Klaus Ferlinz

Bristol-Myers Squibb, New York, New York, United States

Are you Klaus Ferlinz?

Claim your profile

Publications (28)167.92 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Platelet activation is essential for primary hemostasis and acute thrombotic vascular occlusions. On activation, platelets release their prothrombotic granules and expose phosphatidylserines, thus fostering thrombin generation and thrombus formation. In other cell types, both degranulation and phosphatidylserine exposure are modified by sphingomyelinase-dependent formation of ceramide. The present study thus explored whether acid sphingomyelinase participates in the regulation of platelet secretion, phosphatidylserine exposure, and thrombus formation. Collagen-related peptide- induced or thrombin-induced ATP release and P-selectin exposure were significantly blunted in platelets from Asm-deficient mice (Smpd1(-/-)) when compared with platelets from wild-type mice (Smpd1(+/+)). Moreover, phosphatidylserine exposure and thrombin generation were significantly less pronounced in Smpd1(-/-) platelets than in Smpd1(+/+) platelets. In contrast, platelet integrin αIIbβ3 activation and aggregation, as well as activation-dependent Ca(2+) flux, were not significantly different between Smpd1(-/-) and Smpd1(+/+) platelets. In vitro thrombus formation at shear rates of 1700 s(-1) and in vivo thrombus formation after FeCl3 injury were significantly blunted in Smpd1(-/-) mice while bleeding time was unaffected. Asm-deficient platelets showed significantly reduced activation-dependent ceramide formation, whereas exogenous ceramide rescued diminished platelet secretion and thrombus formation caused by Asm deficiency. Treatment of Smpd1(+/+) platelets with bacterial sphingomyelinase (0.01 U/mL) increased, whereas treatment with functional acid sphingomyelinase-inhibitors, amitriptyline or fluoxetine (5 μmol/L), blunted activation-dependent platelet degranulation, phosphatidylserine exposure, and thrombus formation. Impaired degranulation and thrombus formation of Smpd1(-/-) platelets were again overcome by exogenous bacterial sphingomyelinase. Acid sphingomyelinase is a completely novel element in the regulation of platelet plasma membrane properties, secretion, and thrombus formation.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sphingosine kinase 1 phosphorylates sphingosine, which is converted to ceramide by ceramide synthetase. Ceramide triggers eryptosis, the suicidal erythrocyte death characterized by cell shrinkage and phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Erythrocytes lack sphingosine phosphate-degrading enzymes and thus store large quantities of sphingosine phosphate. The present study explored the influence of sphingosine and sphingosine phosphate on eryptosis. [Ca(2+)](i), was estimated from Fluo3 fluorescence, cell volume from forward scatter and PS exposure from annexin V-binding in FACS analysis. Sphingosine (0.1 - 10 μM) but not sphingosine-1- phosphate (0.1 - 10 μM) increased [Ca(2+)](i), decreased cell volume and increased PS-exposure. The observations disclose sphingosine, but not sphingosine-1-phosphate, as a strong inducer of eryptosis.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: FTY720 is a potent anti-inflammatory drug known to trigger suicidal death or apoptosis of a variety of nucleated cells. Erythrocytes may similarly undergo suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis. Hallmarks of eryptosis include cell membrane scrambling and cell shrinkage, which are triggered by increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration and ceramide. The present study explored whether FTY720 stimulates eryptosis. Cell membrane scrambling was determined from annexin V-binding, cell shrinkage from forward scatter in FACS analysis, cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration from Fluo3 fluorescence, ceramide formation from fluorescence-labeled antibody binding and hemolysis from the hemoglobin concentration in the supernatant. Within 48 hours exposure to FTY720 (10 μM) significantly increased annexin V-binding, decreased forward scatter and increased cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration but did not significantly modify ceramide formation. The effects of FTY720 were significantly blunted in the nominal absence of extracelluar Ca(2+). In conclusion, at toxic concentrations, FTY720 stimulates suicidal cell death, an effect at least partially due to stimulation of Ca(2+) entry.