Mulenda Tshamala

Ghent University, Gand, Flanders, Belgium

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Publications (34)34.49 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objective To describe a modified implantation procedure of a vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) device in dogs and to report short- and long-term complications. Study DesignDescriptive, experimental study. AnimalsHealthy, adult Beagle dogs (n=10). MethodsA VNS Therapy((R)) System was implanted in the left cervical region of anesthetized dogs. During and within 48hours after surgery, electrocardiography (ECG) and impedance testing of the system were performed. Dogs were monitored daily and the impedance of the system was determined regularly until VNS devices were surgically removed 3 years after implantation. ResultsThe implantation procedure was successful in all dogs without intraoperative complications. ECG monitoring and impedance tests were within normal limits during and within 48hours after surgery. Postoperative seroma formation was common (70%). One dog developed an irreversible Horner's syndrome leading to removal of the device 5 months after implantation. Another dog developed trauma-induced damage of the lead requiring surgical revision. The device could be safely removed in all dogs; however, electrodes were left in place to avoid nerve damage. At removal, the anchor tether was dislodged in 40% of dogs and the lead was twisted in 50% of dogs. Conclusion Implantation of a VNS Therapy((R)) System is safe and feasible in dogs; however, seroma formation, twisting of the lead, and dislodgement of the anchor tether were common. Practical improvements in the technique include stable device placement, use of a compression bandage, and exercise restriction. Regular evaluation of lead impedance is important, as altered values can indicate serious complications.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Veterinary Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an effective adjunctive treatment for refractory epilepsy in humans, but its mechanism of action (MOA) and optimal stimulation parameters are still unknown. Functional neuroimaging studies could provide better insight into the brain structures involved in the activity of VNS, but have not yet been described in dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acute VNS on the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in dogs using micro-SPECT (μ-SPECT). Additionally, a novel stimulation paradigm (microburst VNS) was used and compared with standard VNS. Methods A VNS Therapy System was implanted in ten Beagle dogs. μ-SPECT was performed after sham, standard and microburst VNS in a randomized, cross-over study. Nineteen volumes of interest (VOIs) were semi-quantitatively analysed and perfusion indices (PIs) were calculated. Furthermore, a rostro-caudal gradient (R-C), an asymmetry index (AI) and a cortical-subcortical index (Co-SCo) were determined. The SPECT results after standard and microburst VNS were compared pairwise with sham stimulation. Results Acute standard VNS did not cause significant rCBF alterations. Acute microburst VNS caused a significant hypoperfusion in the left frontal lobe (P = 0.023) and in the right parietal lobe (P = 0.035). Both stimulation paradigms did not cause changes in R-C, AI nor Co-SCo. Conclusions Microburst VNS is more potent than standard VNS to modulate the rCBF in the dog. Our results promote further research towards the antiepileptic effect of microburst VNS in dogs and humans.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Epilepsy research
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate a distractable titanium cage for the treatment of disk-associated wobbler syndrome (DAWS). Prospective study. Dogs (n = 7) with DAWS. After total discectomy of C5-C6 and C6-C7, the median part of the vertebral body of C6 was removed with preservation of the lateral walls and dorsal cortex. The removed cancellous bone was collected. The implant was placed in the bony defect of C6. After placement, the titanium cage was distracted and affixed by 4 screws. Finally, the implant was filled and covered with cancellous bone. Dogs had follow-up examinations at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Six months after surgery, cervical radiographs and computed tomography (CT) were performed. Although no intraoperative complications occurred, correct placement of the cage was technically challenging. Revision surgery was necessary in 2 dogs because of implant loosening and aggravation of vertebral tilting. All dogs improved after discharge from the hospital. In 1 dog, recurrence of clinical signs caused by articular facet proliferation at an adjacent intervertebral disk space occurred. Radiographs at 6 months demonstrated cage subsidence in 4 dogs. In all dogs, CT was suggestive for fusion of the bone graft with the vertebral body. Although results are promising, technical adaptations will be necessary to make this specific surgical technique, designed for humans, suitable for routine use in dogs.
