[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), the most common pediatric spinal deformity, is considered a complex genetic disease. Causing genes and pathogenesis of AIS are still unclear. This study was designed to identify differentially expressed long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) involving the pathogenesis of AIS.
. We first performed comprehensive screening of lncRNA and mRNA in AIS patients and healthy children using Agilent human lncRNA + mRNA Array V3.0 microarray. LncRNAs expression in different AIS patients was further evaluated using quantitative PCR.
. A total of 139 lncRNAs and 546 mRNAs were differentially expressed between AIS patients and healthy control. GO and Pathway analysis showed that these mRNAs might be involved in bone mineralization, neuromuscular junction, skeletal system morphogenesis, nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolism, and regulation of signal pathway. Four lncRNAs (ENST00000440778.1, ENST00000602322.1, ENST00000414894.1, and TCONS_00028768) were differentially expressed between different patients when grouped according to age, height, classification, severity of scoliosis, and Risser grade.
. This study demonstrates the abnormal expression of lncRNAs and mRNAs in AIS, and the expression of some lncRNAs was related to clinical features. This study is helpful for further understanding of lncRNAs in pathogenesis, treatment, and prognosis of AIS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To observe the expression profiles of osteoblast-related genes in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow during osteogenic differentiation.
MSCs were induced to differentiate with MSC osteogenic differentiation medium for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days respectively. Alizarin Red staining was used to detect matrix mineralization. Expression of osteoblast-related genes, including osteocalcin, osteopontin, Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), alkaline phosphatase and collagen type 1, was assessed with quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.
On day 14 after induction of differentiation, cells were stained positively with Alizarin Red. The expression levels of these genes exhibited an upward trend as induction time was prolonged. Exposure to osteogenic differentiation medium less than 21 days did not significantly induce osteocalcin expression; osteocalcin expression levels in the differentiated cells induced for 21 and 28 days were 1.63 and 2.46 times as high as the undifferentiated cells respectively (all P<0.05). Stimulation with MSC osteogenic differentiation medium over 14 days significantly enhanced bone marrow-derived MSCs to express osteopontin and Runx2 genes (all P<0.05). Osteogenic differentiation medium could significantly induce the expressions of alkaline phosphatase and collagen type1 genes (all P<0.05). Their expressions reached the peak levels on day 21, which were increased more than 4- and 3-fold respectively.
Human bone marrow-derived MSCs could exhibit the sequential expression pattern of osteoblast marker genes during osteogenic differentiation in vitro.
No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Chinese Medical Sciences Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
To investigate changes in thoracic dimensions (TDs) following repeated lengthening surgeries after dual growing rod treatment of early onset scoliosis and thereby its effect on thoracic growth.
All EOS patients treated with dual growing rod technique in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from June 2004 to June 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Thoracic spine height (T1–T12), total spine height (T1–S1), maximal coronal chest width and pelvic inlet width (PIW) were measured on the posteroanterior X-ray images after initial growing rod insertion surgery and after each lengthening surgery. Absolute TDs measurements were normalized by PIW. Changes of absolute and normalized TDs measurements with age and number of lengthening surgeries were analyzed.
Radiographs of 229 surgeries of 53 EOS patients were measured, including 49 images after initial growing rod insertion surgery and 180 images of lengthening surgeries. Significant positive correlations between age and all three absolute TDs were found (P
No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · European Spine Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Study Design. A meta-analysis and systemic review.Objective. To pool scientific evidence for the optimum selection in the treatment of lumbar spondylolisthesis by comparing the clinical effect of posterolateral fusion (PLF), posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and PLIF plus PLF.Summary of Background Data. Clinical effect of the three fusion techniques has been reported in many studies. However, it is in dispute which is the best method.Methods. A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Collaboration Library from January 1950 through May 2013. Comparative studies were performed according to eligibility criteria. Weighed mean differences (WMDs) and risk differences were calculated for common outcomes. The final strength of evidence was expressed as different level recommended by the GRADE Working Group.Results. Four randomized controlled trials and thirteen observational studies were eligible. PLIF was more effective than PLF in the improvement of clinical satisfaction (odds ratio (OR): 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.31-0.89, P = 0.02). No significant differences in the primary outcomes were seen between PLIF plus PLF and PLF (OR: 0.88, 95% CI:[0.47,1.64], [P = 0.69]). For the complication rate, the differences were not significant between PLIF and PLF, and between PLIF plus PLF and PLF (OR:2.27, 95% CI:[0.95,5.42], [P = 0.07]; OR:0.74, 95% CI:[0.22,2.44], [P = 0.62], respectively). In the secondary outcomes, PLIF was more effective than PLF in the improvement of fusion rate (P = 0.0007) and reoperation rate (P = 0.004). However, PLIF plus PLF failed to reveal more superiority than PLF (P>0.05).Conclusions. PLIF plus PLF did not show more superiority than PLF alone. PLIF alone improved clinical satisfaction and decreased complication rate compared to PLF. PLIF maybe be better than the other two fusion methods in the treatment of lumbar spondylolisthesis. However, conclusions need to be treated with caution because of lack of high quality of evidence.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate clinical outcomes of growing rod technique in treating young children with congenital scoliosis.