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Degradation of membrane-bound sphingomyelin to phosphorylcholine and ceramide is catalyzed by the water-soluble lysosomal acid sphingomyelinase (A-SMase). The presence of sphingolipid activator proteins (Saps: saposins A-D; GM2 activator) is not essential to mediate this reaction at the water-lipid interface in vivo . A hypothesis based on amino acid sequence alignments suggests that the enzyme possesses an N-terminal saposin-homologous domain, which may facilitate the enzymatic reaction at the interface. We mutated one homologous and three conserved amino acid residues of this domain and studied the activity of the variant enzymes using different sphingomyelin degradation assays. A variant with an exchange of a conserved amino acid residue, Pro153Ala, still exhibited enzyme activity of approximately 52% of normal in a detergent-containing micellar assay, but only 13% of normal in a detergent-free liposomal assay system, which suggests that the Sap-homologous domain fulfills membrane-disturbing functions. Addition of saposin C to the liposomal assay mixtures increased the Pro153Ala variant sphingomyelinase activity to 46% of normal, indicating that the variant saposin-like domain can be substituted by the presence of the sphingolipid activator protein. On the other hand, the addition of saposin C did not result in complete restoration of the variant activity. Thus, the Sap-like domain may also have another role, e.g., to stabilize the fold of acid sphingomyelinase, which cannot be compensated by the presence of saposin C or a detergent. Such an essential second function of the saposin-like domain as an integral part of acid sphingomyelinase is confirmed by our observation that the Lys118Glu, Cys120Ser and Cys131Ser variants were almost completely devoid of activity in the detergent-containing micellar assay system as well as in the liposomal assay system in the presence of saposin C.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2005 · Biological Chemistry
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Acid sphingomyelinase (A-SMase, EC 3.1.4.12) catalyzes the lysosomal degradation of sphingomyelin to phosphorylcholine and ceramide. Inherited deficiencies of acid sphingomyelinase activity result in various clinical forms of Niemann-Pick disease, which are characterised by massive lysosomal accumulation of sphingomyelin. Sphingomyelin hydrolysis by both, acid sphingomyelinase and membrane-associated neutral sphingomyelinase, plays also an important role in cellular signaling systems regulating proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. Here, we present a potent and selective novel inhibitor of A-SMase, L-alpha-phosphatidyl-D-myo-inositol-3,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns3,5P2), a naturally occurring substance detected in mammalian, plant and yeast cells. The inhibition constant Ki for the new A-SMase inhibitor PtdIns3,5P2 is 0.53 microM as determined in a micellar assay system with radiolabeled sphingomyelin as substrate and recombinant human A-SMase purified from insect cells. Even at concentrations of up to 50 microM, PtdIns3,5P2 neither decreased plasma membrane-associated, magnesium-dependent neutral sphingomyelinase activity, nor was it an inhibitor of the lysosomal hydrolases beta-hexosaminidase A and acid ceramidase. Other phosphoinositides tested had no or a much weaker effect on acid sphingomyelinase. Different inositol-bisphosphates were studied to elucidate structure-activity relationships for A-SMase inhibition. Our investigations provide an insight into the structural features required for selective, efficient inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase and may also be used as starting point for the development of new potent A-SMase inhibitors optimised for diverse applications.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2003 · Biological Chemistry
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The race for creating an automated patch clamp has begun. Here, we present a novel technology to produce true gigaseals and whole cell preparations at a high rate. Suspended cells are flushed toward the tip of glass micropipettes. Seal, whole-cell break-in, and pipette/liquid handling are fully automated. Extremely stable seals and access resistance guarantee high recording quality. Data obtained from different cell types sealed inside pipettes show long-term stability, voltage clamp and seal quality, as well as block by compounds in the pM range. A flexible array of independent electrode positions minimizes consumables consumption at maximal throughput. Pulled micropipettes guarantee a proven gigaseal substrate with ultra clean and smooth surface at low cost.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2003 · Receptors and Channels