    No preview · Article · May 2011 · Veterinary Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: There is much controversy about the treatment of disc associated wobbler syndrome. This retrospective study describes the clinical evolution of 12 dogs treated surgically by a standard ventral slot technique. The duration of follow-up ranged from 1 to 59 months. Nine of the 12 dogs clinically recovered. However, 6 of these 9 dogs developed a second episode of clinical signs. Two of these dogs could be further managed by conservative treatment. The 4 other dogs were euthanized. The results of this study are compared to the literature. Special attention is given to inclusion criteria and follow-up data.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift
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    ABSTRACT: In a retrospective study (1997-2007) of 35 patients suspected of discospondylitis (DS), the diagnosis of discospondylitis was confirmed in 18 dogs. The signalment, the appearance and the clinical presentation of the dogs were comparable to those earlier reported in the literature. Radiography was the most important diagnostic technique, but in some cases further diagnostic investigation was necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Blood- and urine culture was important to identify a possible underlying cause. Medical therapy is the treatment of choice. Most of the dogs (76%) recovered very well after treatment. The results confirm that discospondylitis has a rather favorable prognosis when medical therapy is used.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift
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    ABSTRACT: To report the clinical signs, diagnosis, and surgical treatment of an intranasal meningoencephalocele in a dog. Case report. Female Border collie, 5 months old. A right intranasal meningoencephalocele was identified by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The lesion was approached by a modified transfrontal craniotomy. Surgical closure of the defect at the level of the cribriform plate and removal of extruded brain tissue resulted in regression of lacrimation and coincided with absence of seizuring. Treatment with phenobarbital was gradually reduced and stopped at 7 months after surgery. At 28 months the dog remained free of seizures. Meningoencephalocele, although rare, can cause seizures in dogs and can be treated surgically. A transfrontal craniotomy with excision of the meningoencephalocele and closure of the defect can be an effective treatment for an intranasal meningoencephalocele in dogs.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Veterinary Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: A 3-year-old, male domestic shorthair cat was presented with signs of progressive muscular hypertrophy. A diagnosis of hypertrophic feline muscular dystrophy was made on the basis of the typical clinical presentation in cats and on the basis of the results of medical imaging, the electrodiagnostics and the findings on histopathology and immunohistochemistry of muscle biopsies. The cat was initially successfully treated with prednisolone. Eight months after presentation, however, the cat was euthanized because of acute renal failure. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of hypertrophic feline muscular dystrophy in a domestic cat in Belgium.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2009 · Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift
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    ABSTRACT: In a retrospective study (1997-2007) of 35 patients suspected of discospondylitis (DS), the diagnosis of discospondylitis was confirmed in 18 dogs. The signalment, the appearance and the clinical presentation of the dogs were comparable to those earlier reported in the literature. Radiography was the most important diagnostic technique, but in some cases further diagnostic investigation was necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Blood- and urine culture was important to identify a possible underlying cause. Medical therapy is the treatment of choice. Most of the dogs (76%) recovered very well after treatment. The results confirm that discospondylitis has a rather favorable prognosis when medical therapy is used.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2009
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    ABSTRACT: A 3-year-old, male domestic shorthair cat was presented with signs of progressive muscular hypertrophy. A diagnosis of hypertrophic feline muscular dystrophy was made through the typical clinical presentation in cats and through the results of medical imaging and electrodiagnostics and the findings on histopathology and immunohistochemistry of muscle biopsies. The cat was initially successfully treated with prednisolone. Eight months after presentation, however, the cat was euthanized because of acute renal failure. To the author’s knowledge, this is the first report of hypertrophic feline muscular dystrophy in a domestic cat in Belgium.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2009
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    ABSTRACT: There is much controversy about the treatment of disc associated wobbler syndrome. This retrospective study describes the clinical evolution of 12 dogs treated surgically by a standard ventral slot technique. The duration of follow-up ranged from 1 to 59 months. Nine of the 12 dogs clinically recovered. However, 6 of these 9 dogs developed a second episode of clinical signs. Two of these dogs could be further managed by conservative treatment. The 4 other dogs were euthanized. The results of this study are compared to the literature. Special attention is given to inclusion criteria and follow-up data.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2009