From August 2002 to October 2009, 34 patients with congenital scoliosis underwent growing rod procedures including 12 male and 22 female patients. Four patients underwent posterior correction surgeries with single growing rod (single growing rod group), 30 patients underwent posterior correction surgeries with dual growing rod(dual growing rod group). The average age at initial surgery was 6.9(2-13) years. Five patients with severe rigid deformity or kyphosis had an osteotomy at apex vertebra with short segmental fusion followed by dual growing rod technique. The analysis included age at initial surgery and final fusion (if applicable), number and frequency of lengthenings, and complications. Radiographic evaluation including scoliosis, trunk translation, length of T1-S1, thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis was conducted.
The follow-up was 40.5 (24-110) months. In single growing rod group, the mean scoliosis Cobb angle improved from 80.9°to 59.5°after initial surgery and was 65.3°at the latest follow-up. T1-S1 length increased from average 24.3 cm to 26.0 cm after initial surgery, and to 31.1 cm at latest follow-up with an increase of 1.05 cm per year. The space available for lung ratio(SAL) in patients with thoracic curves improved from 0.81 to 0.92 at the latest follow-up. Three patients reached final fusion. Four complications occurred in 3 of the 4 patients. In dual growing rod group, the mean scoliosis Cobb angle improved from 72° ± 22°to 35 ± 14° after initial surgery and was 35 ± 17°at the last follow-up or post-final fusion. T1-S1 length increased from (25 ± 5) cm to (29 ± 5)cm after initial surgery and to (33 ± 5)cm at latest follow-up with an average T1-S1 length increase of 1.49 cm per year. The SAL in patients with thoracic curves improved from 0.84 ± 0.08 to 0.96 ± 0.06 at the latest follow-up. Three patients reached final fusion. Complications occurred in 7 of the 30 patients, and they had a total of 13 complications.
Growing rod technique is a safe and effective choice for young children of long, complex congenital scoliosis. It maintains correction achieved at initial surgery while allowing spinal growth to continue. Implants-related complications remain the biggest challenge.
No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the incidences and characteristics of the ribs and intraspinal abnormalities in surgical patients with congenital scoliosis.
We conducted a retrospective study of the medical records and spine radiographs of 118 patients underwent surgical treatment between January 2010 and March 2011 with congenital scoliosis. The average age was 14 years (3-50 years).Fifty-two were male and 66 were female patients. The rib and intraspinal abnormalities were compared in different vertebral anomalies. Pearson's χ(2) test were used to analyze the incidence of anomalies of the ribs and vertebrae, as well as intraspinal anomalies.
A total of 57 (48.3%) patients were found to have intraspinal abnormalities.Split cord deformities were identified to be the most common intraspinal anomaly (32.2%), followed by syringomyelia (21.2%).Sixty-nine patients (58.5%) had rib anomalies, which occurring on the concavity of the scoliosis was most frequent. The patients with mixed deformity and failure of segment were found to have a higher incidence of rib anomaly than those with failure formation (χ(2) = 14.05, P < 0.01). The patients with multiple level malformations were found to have significantly higher incidence of rib anomaly than those with single level malformation (χ(2) = 27.50, P < 0.01).Intraspinal anomalies occurred in 42 of 69 patients (60.9%) with rib anomalies and 15 of 49 patients (30.6%) without rib anomalies in congenital scoliosis. The occurrence of intraspinal malformation has significant difference with or without rib anomalies in congenital scoliosis (χ(2) = 10.5, P < 0.01).
