Shobhona Sharma

Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência (IGC), Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal

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Publications (65)194.22 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background Plasmodium falciparum malaria in India is characterized by high rates of severe disease, with multiple organ dysfunction (MOD)—mainly associated with acute renal failure (ARF)—and increased mortality. The objective of this study is to identify cytokine signatures differentiating severe malaria patients with MOD, cerebral malaria (CM), and cerebral malaria with MOD (CM-MOD) in India. We have previously shown that two cytokines clusters differentiated CM from mild malaria in Maharashtra. Hence, we also aimed to determine if these cytokines could discriminate malaria subphenotypes in Odisha. Methods P. falciparum malaria patients from the SCB Medical College Cuttack in the Odisha state in India were enrolled along with three sets of controls: healthy individuals, patients with sepsis and encephalitis (n = 222). We determined plasma concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines for all individuals using a multiplex assay. We then used an ensemble of statistical analytical methods to ascertain whether particular sets of cytokines/chemokines were predictors of severity or signatures of a disease category. Results Of the 26 cytokines/chemokines tested, 19 increased significantly during malaria and clearly distinguished malaria patients from controls, as well as sepsis and encephalitis patients. High amounts of IL-17, IP-10, and IL-10 predicted MOD, decreased IL-17 and MIP-1α segregated CM-MOD from MOD, and increased IL-12p40 differentiated CM from CM-MOD. Most severe malaria patients with ARF exhibited high levels of IL-17. Conclusion We report distinct differences in cytokine production correlating with malarial disease severity in Odisha and Maharashtra populations in India. We show that CM, CM-MOD and MOD are clearly distinct malaria-associated pathologies. High amounts of IL-17, IP-10, and IL-10 were predictors of MOD; decreased IL-17 and MIP-1α separated CM-MOD from MOD; and increased IL-12p40 differentiated CM from CM-MOD. Data also suggest that the IL-17 pathway may contribute to malaria pathogenesis via different regulatory mechanisms and may represent an interesting target to mitigate the pathological processes in malaria-associated ARF. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12967-015-0731-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Translational Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Several immunomodulatory factors are involved in malaria pathogenesis. Among them, heme has been shown to play a role in the pathophysiology of severe malaria in rodents but its role in human severe malaria remains unclear. Circulating levels of total heme and its main scavenger, hemopexin, along with cytokine/chemokine levels and biological parameters, including hemoglobin and creatinine levels as well as transaminase activities, were measured in the plasma of 237 P. falciparum-infected patients living in the malaria-endemic state of Odisha, India. All patients were categorized into well-defined groups of mild malaria, cerebral malaria (CM) or severe non-cerebral malaria, which included acute renal failure (ARF) and hepatopathy. Our results show a significant increase in total plasma heme levels with malaria severity, especially for CM and malarial ARF. Spearman rank correlation and canonical correlation analyses have shown a correlation between total heme, hemopexin, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ-induced protein (IP)-10, and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 levels. In addition, canonical correlations revealed that heme, along with IP-10, was associated with the CM pathophysiology whereas both IP-10 and MCP-1 together with heme discriminated ARF. Altogether, our data indicate that heme, in association with cytokines and chemokines, is involved in the pathophysiology of both CM and ARF but through different mechanisms. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Infection and immunity
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    ABSTRACT: The P2 protein in Plasmodium falciparum has a high tendency to oligomerize, which seems to drive many of its non-ribosomal functions. During nuclear division of the parasite inside RBC, P2 translocates to the RBC surface as a tetramer. From a systematic study using variety of biophysical techniques, NMR spectral characteristics and relaxation dispersion measurements under different conditions of pH and/or urea concentrations, we deduce that (i) PfP2, an almost entirely helical protein, forms a molten globule monomer at low pH, (ii) at physiological pH, and at micro-molar concentrations, PfP2 is a stable tetramer wherein two dimmers associate sideways with close packing of helices at the interface, and (iii) the molten globule characteristic of the monomer is preserved in the tetramer. This dynamism in the structure of PfP2 may have functional implications since it is known that different kinds of oligomers are transiently formed in the parasite.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015