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    ABSTRACT: Relationships between onset latency and peak-to-peak amplitude of magnetic motor evoked potentials (MMEP) after transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), together with the electroencephalographic parameters bispectral analysis index (BIS) and the autoregressive model with exogenous input (ARX)-derived auditory evoked potential index (AAI) were explored during different sedative and hypnotic drug combinations in six dogs. TMS was performed under sedation with acepromazine/methadone or medetomidine and after a single bolus injection of propofol or etomidate. Data for BIS and AAI were continuously collected during the periods of treatment with the hypnotic drugs. Changes in BIS and AAI during both periods were not statistically correlated with changes in onset latencies and peak-to-peak amplitudes of MMEP after TMS. Therefore, both electroencephalographic techniques are of limited use in titrating sedation and anaesthesia during TMS in the dog.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2008 · The Veterinary Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Brachial plexus trauma is a common clinical entity in small animal practice and prognostic indicators are essential early in the course of the disease. Magnetic stimulation of the radial nerve and consequent recording of the magnetic motor evoked potential (MMEP) was examined in 36 dogs and 17 cats with unilateral brachial plexus trauma. Absence of deep pain perception (DPP), ipsilateral loss of panniculus reflex, partial Horner's syndrome and a poor response to MMEP were related to the clinical outcome in 29 of the dogs and 13 of the cats. For all animals, a significant difference was found in MMEP between the normal and the affected limb. Absence of DPP and unilateral loss of the panniculus reflex were indicative of an unsuccessful outcome in dogs. Additionally, the inability to evoke a MMEP was associated with an unsuccessful outcome in all animals. It was concluded that magnetic stimulation of the radial nerve in dogs and cats with brachial plexus trauma may provide an additional diagnostic and prognostic tool.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · The Veterinary Journal
  • Mulenda Tshamala · Yves Moens
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    ABSTRACT: A case of a true dermoid cyst in a Rhodesian ridgeback is described. The mass was located in the dorsal cervical midline at the level of the first cervical vertebra, and was resected surgically. In contrast to other types of dermoid sinus described in the literature, the mass did not have a tract connecting it to, nor an opening on to, the surface of the skin. A diagnosis of true dermoid cyst was made.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2008 · Journal of Small Animal Practice
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    ABSTRACT: This case report describes the occurrence of a second episode of clinical signs of disc associated Wobbler syndrome almost 2 years following ventral decompressive surgery and a rather rare complication after myelographic examination in the same dog.
    No preview · Article · May 2008 · Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift
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    ABSTRACT: Endogenous progesterone and synthetic progestins may induce hypersecretion of growth hormone (GH) of mammary origin, hyperplastic ductular changes in the mammary gland, and the development of cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH) in dogs. It was investigated whether progestin-induced mammary GH plays a role in the pathogenesis of CEH in the bitch. During 1 year, bitches with surgically excised mammary glands and healthy control bitches received medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). Before and after MPA treatment, uterine and mammary tissues were collected for histological, immunohistochemical, and RT-PCR examination. After MPA administration, the mammary tissue in the control dogs had differentiated into lobulo-alveolar structures and CEH was present in all uteri of both dog groups. In the MPA-exposed mammary tissue of the control dogs, GH could only be demonstrated immunohistochemically in proliferating epithelium. After treatment with MPA the dogs of both groups had immunohistochemically demonstrable GH in the cytoplasm of hyperplastic glandular uterine epithelial cells. RT-PCR analysis of the mammary gland tissue after MPA administration demonstrated a significant higher GH gene, and lower GHR gene expression than before treatment. In the uterus, the expression of the gene encoding for GH was significantly increased in the mastectomized dogs, whereas in the control dogs the expression of the gene encoding for insulin-like growth factor-I had significantly increased with MPA administration. MPA treatment significantly down regulated PR gene expression in the uterus in both dog groups. These results indicate that progestin-induced GH of mammary origin is not an essential component in the development of CEH in the bitch.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2007 · Domestic Animal Endocrinology