The intraspinal malformation is common in patients with mixed defects and failures of segmentation. The rib anomalies occurring on the concavity of the scoliosis is most frequent. The incidence of intraspinal anomaly is significant higher in the patients with rib anomalies than those without rib anomalies. Both the occurrence and type of rib anomaly, combined with vertebral deformity are helpful in forecasting the occurrence of intraspinal abnormalis.
No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) is a spinal realignment technique of correcting the sagittal spinal imbalance. Theoretically, the level and degree of resection via a PSO should impact the degree of sagittal correction. However, the quantitative effect of PSO level and focal angular change on postoperative spinopelvic parameters has not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between the level/degree of PSO and changes in global sagittal balance and spinopelvic parameters.
Retrospective analysis was conducted for 34 patients undergoing PSO surgery for ankylosing spondylitis. Preoperative and postoperative free-standing sagittal radiographs were obtained and analyzed by regional curves (lumbar lordosis, thoracic kyphosis), pelvic parameters of pelvic tilt (PT), pelvic incidence (PI) and sacral slope (SS) and global balance of sagittal vertical axis (SVA). And the correlations between PSO parameters (level and degree) and spinopelvic parameters were analyzed.
There were significant changes in spinopelvic parameters including decreased thoracic kyphosis, increased lumbar lordosis, decreased SVA, decreased PT and increased SS. The decreased SVA were 3.94 ± 3.38 and 3.97 ± 1.91 in lumbar/thoracic osteotomy respectively (P > 0.05). The decreased values of PT were 9.71 ± 6.46 and 5.20 ± 2.74 respectively (P < 0.05). Larger degree of osteotomy (≥ 22°) had greater SVA and PT decreases (P < 0.05).
PSO is a quite useful technique of restoring spinal alignment. Lumbar and larger degrees of osteotomy have greater effects on spinopelvic parameters.
No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the safety and effectiveness of one-stage posterior correction of scoliosis associated with little symptomatic syringomyelia.
A total of 19 cases diagnosed as scoliosis with little symptomatic syringomyelia between January 2003 and November 2010 were included in this study (study group), the patients underwent one-stage posterior correction and instrumentation without neurosurgery for the syringomyelia. At the same time, 9 cases with severe symptomatic syringomyelia were included as the control group, the patients underwent neurosurgery before scoliosis correction, including suboccipital decompression and syrinx shunting. All patients underwent posterior pedicle screw or screw-hook hybrid instrumentation. The preoperative, postoperative and the last follow-up of the Cobb angle of the coronal main curve and thoracic kyphosis were measured. Also, the preoperative and postoperative of the apical vertebra translation, apical vertebra rotation and trunk shift were measured by the same person. The perioperative and the last follow-up complications of neurological injury were recorded. The surgical outcome and postoperative complications between the 2 groups were compared with the t student and chi-square statistics methods.
There were no significant differences in gender, age, the location, length and diameter of the syringomyelia of the 2 groups (P > 0.05). The follow-up period ranged from 6 to 45 months, with a mean of 28.6 months. The average preoperative Cobb angles of coronal main curves of the 2 groups were 71° ± 23° and 68° ± 19°, the postoperative Cobb angles were 27° ± 20° and 25° ± 16°, and the last follow-up Cobb angles were 29° ± 17° and 32° ± 20°. The coronal correction rate was 66% ± 19% in the study group and 65% ± 21% in the control group (t = 0.136, P = 0.893). There was no significant difference at the last follow-up(t = 0.210, P = 0.837). The average preoperative Cobb angles of thoracic kyphosis of the 2 groups were 35° ± 18° and 32° ± 19°, the postoperative Cobb angles were 25° ± 10° and 23° ± 9°, and the last follow-up Cobb angles were 24° ± 4° and 28° ± 8°. The mean sagittal correction rate of the 2 groups were 50% ± 58% and 57% ± 53% (t = -0.303, P = 0.764). There was also no significant difference at the last follow-up time (t = 0.769, P = 0.490). There were no significant difference, in terms of the postoperative of the apical vertebra translation, apical vertebra rotation and trunk shift between the 2 groups (P > 0.05). One case in the study group complicated with a pedicle screw breaking the anterior cortex of the vertebra and one in the control group complicated with a hook loosening, postoperatively. At the last follow-up time, the neurological symptoms of the 2 groups got no aggravating.
