[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the relative effect of amenorrhea and insulin-like growth factor-I (sIGF-I) levels on cancellous and cortical bone density and size.
We investigated 66 adult women with anorexia nervosa. Lumbar spine and proximal femur bone mineral density was measured by DXA. We calculated bone mineral apparent density. Structural geometry of the spine and the hip was determined from DXA images. Weight and BMI, but not height, as well as bone mineral content and density, but not area and geometry parameters, were lower in patients with anorexia nervosa as compared with the control group. Amenorrhea, disease duration, and sIGF-I were significantly associated with lumbar spine and proximal femur BMD. In a multiple regression model, we found that sIGF-I was the only significant independent predictor of proximal femur BMD, while duration of amenorrhea was the only factor associated with lumbar spine BMD. Finally, femoral neck bone mineral apparent density, but not hip geometry variables, was correlated with sIGF-I. In anorexia nervosa, spine BMD was related to hypogonadism, whereas sIGF-I predicted proximal femur BMD. The site-specific effect of sIGF-I could be related to reduced volumetric BMD rather than to modified hip geometry.
Preview · Article · Mar 2013 · International Journal of Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the hypothesis that high FGF-23 levels early after transplantation contribute to the onset of hypophosphatemia, independently of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and other factors regulating phosphate metabolism.
We measured serum phosphate levels (sPi), renal tubular reabsorption of Pi (TmPi/GFR), estimated GFR (eGFR), intact PTH (iPTH), calcitriol, intact (int) and C-terminal (Cter) FGF-23, dietary Pi intake and cumulative doses of glucocorticoids in 69 patients 12 days (95% confidence interval, 10-13) after renal transplantation.
Hypophosphatemia was observed in 43 (62%) of the patients 12 days after transplantation. Compared with non-hypophosphatemic subjects, their post-transplantation levels of intact and CterFGF-23 were higher (195 (108-288) vs 48 (40-64) ng/l, P<0.002 for intFGF-23; 205 (116-384) vs 81 (55-124) U/ml, P<0.002, for CterFGF-23). In all subjects, Cter and intFGF-23 correlated inversely with sPi (r=-0.35, P<0.003; -0.35, P<0.003, respectively), and TmPi/GFR (r=-0.50, P<0.001; -0.54, P<0.001, respectively). In multivariate models, sPi and TmPi/GFR were independently associated with FGF-23, iPTH and eGFR. Pre-transplant iPTH levels were significantly higher in patients developing hypophosphatemia after renal transplantation. Pre-transplant levels of FGF-23 were not associated with sPi at the time of transplantation.
In addition to PTH, elevated FGF-23 may contribute to hypophosphatemia during the early post-renal transplant period.
Preview · Article · Feb 2011 · European Journal of Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The duration of antibiotic therapy in critically ill patients with sepsis can result in antibiotic overuse, increasing the risk of developing bacterial resistance.
To test the hypothesis that an algorithm based on serial measurements of procalcitonin (PCT) allows reduction in the duration of antibiotic therapy compared with empirical rules, and does not result in more adverse outcomes in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock.
In patients randomly assigned to the intervention group, antibiotics were stopped when PCT levels had decreased 90% or more from the initial value (if clinicians agreed) but not before Day 3 (if baseline PCT levels were <1 microg/L) or Day 5 (if baseline PCT levels were >/=1 microg/L). In control patients, clinicians decided on the duration of antibiotic therapy based on empirical rules.
Patients assigned to the PCT group had 3.5-day shorter median duration of antibiotic therapy for the first episode of infection than control subjects (intention-to-treat, n = 79, P = 0.15). In patients in whom a decision could be taken based on serial PCT measurements, PCT guidance resulted in a 4-day reduction in the duration of antibiotic therapy (per protocol, n = 68, P = 0.003) and a smaller overall antibiotic exposure (P = 0.0002). A similar mortality and recurrence of the primary infection were observed in PCT and control groups. A 2-day shorter intensive care unit stay was also observed in patients assigned to the PCT group (P = 0.03).
Our results suggest that a protocol based on serial PCT measurement allows reducing antibiotic treatment duration and exposure in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock without apparent harm.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2008 · American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate whether classification of patients as having low, moderate, or high stress based on clinical parameters is associated with plasma levels of stress hormone.
Prospective, blinded, observational study in an 18-bed medical ICU.
Eighty-eight consecutive patients.