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The biosynthesis of human acid ceramidase (hAC) starts with the expression of a single precursor polypeptide of ∼53–55 kDa, which is subsequently processed to the mature, heterodimeric enzyme (40 + 13 kDa) in the endosomes/lysosomes. Secretion of hAC by either fibroblasts or acid ceramidase cDNA-transfected COS cells is extraordinarily low. Both lysosomal targeting and endocytosis critically depend on a functional mannose 6-phosphate receptor as judged by the following criteria: (i) hAC-precursor secretion by NH4Cl-treated fibroblasts and I-cell disease fibroblasts, (ii) inhibition of the formation of mature heterodimeric hAC in NH4Cl-treated fibroblasts or in I-cell disease fibroblasts, and (iii) blocked endocytosis of hAC precursor by mannose 6-phosphate receptor-deficient fibroblasts or the addition of mannose 6-phosphate. The influence of the six individual potential N-glycosylation sites of human acid ceramidase on targeting, processing, and catalytic activity was determined by site-directed mutagenesis. Five glycosylation sites (sites 1–5 from the N terminus) are used. The elimination of sites 2, 4, and 6 has no influence on lysosomal processing or enzymatic activity of recombinant ceramidase. The removal of sites 1, 3, and 5 inhibits the formation of the heterodimeric enzyme form. None of the mutant ceramidases gave rise to an increased rate of secretion, suggesting that lysosomal targeting does not depend on one single carbohydrate chain.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2001 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Farber disease is a rare, autosomal recessively inherited sphingolipid storage disorder due to the deficient activity of lysosomal acid ceramidase, leading to the accumulation of ceramide in cells and tissues. Here we report the identification of six novel mutations in the acid ceramidase gene causing Farber disease: three point mutations resulting in single amino acid substitutions, one intronic splice site mutation resulting in exon skipping, and two point mutations also leading to occasional or complete exon skipping. Of interest, these latter two mutations occurred in adjacent nucleotides and led to abnormal splicing of the same exon. Expression of the mutated acid ceramidase cDNAs in COS-1 cells and subsequent determination of acid ceramidase residual enzyme activity demonstrated that each of these mutations was the direct cause of the acid ceramidase deficiency in the respective patients. In contrast, two known polymorphisms had no effect on acid ceramidase activity. Metabolic labeling studies in fibroblasts of four patients showed that even though acid ceramidase precursor protein was synthesized in these individuals, rapid proteolysis of the mutated, mature acid ceramidase occurred within the lysosome.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2001 · Human Mutation
  • E Gulbins · A Jekle · K Ferlinz · H Grassmé · F Lang
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ion fluxes and volume changes of the whole cell as well as of organelles belong to the hallmarks of apoptosis; however, the molecular mechanism regulating these changes is only poorly characterized. Several ion channels in the plasma membrane, in particular the N-type K(+) channel, the chloride channel cystic fibrosis conductance regulator, and an outward rectifying chloride channel, as well as the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, have been implicated to be involved in signal transduction cascades regulating apoptosis. Furthermore, Bcl-2-like proteins have been suggested to function, at least in part, as ion channels, because they display some homology to bacterial pore-forming toxins. In contrast to the demonstration of the involvement of these different ion channels in apoptosis, the molecular consequences regulated by these ion channels, and finally triggering apoptosis, are almost completely unknown.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2000 · American journal of physiology. Renal physiology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) is reported to have an essential function in stress-induced apoptosis although the physiological function of ASM in receptor-triggered apoptosis is unknown. Here, we delineate a pivotal role for ASM in CD95-triggered apoptosis of peripheral lymphocytes or hepatocytes in vivo. We employed intravenous injection of anti-CD4 antibodies or phytohemagglutinin that was previously shown to result in apoptosis of peripheral blood lymphocytes or hepatocytes via the endogenous CD95/CD95 ligand system. Our results demonstrate a high susceptibility in normal mice whereas ASM knock-out mice fail to immunodeplete T cells or develop autoimmune-like hepatitis. Likewise, ASM-deficient mice or hepatocytes and splenocytes ex vivo manifest resistance to anti-CD95 treatment. These results provide in vivo evidence for an important physiological function of ASM in CD95-induced apoptosis.