One-stage posterior correction of scoliosis associated with little symptomatic syringomyelia may be effective and safe.
No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Initial results for the use of single and dual growing rod techniques in the treatment of early onset scoliosis (EOS) has been seldom documented. The aim of this research was to investigate the initial efficacy of single and dual growing rods in treatment of EOS.
A retrospective study of 25 early onset scoliosis cases treated with growing rod technique between November 2002 and May 2010 was performed, including six cases in the single growing rod group and 19 cases in the dual growing rod group. Operation time, intra-operative bleeding, correction rate, changes in C7-S1 distance, and incidence of complications of the first operation were compared for the two techniques.
The average post-operative follow-up duration was 31.9 months. There was no statistical difference observed between operation time, intra-operative bleeding, and complication incidence between the single and dual growing rod groups. In addition, no statistical difference was observed in the pre-operative coronal Cobb's angle (P > 0.05), or in the pre-operative sagittal Cobb's angle between both groups (P > 0.05). The correction rate of the dual growing rod group was significantly superior to that of the single growing rod group in the coronal plane (P < 0.01), but not in the sagittal plane (P > 0.05). The C7-S1 distance in the dual growing rod group was significantly larger than that in the single growing rod group (P < 0.05).
The growing rod technique is an effective option for surgical treatment of EOS. The dual growing rod technique shows relative superiority in the correction outcome as compared to the single growing rod technique.
No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Chinese medical journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of correction of scoliosis associated with tethered cord without releasing it.
Twenty-two cases diagnozed as scoliosis with tethered cord between December 2005 and January 2011 were investigated retrospectively in the study. There were 8 males and 14 females. The age was from 6 to 51 years, averaged 17.7 years. There were 7 patients with clinical symptoms before surgery. All the patients underwent posterior deformity correction and instrumentation by pedicle screws directly without releasing the tethered cord. Spinal cord monitoring was conducted in all the cases. The preoperative and postoperative Cobb angle of the coronal main curve and thoracic kyphosis were measured. Also, the preoperative and postoperative values of the apical vertebra translation, apical vertebra rotation and trunk shift were measured by the same person. The incidence of perioperative complications were recorded.
A total of 20 patients were followed up. The follow-up time was from 6 to 52 months, mean 23.5 months. The average Cobb angle of the coronal main curve were 68° ± 20° before surgery and 38° ± 21° after surgery with a mean correction of 48.1%. The difference was significant (t = 13.9, P < 0.05). The mean kyphosis was 65° ± 18° preoperatively and 28° ± 11° postoperatively, with a correction of 56.7%. The difference was also significant (t = 8.81, P < 0.05). The preoperative values of the apical vertebra translation, apical vertebra rotation and trunk shift were (5.4 ± 2.5) cm, 2.3° ± 0.6° and (2.0 ± 1.8) cm, respectively, which were corrected to (3.2 ± 1.8) cm, 1.2° ± 0.5° and (1.5 ± 1.1) cm after the surgery. Compared to the preoperative values, the difference were significant in the apical vertebra translation (t = 5.69, P < 0.05) and apical vertebra rotation (t = 10.07, P < 0.05). However, there was no difference in trunk shift. Postoperative complications occurred in 3 patients, including transient numbness of the lower extremity in 1 patient and hydrothorax in 2 patients. No neurological and instrumentation complications occurred during the follow-ups. Patients with clinical symptoms before surgery got no serious during the surgery and follow-ups.
If there are no symptoms of tethering in scoliosis patients with tethered cord, the corrective surgeries may be safe and effective when spinal cord monitoring conducted without spinal cord untethering. But more cases are needed to confirm it.