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    ABSTRACT: Endogenous progesterone and synthetic progestins may induce hypersecretion of growth hormone (GH) of mammary origin, hyperplastic ductular changes in the mammary gland, and the development of cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH) in dogs. It was investigated whether progestin-induced mammary GH plays a role in the pathogenesis of CEH in the bitch. During 1 year, bitches with surgically excised mammary glands and healthy control bitches received medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). Before and after MPA treatment, uterine and mammary tissues were collected for histological, immunohistochemical, and RT-PCR examination.After MPA administration, the mammary tissue in the control dogs had differentiated into lobulo-alveolar structures and CEH was present in all uteri of both dog groups. In the MPA-exposed mammary tissue of the control dogs, GH could only be demonstrated immunohistochemically in proliferating epithelium. After treatment with MPA the dogs of both groups had immunohistochemically demonstrable GH in the cytoplasm of hyperplastic glandular uterine epithelial cells. RT-PCR analysis of the mammary gland tissue after MPA administration demonstrated a significant higher GH gene, and lower GHR gene expression than before treatment. In the uterus, the expression of the gene encoding for GH was significantly increased in the mastectomized dogs, whereas in the control dogs the expression of the gene encoding for insulin-like growth factor-I had significantly increased with MPA administration. MPA treatment significantly down regulated PR gene expression in the uterus in both dog groups. These results indicate that progestin-induced GH of mammary origin is not an essential component in the development of CEH in the bitch.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2007
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the cardiopulmonary effects of sufentanil long acting (SLA) in sevoflurane-anaesthetized dogs. Randomized prospective study. Animals Forty female dogs (beagles) aged 1-2 years, weighing 11.97 +/- 1.40 kg. The dogs were divided into five groups of eight. Two control groups were used: group A received intramuscular (IM), SLA (50 microg kg(-1)) alone, while group B received the SLA vehicle followed by sevoflurane anaesthesia for 90 minutes. In the other groups, SLA (50 microg kg(-1) IM) was given immediately before (group C(0)), 15 minutes before (group D(15)) or 30 minutes (group E(30)) before induction [with intravenous (IV) thiopental] of sevoflurane anaesthesia lasting for 90 minutes. Heart rate, arterial blood pressure, respiratory rate (f(r)), arterial oxygen haemoglobin saturation and end-tidal sevoflurane concentration (Fe'SEVO) were measured every 10 minutes during anaesthesia and at 2, 4 and 24 hours after induction (not Fe'SEVO). Acid-base and blood gas analyses were performed. Sufentanil LA reduced heart rate and increased arterial CO(2) tensions during anaesthesia. Respiratory depression was least in group E(30) compared with groups C(0) and D(15). Bradycardia was present for at least 24 hours. Respiratory rate was least in group B although arterial O(2) and CO(2) tension values were acceptable up to 24 hours after anaesthesia. Pre-anaesthetic medication with SLA moderately aggravated the cardiopulmonary effects of sevoflurane. In spite of a moderate depressant effect on cardiorespiratory parameters, SLA may be of use as pre-anaesthetic medication before sevoflurane anaesthesia in dogs. Intermittent positive pressure ventilation may occasionally be necessary.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2006 · Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
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    ABSTRACT: Fourteen dogs with clinical signs compatible with a spinal arachnoid cyst were presented and examined at the Department of Medicine and Clinical Biology of Small Animals (Ghent University) between November 2000 and September 2004. The typical presentation was a slowly progressive non-painful ataxia. The diagnosis of a spinal arachnoid cyst was made by myelography, in some cases followed by computed tomography. Six dogs were treated surgically. Three dogs underwent durectomy and three dogs durotomy. All dogs were available for short-term follow-up and five out of six dogs were available for long-term follow-up (more than 1 year post surgery). Both the short-term and long-term results were promising.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2006 · Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift
  • Mulenda Tshamala · Henri van Bree
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    ABSTRACT: The osteogenic potential of red bone marrow was first reported more than 100 years ago. Since then, studies have reported controversial results that do not confirm nor disprove the capacity of fresh red bone marrow to produce bone. Researches have been focused on techniques that improve the efficiency of the bone marrow, including: the increase of the concentration of the mesenchymal stem cells in the aspirated bone marrow, the combination with a 'carrier' that helps to maintain the mesenchymal stem cells and guides and supports the vascular ingrowth in the defect, or the combination with bone growth factors that stimulate the marrow stromal cells to differentiate into bone forming cells. Each of these techniques has its drawbacks and increases the expenses of an operation. On the other hand, the synergistic effect observed with these combinations does not resolve the problem of the osteogenic capacity of pure bone marrow, which still remains questionable.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2006 · Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology
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    ABSTRACT: A peripheral sensory neuropathy was diagnosed in two Border collie puppies. Neurological, electrophysiological and histopathological examinations suggested a purely sensory neuropathy with mainly distal involvement. Urinary incontinence was observed in one of the puppies and histological examination of the vagus nerve revealed degenerative changes. An inherited disorder was suspected.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2005 · Journal of Small Animal Practice