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    Pushpa Mishra · Shobhona Sharma · Ramakrishna V Hosur

    Preview · Article · May 2015 · Journal of biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
  • Shazia Khanam · Shobhona Sharma · Sulabha Pathak
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    ABSTRACT: Although thymic atrophy and apoptosis of the double positive (DP) T cells have been reported in murine malaria, comparative studies investigating the effect of lethal and non-lethal Plasmodium infections on the thymus are lacking. We assessed the effects of P. yoelii lethal (17XL) and non-lethal (17XNL) infections on thymic T cells. Both strains affected the thymus. 17XL infection induced DP T cell apoptosis and a selective decrease in surface CD8 expression on developing thymocytes. By contrast, more severe but reversible effects were observed during 17XNL infection. DP T cells underwent apoptosis and proliferation of both DN and DP cells was affected around peak parasitemia. A transient increase in surface CD8 expression on thymic T cells was also observed. Adult thymic organ culture revealed that soluble serum factors, but not IFN-γ or TNF-α, contributed to the observed effects. Thus, lethal and non-lethal malarial infections led to multiple disparate effects on thymus. These parasite induced thymic changes are expected to impact the naïve T cell repertoire and the subsequent control of the immune response against the parasite. Further investigations are required to elucidate the mechanism responsible for these disparate effects, especially the reversible involution of the thymus in case of non-lethal infection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Parasite Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Plasmodium vivax is the most dominating species in the Indian subcontinent among the five Plasmodium species causing malarial infection in humans. This species is generally believed to be benign and classically thought to cause uncomplicated clinical infection that rarely leads to death or other complication. However, recent studies have shown incidences of P. vivax infection leading to severe complications and even death. To understand the biochemical changes at the pathway level and the modality through which the host recovers from the infection, we monitored the small molecular weight metabolites of urine samples of hospital in-patients undergoing treatment for vivax malaria. Metabolomics, involving 1H NMR spectra of urine samples subjected to multivariate statistical analyses, was employed for this purpose. Urine metabolic profiles were used to identify putative biomarkers and establishing correlation with parasite count in the peripheral blood. The untreated malaria patients (day1) exhibited altered excretion of taurine, hippurate, citrate, glycine, 3-methylhistidine and alanine in comparison to the self-control profile on day30. The day1–4 urine metabolite profiles are distinct from day5 and day30 profiles. The latter two profiles are indistinguishable. Temporal trajectories of urinary metabolites indicated an inflection point on day3. The day1 1H NMR profiles, distinct from the profiles of viral fever patients, correlated with the parasitemia levels in the patients and could in fact be used to gauge the anemia status of the patients. This study demonstrates the potential of urine metabolic profiling in understanding the pathophysiology of P. vivax infection and in non-invasive disease diagnosis.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Metabolomics
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    ABSTRACT: The P2 protein (equivalent of L7/L12 in prokaryotes), a member of the ribosomal stalk in eukaryotes, is highly conserved, particularly its C-terminal domain. In order to understand the sequence-structure-function relationships in eukaryotic C-terminal stretches, about which nothing is known at the moment, we have investigated here, the structural characteristics of these domains of P2 proteins from three different species, namely, human, Plasmodium falciparum, and Toxoplasma gondii; the sequence homology among these is 70% although sequence identity is only 36%. About 50 amino acids of the C-terminal domains of P2 from the three species were expressed and purified. Gel filtration studies indicated peaks for both monomer and oligomer at milimolar concentrations and also suggested monomer-multimer equilibrium. Circular Dichroism showed that this domain does not have stable secondary structures. 1H-15N HSQC spectra in every case showed one set of requisite number of peaks as per the sequence. This indicated that there is rapid multimer-monomer equilibrium in solution and the observed peaks which originate from the monomer reflect average chemical shifts. The spectral dispersion in all the cases is narrow, although there are noticeable differences in the three proteins. Detailed NMR investigations revealed that this protein domain is intrinsically disordered although there are short segments with preferred secondary structural propensities at similar places along the sequence. This may suggest that the sequence is selected in evolution to impart disorder, and thereby accord conformational adaptability.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Protein and Peptide Letters