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2000 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The interaction with human phagocytes is a hallmark of symptomatic Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections. Gonococcal outer membrane proteins of the Opa family induce the opsoninindependent uptake of the bacteria that relies on CEACAM receptors and an active signaling machinery of the phagocyte. Here, we show that CEACAM receptor-mediated phagocytosis of Opa52-expressing N. gonorrhoeae into human cells results in a rapid activation of the acid sphingomyelinase. Inhibition of this enzyme by imipramine or SR33557 abolishes opsonin-independent internalization without affecting bacterial adherence. Reconstitution of ceramide, the product of acid sphingomyelinase activity, in imipramine- or SR33557-treated cells restores internalization of the bacteria. Furthermore, we demonstrate that CEACAM receptor-initiated stimulation of other signalling molecules, in particular Src-like tyrosine kinases and Jun Nterminal kinases, requires acid sphingomyelinase. These studies provide evidence for a crucial role of the acid sphingomyelinase for CEACAM receptor-initiated signalling events and internalization of Opa52-expressing N. gonorrhoeae into human neutrophils.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2000 · FEBS Letters
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study we report that human platelets display neutral (nSMase) and acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) as well as acid ceramidase (aCerase) activity. Cell activation by thrombin resulted in a marked decrease of intracellular aSMase activity, accompanied by the release of enzyme into the medium. In contrast, thrombin treatment did not affect aCerase activity. Two major protein bands of 73 and 70 kDa were recognized by aSMase antibodies in resting platelet lysates and in the medium of stimulated cells. Phorbol esters together with the calcium ionophore A23187 fully reproduced thrombin action on aSMase release. The secreted enzymatic activity was insensitive to digestion with endoglycosidase H but it was stimulated by Zn2+, although to a limited extent compared to aSMase constitutively released by murine endothelial cells. Taken together, these data suggest that secreted aSMase does not originate from the lysosomal compartment but rather from other platelet vesicles.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2000 · Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lysosomal breakdown of glycosphingolipids with short hydrophilic carbohydrate headgroups is achieved by the simultaneous action of specific hydrolases and sphingolipid activator proteins (SAPs). Activator proteins are considered to facilitate the enzyme/substrate interaction between water-soluble enzymes and membrane-bound substrates. Sphingomyelin, containing the small hydrophilic phosphorylcholine moiety, is hydrolysed by acid sphingomyelinase (acid SMase). Recent experimental data on the in vivo and in vitro role of activator proteins in sphingomyelin breakdown by acid SMase are reviewed. These data combined with the results using homogenous protein preparations as well as a liposomal assay system mimicking the physiological conditions suggest that lysosomal sphingomyelin degradation is not critically dependent on any of the known activator proteins. Moreover, evidence is provided that the assumed intramolecular activator domain of acid SMase and especially the presence of negatively charged lipids in the lysosomes are sufficient for sphingomyelin turnover.
    No preview · Article · Dec 1999 · Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Biochemical and structural studies on human acid sphingomyelinase (haSMase) depend on the access to homogeneous biologically active enzyme. Due to the low abundance of native haSMase (n-haSMase) in human tissue, conventional purification strategies are not suitable for the isolation of preparative amounts of the enzyme. We describe a novel approach to the functional expression and purification of haSMase employing the baculovirus expression vector system. Infection of Spodoptera frugiperda 21 cells with recombinant baculovirus encoding haSMase leads to the expression of a glycosylated 75 kDa precursor protein, which is subsequently processed to an enzymatically active secreted 72 kDa haSMase. Variations in N-glycosylation and proteolytic maturation account for the difference in molecular mass between mature recombinant (72 kDa) and human placental haSMase (75 kDa). N-terminal amino acid sequencing of recombinant haSMase (r-haSMase) reveals a 23-residue N-terminal extension compared to the placental enzyme. The apparent K(m) and Vmax values for sphingomyelin degradation by r-haSMase in a micellar assay system are 32 microM and 0.56 mmol h-1 mg-1, respectively. In conclusion, the established baculovirus expression vector system provides an efficient tool for the expression and functional characterization of haSMase.
