerged, identifying the multiple sets of genes that establish the neuronal, muscle, and phagocytic properties of podocytes. The complete combinatorial code of transcription factors that create the podocyte was characterized, and the global lists of growth factors and receptors they express were defined.
The complete molecular character of the in vivo podocyte is established for the first time. The active molecular functions and biological processes further define their unique combination of features. The results provide a resource atlas of gene expression patterns of developing and adult podocytes that will help to guide further research of these incredible cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The developing mouse kidney is currently the best-characterized model of organogenesis at a transcriptional level. Detailed spatial maps have been generated for gene expression profiling combined with systematic in situ screening. These studies, however, fall short of capturing the transcriptional complexity arising from each locus due to the limited scope of microarray-based technology, which is largely based on "gene-centric" models.
To address this, the polyadenylated RNA and microRNA transcriptomes of the 15.5 dpc mouse kidney were profiled using strand-specific RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) to a depth sufficient to complement spatial maps from pre-existing microarray datasets. The transcriptional complexity of RNAs arising from mouse RefSeq loci was catalogued; including 3568 alternatively spliced transcripts and 532 uncharacterized alternate 3' UTRs. Antisense expressions for 60% of RefSeq genes was also detected including uncharacterized non-coding transcripts overlapping kidney progenitor markers, Six2 and Sall1, and were validated by section in situ hybridization. Analysis of genes known to be involved in kidney development, particularly during mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition, showed an enrichment of non-coding antisense transcripts extended along protein-coding RNAs.
The resulting resource further refines the transcriptomic cartography of kidney organogenesis by integrating deep RNA sequencing data with locus-based information from previously published expression atlases. The added resolution of RNA-Seq has provided the basis for a transition from classical gene-centric models of kidney development towards more accurate and detailed "transcript-centric" representations, which highlights the extent of transcriptional complexity of genes that direct complex development events.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Schematic illustrating the murine urogenital tract at 13.5 dpc. The early tubules of the metanephros (kidney) and mesonephric tubules of the mesonephros are highlighted in blue. Below are examples of gene expression in the early tubules of the kidney (Lhx1, centre) and in the mesonephric tubules of the male mesonephroi (Gpd1) detected using wholemount in situ hybridization. From Georgas et al., Developmental Dynamics 240:1600-1612, 2011.
No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Developmental Dynamics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The GenitoUrinary Development Molecular Anatomy Project (GUDMAP) is an international consortium working to generate gene expression data and transgenic mice. GUDMAP includes data from large-scale in situ hybridisation screens (wholemount and section) and microarray gene expression data of microdissected, laser-captured and FACS-sorted components of the developing mouse genitourinary (GU) system. These expression data are annotated using a high-resolution anatomy ontology specific to the developing murine GU system. GUDMAP data are freely accessible at www.gudmap.org via easy-to-use interfaces. This curated, high-resolution dataset serves as a powerful resource for biologists, clinicians and bioinformaticians interested in the developing urogenital system. This paper gives examples of how the data have been used to address problems in developmental biology and provides a primer for those wishing to use the database in their own research.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The metanephros is the functional organ in adult amniotes while the mesonephros degenerates. However, parallel tubulogenetic events are thought to exist between mesonephros and metanephros. Mesonephric tubules are retained in males and differentiate into efferent ducts of the male reproductive tract. By examining the murine mesonephric expression of markers of distinct stages and regions of metanephric nephrons during tubule formation and patterning, we provide further evidence to support this common morphogenetic mechanism. Renal vesicle, early proximal and distal tubule, loop of Henle, and renal corpuscle genes were expressed by mesonephric tubules. Vip, Slc6a20b, and Slc18a1 were male-specific. In contrast, mining of the GUDMAP database identified candidate late mesonephros-specific genes, 10 of which were restricted to the male. Among the male-specific genes are candidates for regulating ion/fluid balance within the efferent ducts, thereby regulating sperm maturation and genes marking tubule-associated neurons potentially critical for normal male reproductive tract function.
Preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Developmental Dynamics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of the mammalian kidney is well conserved from mouse to man. Despite considerable temporal and spatial data on gene expression in mammalian kidney development, primarily in rodent species, there is a paucity of genes whose expression is absolutely specific to a given anatomical compartment and/or developmental stage, defined here as 'anchor' genes. We previously generated an atlas of gene expression in the developing mouse kidney using microarray analysis of anatomical compartments collected via laser capture microdissection. Here, this data is further analysed to identify anchor genes via stringent bioinformatic filtering followed by high resolution section in situ hybridisation performed on 200 transcripts selected as specific to one of 11 anatomical compartments within the midgestation mouse kidney. A total of 37 anchor genes were identified across 6 compartments with the early proximal tubule being the compartment richest in anchor genes. Analysis of minimal and evolutionarily conserved promoter regions of this set of 25 anchor genes identified enrichment of transcription factor binding sites for Hnf4a and Hnf1b, RbpJ (Notch signalling), PPARγ:RxRA and COUP-TF family transcription factors. This was reinforced by GO analyses which also identified these anchor genes as targets in processes including epithelial proliferation and proximal tubular function. As well as defining anchor genes, this large scale validation of gene expression identified a further 92 compartment-enriched genes able to subcompartmentalise key processes during murine renal organogenesis spatially or ontologically. This included a cohort of 13 ureteric epithelial genes revealing previously unappreciated compartmentalisation of the collecting duct system and a series of early tubule genes suggesting that segmentation into proximal tubule, loop of Henle and distal tubule does not occur until the onset of glomerular vascularisation. Overall, this study serves to illuminate previously ill-defined stages of patterning and will enable further refinement of the lineage relationships within mammalian kidney development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here we describe the first detailed catalog of gene expression in the developing lower urinary tract (LUT), including epithelial and mesenchymal portions of the developing bladder, urogenital sinus, urethra, and genital tubercle (GT) at E13 and E14. Top compartment-specific genes implicated by the microarray data were validated using whole-mount in situ hybridization (ISH) over the entire LUT. To demonstrate the potential of this resource to implicate developmentally critical features, we focused on gene expression patterns and pathways in the sexually indeterminate, androgen-independent GT. GT expression patterns reinforced the proposed similarities between development of GT, limb, and craniofacial prominences. Comparison of spatial expression patterns predicted a network of Wnt7a-associated GT-enriched epithelial genes, including Gjb2, Dsc3, Krt5, and Sostdc1. Known from other contexts, these genes are associated with normal epidermal differentiation, with disruptions in Dsc3 and Gjb2 showing palmo-plantar keratoderma in the limb. We propose that this gene network contributes to normal foreskin, scrotum, and labial development. As several of these genes are known to be regulated by, or contain cis elements responsive to retinoic acid, estrogen, or androgen, this implicates this pathway in the later androgen-dependent development of the GT.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · Developmental Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The discipline of paediatric nephrology encompasses the congenital nephritic syndromes, renal dysplasias, neonatal renal tumours, early onset cystic disease, tubulopathies and vesicoureteric reflux, all of which arise due to defects in normal kidney development. Indeed, congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) represent 20-30% of prenatal anomalies, occurring in 1 in 500 births. Developmental biologists have studied the anatomical and morphogenetic processes involved in kidney development for the last five decades. However, with the advent of transgenic mice, the sequencing of the genome, improvements in mutation detection and the advent of functional genomics, our understanding of the molecular basis of kidney development has grown significantly. Here we discuss how the advent of new genetic and genomics approaches has added to our understanding of kidney development and paediatric renal disease, as well as identifying areas in which we are still lacking knowledge.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2010 · Pediatric Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mammalian kidney may well be one of the most complex organs of postnatal life. Each adult human kidney contains on average more than one million functional filtration units, the nephrons, residing within a specialized cellular interstitium. Each kidney also contains over 25 distinct cell types, each of which must be specifically aligned with respect to each other to ensure both normal development and ultimately, normal renal function. Despite this complexity, the development of the kidney can be simplistically described as the coordinate formation of two distinct sets of tubules. These tubules develop cooperatively with each other in time and space, yet represent two distinct but classical types of tubulogenesis. The first of these tubules, the ureteric bud, forms as an outgrowth of another epithelial tube, the nephric duct, and undergoes extensive branching morphogenesis to create the collecting system of the kidney. The second tubules are the nephrons themselves which arise via a mesenchyme-to-epithelial transition induced by the first set of tubules. These tubules never branch, but must elongate to become intricately patterned and functionally segmented tubules. The molecular drivers for these two tales of tubulogenesis include many gene families regulating tubulogenesis and branching morphogenesis in other organs; however, the individual players and codependent interrelationships between a branched and non-branched tubular network make organogenesis in the kidney unique. Here we review both what is known and remains to be understood in kidney tubulogenesis.