No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the mid-term radiological outcome of sagital alignment of overall cervical spine and the functional spinal unit after replacement surgery with Bryan cervical disc prosthesis.
Eighteen patients with cervical disc disorder were performed cervical disc replacement with 20 Bryan discs from November 2005 to May 2010, including single-level 16 cases and bi-level 2 cases. The patient consisted of 13 males and 5 females with age ranging from 38 to 59 years (average, (47 ± 6) years). Fourteen cases with overall cervical lordotic alignment and segmental lordotic alignment per-operatively (group 1) and 4 others with segmental kyphotic alignment and overall cervical kyphotic alignment per-operatively (group 2). The overall sagital alignment (C(2-7)) and segmental sagital alignment were measured pre-operatively, post-operatively and at final follow-up to evaluate the outcome.
All cases obtained the follow-up with an average of (24 ± 5) months (range 12 to 53 months). To the mean overall cervical alignment, there were 9.9° ± 1.9° per-operatively, 12.8° ± 2.1° post-operatively and 11.6° ± 1.8° at final follow-up in group 1 and -1.8° ± 0.8° per-operatively, 7.3° ± 1.3° post-operatively and 5.0° ± 2.1° at final follow-up in group 2. There were statistical significance between per-operatively and post-operatively (t = -2.987 and -5.058, P < 0.05) and no statistical significance between post-operatively and final follow-up (P > 0.05) in both groups. To the mean segmental alignment there were 2.6° ± 0.8° per-operatively, 5.4° ± 1.0° post-operatively and 4.3° ± 0.9° at final follow-up in group 1 and -3.0° ± 0.8° per-operatively, 3.8° ± 1.3° post-operatively and 0.3° ± 2.8° at final follow-up in group 2. There were statistical significance between per-operatively and post-operatively in both groups (t = -3.829 and -4.086, P < 0.05) and between post-operatively and final follow-up in group 1 (t = 2.630, P < 0.05)but not in group 2 (P > 0.05).
The Bryan cervical disc prosthesis has a good mid-term outcome for maintaining sagital alignment of overall cervical spine and the functional spinal unit. Long-term follow-up should be needed to assess the long-term functionality of the prosthesis.
No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore the clinical manifestations and surgical strategies of scoliosis associated with syringomyelia.
A total of 50 cases diagnosed as scoliosis with syringomyelia between January 2003 and November 2010 were recruited. They were divided into 2 groups: Group A, neurosurgery before scoliosis correction, including suboccipital decompression and syrinx shunting; Group B, one-staged posterior correction and instrumentation without previous neurosurgery. The preoperative, postoperative and last follow-ups of Cobb angle of coronal main curve and thoracic kyphosis were measured. Also the preoperative and postoperative apical vertebra translation, apical vertebra rotation and trunk shift were measured by the same person. The surgical efficacies and complications of correction were compared between 2 groups.
All patients underwent posterior pedicle screw instrumentation and had a mean follow-up period of 32.1 months. Among them, 42 patients had clinical symptoms or signs preoperatively and 3 patients improved postoperatively. The mean correction of coronal curve was 65.7% and a mean loss of correction 6.4% during the follow-up. The mean correction of apical vertebra translation and apical vertebra rotation were 63.0% and 60.0% respectively. However, the trunk shift increased 0.4 cm. There were no statistically significant differences for the correction efficacies and complications between 2 groups (P > 0.05).
Scoliosis associated with syringomyelia may be effectively managed if a surgeon manipulates carefully intraoperatively and perioperative spinal monitoring is practiced. Furthermore syrinx will not increase the incidence of postoperative complications without prophylactic neurosurgery.
No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the efficacy of imaging patients in a state of traction ("traction imaging") for selection of upper and lower vertebrae to undergo instrumentation (UIV and LIV, respectively) to correct moderate to severe, rigid scoliosis.
Twenty-seven patients aged 11-21 years (average, 15.5 years) who had been treated at our institution for scoliosis of the thoracic spine between 2004 and 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were treated with the third multiple hook-screw and rod instrumentation system. Standardized radiographic measurements (anteroposterior, sagittal, bending, fulcrum, traction) were taken and Cobb's angles, apical vertebra translation (AVT), and traction-stable vertebrae determined.