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    ABSTRACT: Antimalarial therapy is a major contributor to declining malaria morbidity and mortality. However, the high toxicity and low bioavailability of current antimalarials and emerging drug resistance necessitates drug-delivery research. We have previously developed glyceryl-dilaurate nanolipid carriers (GDL-NLCs) for antimalarial drug delivery. Here, we show evidence that GDL-NLCs themselves selectively target Plasmodium-infected red blood cells (iRBCs), and cause severe parasite impairment. The glyceryl-dilaurate lipid-moiety was important in the targeting. GDL-NLCs localized to the parasite mitochondrion and uptake led to mitochondrial-membrane polarization and Ca2+ ion accumulation, ROS release, and stage-specific iRBC lysis. GDL-NLC treatment also resulted in externalization of iRBC-membrane phosphatidylserine and enhanced iRBC clearance by macrophages. GDL-NLC uptake disrupted the parasite-induced tubulovesicular network, which is vital for nutrient import by the parasite. Laser optical trap studies revealed that GDL-NLCs also restored iRBC flexibility. Such restoration of iRBC flexibility may help mitigate the vasculature clogging that can lead to cerebral malaria. We demonstrate the suitability of GDL-NLCs for intravenous delivery of antimalarial combinations artemether–clindamycin and artemether–lumefantrine in the murine model. Complete parasite clearance was achieved at 5−20% of the therapeutic dose of these combinations. Thus, this nanostructured lipid formulation can solubilize lipophilic drugs, selectively target and impair the parasite-infected red cell, and therefore constitutes a potent delivery vehicle for antimalarials.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Biomaterials
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebral malaria is associated with cerebrovascular damage and neurological sequelae. However, the neurological consequences of uncomplicated malaria, the most prevalent form of the disease, remain uninvestigated. Here, using a mild malaria model, we show that a single Plasmodium chabaudi adami infection in adult mice induces neuroinflammation, neurogenic, and behavioral changes in the absence of a blood-brain barrier breach. Using cytokine arrays we show that the infection induces differential serum and brain cytokine profiles, both at peak parasitemia and 15 days post-parasite clearance. At the peak of infection, along with the serum, the brain also exhibited a definitive pro-inflammatory cytokine profile, and gene expression analysis revealed that pro-inflammatory cytokines were also produced locally in the hippocampus, an adult neurogenic niche. Hippocampal microglia numbers were enhanced, and we noted a shift to an activated profile at this time point, accompanied by a striking redistribution of the microglia to the subgranular zone adjacent to hippocampal neuronal progenitors. In the hippocampus, a distinct decline in progenitor turnover and survival was observed at peak parasitemia, accompanied by a shift from neuronal to glial fate specification. Studies in transgenic Nestin-GFP reporter mice demonstrated a decline in the Nestin-GFP(+)/GFAP(+) quiescent neural stem cell pool at peak parasitemia. Although these cellular changes reverted to normal 15 days post-parasite clearance, specific brain cytokines continued to exhibit dysregulation. Behavioral analysis revealed selective deficits in social and anxiety-like behaviors, with no change observed in locomotor, cognitive, and depression-like behaviors, with a return to baseline at recovery. Collectively, these findings indicate that even a single episode of mild malaria results in alterations of the brain cytokine profile, causes specific behavioral dysfunction, is accompanied by hippocampal microglial activation and redistribution, and a definitive, but transient, suppression of adult hippocampal neurogenesis.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Brain Behavior and Immunity
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    ABSTRACT: Antimalarial therapy is a major contributor to declining malaria morbidity and mortality. However, the high toxicity and low bioavailability of current antimalarials and emerging drug resistance necessitates drug-delivery research. We have previously developed glyceryl-dilaurate nanolipid carriers (GDL-NLCs) for antimalarial drug delivery. Here, we show evidence that GDL-NLCs themselves selectively target Plasmodium-infected red blood cells (iRBCs), and cause severe parasite impairment. The glyceryl-dilaurate lipid-moiety was important in the targeting. GDL-NLCs localized to the parasite mitochondrion and uptake led to mitochondrial-membrane polarization and Ca2+ ion accumulation, ROS release, and stage-specific iRBC lysis. GDL-NLC treatment also resulted in externalization of iRBC-membrane phosphatidylserine and enhanced iRBC clearance by macrophages. GDL-NLC uptake disrupted the parasite-induced tubulovesicular network, which is vital for nutrient import by the parasite. Laser optical trap studies revealed that GDL-NLCs also restored iRBC flexibility. Such restoration of iRBC flexibility may help mitigate the vasculature clogging that can lead to cerebral malaria. We demonstrate the suitability of GDL-NLCs for intravenous delivery of antimalarial combinations artemether–clindamycin and artemether–lumefantrine in the murine model. Complete parasite clearance was achieved at 5−20% of the therapeutic dose of these combinations. Thus, this nanostructured lipid formulation can solubilize lipophilic drugs, selectively target and impair the parasite-infected red cell, and therefore constitutes a potent delivery vehicle for antimalarials.