No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Current Topics in Developmental Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While nephron formation is known to be initiated by a mesenchyme-to-epithelial transition of the cap mesenchyme to form a renal vesicle (RV), the subsequent patterning of the nephron and fusion with the ureteric component of the kidney to form a patent contiguous uriniferous tubule has not been fully characterized. Using dual section in situ hybridization (SISH)/immunohistochemistry (IHC) we have revealed distinct distal/proximal patterning of Notch, BMP and Wnt pathway components within the RV stage nephron. Quantitation of mitoses and Cyclin D1 expression indicated that cell proliferation was higher in the distal RV, reflecting the differential developmental programs of the proximal and distal populations. A small number of RV genes were also expressed in the early connecting segment of the nephron. Dual ISH/IHC combined with serial section immunofluorescence and 3D reconstruction revealed that fusion occurs between the late RV and adjacent ureteric tip via a process that involves loss of the intervening ureteric epithelial basement membrane and insertion of cells expressing RV markers into the ureteric tip. Using Six2-eGFPCre x R26R-lacZ mice, we demonstrate that these cells are derived from the cap mesenchyme and not the ureteric epithelium. Hence, both nephron patterning and patency are evident at the late renal vesicle stage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kidney development is based on differential cell-type-specific expression of a vast number of genes. While multiple critical genes and pathways have been elucidated, a genome-wide analysis of gene expression within individual cellular and anatomic structures is lacking. Accomplishing this could provide significant new insights into fundamental developmental mechanisms such as mesenchymal-epithelial transition, inductive signaling, branching morphogenesis, and segmentation. We describe here a comprehensive gene expression atlas of the developing mouse kidney based on the isolation of each major compartment by either laser capture microdissection or fluorescence-activated cell sorting, followed by microarray profiling. The resulting data agree with known expression patterns and additional in situ hybridizations. This kidney atlas allows a comprehensive analysis of the progression of gene expression states during nephrogenesis, as well as discovery of potential growth factor-receptor interactions. In addition, the results provide deeper insight into the genetic regulatory mechanisms of kidney development.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2008 · Developmental Cell
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The kidney is the most complex organ within the urogenital system. The adult mouse kidney contains in excess of 8,000 mature nephrons, each of which can be subdivided into a renal corpuscle and 14 distinct tubular segments. The histological complexity of this organ can make the clarification of the site of gene expression by in situ hybridisation difficult. We have defined a panel of seven antibodies capable of identifying the six stages of early nephron development, the tubular nephron segments and the components of the renal corpuscle within the embryonic and adult mouse kidney. We have analysed in detail the protein expression of Wt1, Calb1 Aqp1, Aqp2 and Umod using these antibodies. We have then coupled immunohistochemistry with RNA in situ hybridisation in order to precisely identify the expression pattern of different genes, including Wnt4, Umod and Spp1. This technique will be invaluable for examining at high resolution, the structure of both the developing and mature nephron where standard in situ hybridisation and histological techniques are insufficient. The use of this technique will enhance the expression analyses of genes which may be involved in nephron formation and the function of the mature nephron in the mouse.