Patients were classified as low (n=28), moderate (n=33) or high stress (n=27) on days 0 and 3 of ICU stay, based on 1 point for each abnormal parameter: body temperature, heart rate, systemic arterial pressure, respiratory rate, physical agitation, presence of infection and catecholamine administration. The stress categories were: high: 4 points or more, moderate 2-3 points, low 1 point. Plasma growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin, glucagon, cortisol were measured on days 0 and 3.
Plasma cortisol and glucagon were significantly higher and IGF-1 lower in high vs. low stress patients on days 0 and 3. High stress patients were more likely to have high cortisol levels (odds ratio 5.8, confidence interval 1.8-18.9), high glucagon (8.7, 2.1-36.1), and low IGF-1 levels (5.9, 1.8-19.0) than low stress patients on day 0. Moderate stress patients were also more likely to have high cortisol and glucagon levels than low stress patients. Insulin and GH did not differ significantly. Results were similar for day 3.
Moderate and severe stress was significantly associated with high catabolic (cortisol, glucagon) and low anabolic (IGF-1) hormone levels. The hormonal stress level in ICU patients can be estimated from simple clinical parameters during routine clinical evaluation.
No preview · Article · Jan 2006 · Intensive Care Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the usefulness of procalcitonin (PCT) in detecting infection in elderly patients with that of other clinical and biological markers.
Prospective observational study to compare PCT levels in infected and uninfected patients.
Geriatric teaching hospital in Switzerland.
Two hundred eighteen elderly patients aged 75 and older admitted to an acute geriatric care unit.
Demographic characteristics, comorbidities, Charlson index, general signs (respiratory rate, temperature, pulse rate, confusion, falls, shivering), presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), sepsis, severe sepsis, septic shock, functional score (Functional Independence Measurement (FIM)) biological parameters (PCT, C-reactive protein (CRP), leukocytes, albumin), and definite diagnosis at admission were collected prospectively for each patient.
Long-term corticotherapy, chronic immune diseases, fever of 38 degrees C or higher, white blood cell count, pulse rate, FIM, SIRS, sepsis, CRP of 3 mg/mL or higher, and PCT of 0.5 ng/mL or higher were associated with an infection at admission. In multivariate analysis, only sepsis and CRP of 3 mg/mL or higher were still associated with an infection; PCT levels do not show any significant association in the multivariate analysis. In addition, when PCT had good specificity (94%), it had low sensitivity (24%). False-negative PCT was related to lower severity of infection (lower inflammatory reaction and lower acute renal failure) than true-positive PCT. This finding may also be related to aging per se.
PCT may be useful to identify severely ill elderly patients admitted to an acute geriatric ward but not to discriminate patients with infection from those without.
No preview · Article · Sep 2005 · Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Examine whether a low serum level of apolipoprotein A-I at intensive care unit (ICU) admission is associated with a further increase of the number of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria.
Prospective observational study.
A 20-bed, university-affiliated, surgical ICU.
Patients admitted after major surgery, multiple trauma, or acute pancreatitis without septic shock.
We defined as the SIRS Exacerb group patients who presented a further increase of the number of SIRS criteria during their ICU stay or, in the presence of four SIRS criteria at ICU admission, those who presented a further aggravation of organ failure. Other patients were attributed to the SIRS No Exacerb group. From day 1 to 6, we measured apolipoprotein A-I, high-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, serum amyloid A, interleukin 6, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, albumin, and other nutrition-linked variables. We looked at laboratory values or factors present at ICU admission according to the two groups.
From 63 patients analyzed, 29 (46%) were assigned to the SIRS Exacerb group. Age, sex, and SAPS II and SIRS scores at ICU admission did not differ between the groups. Patients in the SIRS Exacerb group presented more often a septic event (5/29 vs. 0/34, p =.02), had a higher hospital mortality (6/29 vs. 0/34, p =.007), and had a longer ICU stay (p =.0023). At admission, inflammatory variables such as the C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, interleukin 6, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist plasma levels, and other lipid or nutrition-linked variables were similar between the two groups. Apolipoprotein A-I levels were lower in the SIRS Exacerb group (median [interquartile range]: 68 [56-81] vs. 84 [69-94] mg/dL, p =.028).
A low serum level of apolipoprotein A-I at ICU admission is associated with an increase of the number of SIRS criteria during the ICU stay.
No preview · Article · Apr 2004 · Critical Care Medicine