All patients were followed for 6-36 months (average, 14.7 months). The Cobb's angles under preoperative vertical traction correlated positively with those measured postoperatively in standing anteroposterior film (P < 0.01). Preoperative AVT under vertical traction was significantly different from that measured postoperatively in standing anteroposterior film (P < 0.01). The traction radiography-determined UIV slant angles were significantly different from those preoperatively without traction and the postoperative values, whereas traction radiography-determined LIV values were not significantly different from those found preoperatively without traction (P > 0.05).
Traction radiographic imaging is an effective, feasible preoperative assessment for determining which vertebrae are stable, designing the surgical strategy and choosing the UIV and LIV for correcting moderate to severe, rigid scoliosis.
No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Orthopaedic Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulmonary problems often occur in patients with early-onset scoliosis (EOS). However, lung function in patients with EOS after growing rod surgery has not been documented. The aim of this study was to investigate lung function after the treatment for EOS with growing rod and its possible correlative factors.
Eight patients with EOS were treated with growing rod surgery at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from September 2002 to September 2009. Four patients had finished the final fusion surgery (group 1), and the other 4 (group 2) were in the process of periodic lengthening. Preoperative forced vital capacity (FVC), ratio of FVC to predicted FVC, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), ratio of FEV1 to predicted FEV1, and radiographic measurements of Cobb's angle and C7-S1 distance were recorded. Lung function changes and correlations between lung function changes and radiographic changes (Cobb's angle and C7-S1 distance) were analyzed.
In group 1, FVC and FEV1 both increased. FVC showed a significant difference (P = 0.01), but FEV1 did not (P = 0.05). In group 2, FVC and FEV1 also increased, and both showed a significant difference (P = 0.04 and P = 0.02, respectively). Ratio of FVC to predicted FVC and ratio of FEV1 to predicted FEV1 changed similarly and did not show statistical differences in the 2 groups. There were no significant correlations between lung function changes and radiographic changes (Cobb's angle and C7-S1 distance) (P = 0.10 and P = 0.41, respectively).
Lung function increases after growing rod surgery in patients with EOS. Lung function changes do not correlate with Cobb's angle changes or C7-S1 distance changes.
No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Chinese medical journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the surgical results of selective thoracic fusion (STF) for scoliosis associated with syringomyelia.
From January 2001 to January 2009, 93 cases of scoliosis associated with syringomyelia were retrospectively reviewed. There were 11 cases who underwent STF and were followed up more than 2 years, which included 8 female and 3 male, the mean age was 14.9 years (9 - 21 years). Curve type, coronal and sagittal Cobb angle, apical vertebral rotation apical vertebral translation, flexibility, trunk shift were recorded and analyzed.
There were 9 double curves and 2 triple curves, the Lenke type of thoracolumbar/lumbar curve included Lenke A in 2 cases, Lenke B in 7 cases and Lenke C in 2 cases. The average coronal Cobb angle of thoracic curve before and after surgery were 62.6° and 19.0° respectively, and the average correction rate was 69.6%. The average coronal Cobb angle of thoracolumbar/lumbar curve before and after surgery were 36.1° and 11.6° respectively, and the average spontaneous correction rate was 67.9%. The followed up time ranged from 24 to 48 months (mean 29.5 months), the average loss of correction rate was 6.8%. Only one trunk decompensation was noted at final follow-up. Pedicle screw nut loosening occurred in one patient and this patient underwent revision surgery, no neurological complication was noted at final follow-up.
STF could be safely performed in scoliosis associated with syringomyelia. Thoracolumbar/lumbar curve in these patients has similar spontaneous correction ability compared with idiopathic scoliosis patients. The satisfactory result could be achieved according to the STF criteria for IS.
No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the expression of chondromodulin-1 (ChM-I) in human adult degenerative intervertebral disc (IVD) cells and the relationship between ChM-I expression and disc degeneration.