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Biomaterials
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    ABSTRACT: The birefringence of a red blood cell (RBC) is quantitatively monitored as it becomes infected by a malarial parasite. Large changes occur in the cell's refractive index at different stages of malarial infection. The observed rotation of an optically trapped, malaria-infected RBC is not a simple function of shape distortion: the malarial parasite is found to itself exercise a profound influence on the rotational dynamics by inducing stage-specific birefringence. Our measurements shed new light on the competition between shape- and form-birefringence in RBCs. We demonstrate the possibility of using birefringence to establish very early stages of infected parasites and of assessing various factors that contribute to birefringence in normal and infected cells. Our results have implications for the development and use of noninvasive techniques of quantifying changes in cell properties induced by malaria disease pathology.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Journal of Biomedical Optics
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    ABSTRACT: A significant fraction of global population is under the threat of malaria. Majority of annual death is due to the more complicated form of the infection i.e. the cerebral form, also known as Cerebral Malaria (CM). Host parasite interaction is known to cause a cascade of events in various tissues like brain, liver, kidney, and spleen. We have employed (1)H NMR based metabolomics to understand the specific perturbations of various tissues in CM. In our previous paper we have delineated the differences between CM vis-a-vis non-cerebral malaria (NCM) mice in serum, liver and brain. In this paper we focus on their differences of metabolic profile in kidney and spleen as kidney dysfunction and splenomegaly are known to be associated to neurological outcome of the disease. Moreover we have also looked into how the biological compartments (kidney, spleen and serum) interact with each other. The various metabolites involved in such interactions and their correlational aspects across the compartments have been studied in CM, NCM and control mice. The idea was to find out the specific pathways that are altered in CM mice. Our results demonstrate that both the kidney as well as spleen metabolism are differentially perturbed in CM with respect to NCM. The results point out that glutamate levels are decreased in CM mice with respect to NCM mice both in case of spleen and kidney while creatine, myo-inositol and betaine levels are increased in kidney of CM mice with respect to NCM mice. From the analysis of Multiway Principal Component Analysis (MPCA) we see that lipid metabolism and TCA cycle is altered in kidney and spleen.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: The objective of the present study was to develop an atovaquone (ATQ) nanosuspension and evaluate its ability to improve the pharmacokinetic and therapeutic efficacy on oral administration. Materials & methods: The ATQ nanosuspension was prepared by a combination of microprecipitation and high-pressure homogenization. It was freeze dried and characterized for various physiochemical properties. In vivo pharmacokinetics was performed in rats whereas antimalarial efficacy was assessed in mice using a 4-day suppressive test. Results: The ATQ nanosuspension stabilized with Solutol(®) HS 15 (BASF India Ltd, Mumbai, India) and Capryol™ 90 (Gattefosse, Mumbai, India) exhibited a z-average diameter of 371.50 nm and a polydispersity index of 0.19. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry analysis indicated no substantial changes in the crystalline state of ATQ nanocrystals. The aqueous solubility and in vitro dissolution rate were significantly increased by reducing the particle size. An in vivo pharmacokinetics study of the nanosuspension compared with a drug suspension and Malarone(®) (GlaxoSmithKline, Brentford, UK) exhibited an approximately 4.6-3.2-fold improvement in area under plasma concentration. A significant increase in Cmax and decrease in time to reach peak plasma concentration after administration was also observed. ATQ in nanosized form, even at one-quarter lower doses, exhibited greater reduction in parasitemia and prolonged survival compared with its reference formulations. Conclusion: Results of this pilot study highlight the potential of nanosuspension as an efficient and commercially viable strategy for improving delivery of ATQ for malaria treatment.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Nanomedicine