    No preview · Article · Aug 1998 · Journal of Biotechnology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fas/CD95/Apo-I has been shown to stimulate a variety of molecules including several members of the caspase family and the acidic sphingomyelinase (Martin and Green 1995; Gulbins et al, 1995). Here, we demonstrate that Fas receptor-triggered activation of the acidic sphingomyelinase, consumption of sphingomyelin, release of ceramide, and subsequent activation of JNK and p38-K are regulated by caspases. Inhibition of caspases by Ac-YVAD-chloromethylketone or transient CrmA transfection prevented stimulation of acidic sphingomyelinase, release of ceramide and activation of JNK and p38-K upon Fas-receptor crosslinking. Likewise, Fas triggered apoptosis was almost completely blocked by Ac-YVAD-chloromethylketone or CrmA mediated inhibition of caspases. The results suggest a new signalling cascade from the Fas receptor via caspases to acidic sphingomyelinase, ceramide and JNK/p38-K.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 1998 · Cell Death and Differentiation
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Invasion of human mucosal cells by N. gonorrhoeae via the binding to heparansulfate proteoglycan receptors is considered a crucial event of the infection. Using different human epithelial cells and primary fibroblasts, we show here an activation of the phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) and acidic sphingomyelinase (ASM) by N. gonorrhoeae, resulting in the release of diacylglycerol and ceramide. Genetic and/or pharmacological blockade of ASM and PC-PLC cause inhibition of cellular invasion by N. gonorrhoeae. Complementation of ASM-deficient fibroblasts from Niemann-Pick disease patients restored N. gonorrhoeae-induced signaling and entry processes. The activation of PC-PLC and ASM, therefore, is an essential requirement for the entry of N. gonorrhoeae into distinct nonphagocytic human cell types including several epithelial cells and primary fibroblasts.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 1997 · Cell
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Most soluble lysosomal enzymes require a mannose-6-phosphate recognition marker present on asparagine-linked oligosaccharides for proper targeting to lysosomes. We have determined the influence of the six potential N-linked oligosaccharide chains of human acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) on catalytic activity, targeting, and processing of the enzyme. Each N-glycosylation site was modified by site-directed mutagenesis and subsequently expressed in COS-1 cells. Evidence is presented that five of these sites are used. Elimination of the four N-terminal glycosylation sites does not disturb lysosomal targeting, processing, or enzymatic activity. However, removal of the two C-terminal N-glycosylation sites inhibits the formation of mature enzyme. Absence of glycosylation site five resulted in rapid cleavage of the primary translation product to an enzymatically inactive protein which accumulated inside the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi, whereas deletion of glycosylation site six led to the formation of an inactive ASM precursor, also retained inside the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi. Our results also provide evidence that the site of early proteolytic cleavage of newly synthesized ASM must be located between the second and third glycosylation sites.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1997 · European Journal of Biochemistry
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human placental acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) was purified by sequential chromatography on Con A-Sepharose, octyl-Sepharose and Matrex gel red A. Final purification to apparent homogeneity was achieved by immunoaffinity chromatography employing polyclonal anti-ASM antibodies. The antibodies also allowed specific detection of ASM by Western blotting at various stages of purification. The ASM activity was enriched about 110,000-fold over that of the crude extract, yielding an enzyme preparation with a specific activity of about 1 mmol/h per mg protein in a detergent-containing assay system. Analysis of the final preparation by SDS-PAGE resulted in a single protein band with a molecular mass of approximately 75 kDa, which was reduced to approximately 60 kDa after complete deglycosylation. Microsequencing of the purified ASM revealed the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the mature placental enzyme.
    Preview · Article · Jan 1997 · FEBS Letters
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Most soluble lysosomal enzymes require a mannose-6-phosphate recognition marker present on asparagine-linked oligosaccharides for proper targeting to lysosomes. We have determined the influence of the six potential N-linked oligosaccharide chains of human acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) on catalytic activity, targeting, and processing of the enzyme. Each N-glycosylation site was modified by site-directed mutagenesis and subsequently expressed in COS-1 cells. Evidence is presented that five of these sites are used. Elimination of the four N-terminal glycosylation sites does not disturb lysosomal targeting, processing, or enzymatic activity. However, removal of the two C-terminal N-glycosylation sites inhibits the formation of mature enzyme. Absence of glycosylation site five resulted in rapid cleavage of the primary translation product to an enzymatically inactive protein which accumulated inside the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi, whereas deletion of glycosylation site six led to the formation of an inactive ASM precursor, also retained inside the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi. Our results also provide evidence that the site of early proteolytic cleavage of newly synthesized ASM must be located between the second and third glycosylation sites.
    Preview · Article · Dec 1996
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Types A and B Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) result from the deficient activity of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM). An animal model of NPD has been created by gene targeting. In affected animals, the disease followed a severe, neurodegenerative course and death occurred by eight months of age. Analysis of these animals showed their tissues had no detectable ASM activity, the blood cholesterol levels and sphingomyelin in the liver and brain were elevated, and atrophy of the cerebellum and marked deficiency of Purkinje cells was evident. Microscopic analysis revealed 'NPD cells' in reticuloendothelial organs and characteristic NPD lesions in the brain. Thus, the ASM deficient mice should be of great value for studying the pathogenesis and treatment of NPD, and for investigations into the role of ASM in signal transduction and apoptosis.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 1995 · Nature Genetics