Three degenerated disc specimens obtained from patients in the treatment of disc degenerative disease from March to April 2009 were used for cell culture. ChM-I expression in IVD cells was examined by RT-PCR and Western blot. The effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on the expression of ChM-I was assessed by real-time PCR and Western blot. From October 2008 to October 2009, 26 human IVD tissues were obtained from patients in the surgical treatment of disc degenerative disease at different stage of degeneration according to MRI. Six IVD tissues removed from patients with metastatic spinal tumor were used as normal control. The expression of ChM-I determined by immunohistochemical analysis was correlated with MRI degeneration grade.
RT-PCR and Western blot examination showed that ChM-I was expressed in both adult degenerative anulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus cells. The mRNA and protein expression of ChM-I were both down-regulated by administration of bFGF with dose-dependent way (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical analysis showed the percent of ChM-I immunopositive cells in the control group was 0.12 ± 0.03, and the number increased significantly in the advanced degeneration group (P < 0.05).
The current results demonstrate that IVD cells express ChM-I. Administration of bFGF down-regulates the expression of ChM-I. The expression of ChM-I is correlated with the degree of IVD degeneration which means it may involve in the process of IVD degeneration.
No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous literatures revealed abnormal cross-sectional morphology of spinal cord in AIS, suggesting the presence of disproportional growth between the neural and skeletal system. No accurate measurement of whole spine by MRI multiplanar reconstruction and their correlation with Cobb angle were studied. In this study, MRI three-dimensional reconstruction of the whole spine was performed in 90 adolescents (49 AIS with thoracic/thoracolumbar curve, and 41 age-matched healthy controls). Measurements of the ratio of anteroposterior (AP) and transverse (TS) diameter of the cord, the concave and convex lateral cord space (LCS) were obtained at the apical level in AIS patients. Cerebellar tonsillar level related to the basion-opsithion line, location of conus medullaris, cord length, vertebral column length, cord/vertebral column length ratio were obtained. All of the same parameters were also measured in healthy controls at matched vertebral levels and their correlations with Cobb angle were made. We notice that AP, TS, AP/TS and LCS ratio were increased in AIS subjects with low-lying position of cerebellar tonsillar level and elevating position of conus medullary when compared with healthy controls (P < 0.01). AP, AP/TS and LCS ratio were correlated significantly with Cobb angle (P < 0.05). Cord length and vertebral column length were not significantly different between AIS and control group. However, cord/vertebral column length ratio was significantly smaller in AIS group (P < 0.01). Cord length, vertebral column length and cord/vertebral column length ratio were not related with age or Cobb angle (P > 0.05). These data suggest the presence of uncoupled neuro-osseous growth along the longitudinal axis of spinal cord with associated morphologic changes of cross-sectional configuration and relative position of the cord. Some changes are significantly relevant with Cobb angle, which may indicate pathogenesis of AIS.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2011 · European Spine Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate whether the polymorphisms of WNT3A gene are associated with congenital scoliosis (CS) and its various clinical phenotypes in a Chinese Han population.
A total of 127 CS patients admitted into PUMC were enrolled into this case-control study between October 2005 and September 2007. There were 55 boys and 72 girls with a mean age of 12.90 years old. Another 127 scoliosis-free control subjects at the same hospital during the same study period were frequency-matched with regards to age (± 3 years) and gender. Genomic DNA was extracted by QIAamp DNA Blood Mini Kit from peripheral blood leukocytes of each subject who had signed informed consent. Based on the genotypic data from the International HapMap project, the main functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were initially selected. The patients in the case group were classified into different clinical phenotypes according to vertebral defect type, location of deformity, extent of developmental disruption, combined rib malformations and neural canal deformity. The genotying of all selected SNPs was performed by SNPstream technology (Beckman Coulter SNPstream). All data of SNPs with polymorphism were processed by the association analysis based on a single SNP and between phenotypes and SNPs. And the pairwise linkage disequilibrium was calculated in the control population by Haploview 4.1 software.
The SNP1 (rs964941) and SNP2 (rs752107) of WNT3A were genotyped. There was no linkage disequilibrium between two SNPs. No association was observed between SNP1 and SNP2 genotypes or allele polymorphisms and risk of CS and various clinical phenotypes (P > 0.05).
The genetic variants of WNT3A gene may not be associated with the susceptibility to CS and various clinical phenotypes of CS in Chinese Han population.
No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Zhonghua yi xue za zhi