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    ABSTRACT: The present investigation aims at formulating lipid based drug delivery system of β- Artemether and Lumefantrine and comparative pharmacological evaluation with innovator formulation. Commercial modified oil and indigenous natural fatty acids comprised the oily phase in developing lipidic formulation of β- Artemether and Lumefantrine. The developed system was characterized for mean globule size, stability by freeze thaw cycles, and birefringence. Developed formulation and innovator formulation were compared for their in vivo anti-malarial activity at different dose levels in male Swiss mice, infected with lethal ANKA strain of Plasmodium berghei. The percent parasitemia, activity against time and animal survival period were examined. On fourth day of antimalarial studies, at normal and ½ dose levels, formulations revealed zero percent parasitemia while control showed 33.92±6.00% parasitemia. At 1/10 dose level, developed and innovator formulations revealed zero percent parasitemia upto 11(th) day, however, three mice from innovator formulation demonstrated recrudescence after 12(th) day. Both the formulations at normal dose and ½ dose levels showed 100 percent activity and survival whereas at 1/10 dose level, innovator formulation showed, 62.5 percent survival. The developed lipidic system of β -Artemether and Lumefantrine exhibited excellent antimalarial activity with hundred percent survival.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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    ABSTRACT: Malaria, a mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium spp. is considered to be a global threat, specifically for the developing countries. In human subjects considerable information exists regarding post-malarial physiology. However, most murine malarial models are lethal, and most studies deal with acute phases occurring as disease progresses. Much less is known regarding physiological status post-parasite clearance. We have assessed the physiological changes at the organ levels using (1)H NMR based metabonomics in a non lethal self-clearing murine malarial model of P. chabaudi parasites and Balb/C, far beyond the parasite clearance point. The results showed distinct metabolic states between uninfected and infected mice at the peak parasitemia, as well as three weeks post-parasite clearance. Our data also suggests that the response at the peak infection as well as recovery exhibited distinct sexual dimorphism. Specifically, we observed accumulation of acetylcholine in the brain metabolic profile of both the sexes. This might have important implication in understanding the pathophysiology of the post malarial neurological syndromes. In addition, the female liver showed high levels of glucose, dimethylglycine, methylacetoacetate and histidine after three weeks post-parasite clearance, while the males showed accumulation of branched chain amino acids, lysine, glutamine and bile acids.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    Pushpa Mishra · Shobhona Sharma · Ramakrishna V Hosur
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    ABSTRACT: Plasmodium falciparum P2 (PfP2) is a ribosomal stalk protein. It also performs extra ribosomal novel functions that seem to be associated with homo oligomerization . Previous in vitro studies have demonstrated that the protein has a high tendency to self-associate predominantly into an 8-mer. In vitro Heteronuclear Single Quantum Coherence (HSQC) of the pure recombinant protein (rPfP2) and its in-cell (Escherichia coli) HSQC spectrum has very similar features, indicating that the protein intrinsically, both inside the cell and under in vitro conditions, has similar aggregation tendencies. In view of this, we have characterized here the folding and concomitant self-association of rPfP2, using an in vitro dissociation-association strategy. We observed that the residue stretch, (Met31-Leu44) of the rPfP2, mapping to Met1-Leu14 of PfP2 protein acts as a nucleation site for helix formation and subsequent self-association. Further association appears to be driven by hydrophobic and complimentary electrostatic charge interactions on the surfaces formed. One stretch of rPfP2, (Ile97-Ala116), always remains floppy, and this may serve as "hinge" for protein segmental motions. Based on these, we have proposed a possible model for rPfP2 self-association into an 8-mer.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Journal of biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
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    Pushpa Mishra · Shobhona Sharma · Ramakrishna · V Hosur
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    ABSTRACT: This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae, and drug doses should be independently verified with primary sources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand, or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material.
    Full-text · Dataset · Apr 2013
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    ABSTRACT: We have probed how the birefringence of a healthy red blood cell (RBC) changes as it becomes infected by a malarial parasite. By analyzing the polarization properties of light transmitted through a single, optically-trapped cell we demarcate two types of birefringence: form birefringence which depends on the shape of the cell and intrinsic birefringence which is brought about by the presence of the parasite. We quantitatively measure changes in the refractive index as normal RBS become infected by a malarial parasite. Malarial infections are found to induce changes in the cell's refractive index whose magnitude depends on the stage of malarial infection; such changes were quantitatively explored and found to be large, in the range 1.2 to 3$\times10^{-2}$. Our results have implications for the development and use of non-invasive techniques that seek to quantify changes in cell properties induced by pathological states accompanying diseases like malaria. From a broader prespective, information forthcoming from our trap-based experiments may stimulate physicists to initiate theoretical and computational efforts that have a bearing on cell biology issues related to diagnosis of diseases and therapeutics.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013
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    ABSTRACT: The eukaryotic 60 S-ribosomal stalk consists of P0, P1, and P2 proteins, which associate in a pentameric structure (P12-P0-P22). The Plasmodium falciparum protein P2 (PfP2) appears to play nonribosomal roles. It gets exported to the infected erythrocyte (IE) surface at 30 h post-merozoite invasion (PMI), concomitant with extensive oligomerization. Here we present certain biophysical properties of PfP2. Recombinant P2 (rPfP2) protein showed SDS-resistant oligomerization, which could be significantly abolished under reducing conditions. However, the protein continued to oligomerize even when both cysteine residues were mutated, and with up to 40 amino acids (aa) deleted from the C-terminal end. CD analysis of P2 showed largely α-helical and random coil domains. The SDS- and DTT-resistant oligomerization was studied further as it occurred in a development-specific manner in Plasmodium. In a synchronized erythrocytic culture of P. falciparum, the PfP2 protein was detected as part of the ribosomal complex (∼96 kDa) at 18 and 30 h PMI, and was SDS sensitive. However, at 30 h, large amounts of SDS-sensitive aggregates of >600 kDa were also seen. At 30 h PMI, each of the parasites, IE cytosol and IE ghost contained 60–80-kDa PfP2 complexes, which resolved to a single 65-kDa species on SDS-PAGE. Tetramethylrhodamine-labeled rPfP2 protein exhibited DTT- and SDS-resistant oligomerization when treated with P. falciparum parasite extracts only from 24 to 36 h PMI, and multiple proteins appeared to be required for this oligomerization. Understanding the regulation of oligomerization of PfP2 may help in the elucidation of the novel structure-function relationship in the export of PfP2 to the red cell surface.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the in vivo pharmacodynamic efficacy of intravenously administered artemether nanostructured lipid carrier (ARM NLC) with commercial artesunate (C-AST) at different dose levels. The study compared the in vivo pharmacodynamic efficacy of ARM NLC with C-AST in a murine model. For this study, the Peters 4 day suppressive test was adopted. Plasmodium berghei was the causative organism for inducing malaria in mice. The efficacies of the formulations were evaluated on the basis of percentage parasitaemia in, and survival of, mice. In comparison with the C-AST formulation, ARM NLC demonstrated superior activity in terms of reduction in parasitaemia and increased survival. Although both formulations were found to be effective in reducing parasitaemia in the murine model, ARM NLC was found to be superior. The study clearly demonstrates the effectiveness of this novel alternative to existing artesunate dosage forms.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

Publication Stats

914 Citations
194.22 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência (IGC)
      Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
  • 1996-2015
    • Tata Institute of Fundamental Research
      • • Department of Biological Sciences
      • • Molecular Biology Unit
      Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
  • 2007
    • Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States