[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: sec> Aims Patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACSs) who are managed without coronary revascularization represent a mixed and understudied population that seems to receive suboptimal pharmacological treatment. Methods and results We assessed patterns of antithrombotic therapies employed during the hospitalization and in-hospital clinical events of medically managed patients with ACS enrolled in the prospective, multicentre, nationwide EYESHOT (EmploYEd antithrombotic therapies in patients with acute coronary Syndromes HOspitalized in iTalian cardiac care units) registry. Among the 2585 consecutive ACS patients enrolled in EYESHOT, 783 (30.3%) did not receive any revascularization during hospital admission. Of these, 478 (61.0%) underwent coronary angiography (CA), whereas 305 (39.0%) did not. The median GRACE and CRUSADE risk scores were significantly higher among patients who did not undergo CA compared with those who did (180 vs. 145, P < 0.0001 and 50 vs. 33, P < 0.0001, respectively). Antithrombotic therapies employed during hospitalization significantly differ between patients who received CA and those who did not with unfractioned heparin and novel P2Y12 inhibitors more frequently used in the first group, and low-molecular-weight heparins and clopidogrel in the latter group. During the index hospitalization, patients who did not receive CA presented a higher incidence of ischaemic cerebrovascular events and of mortality compared with those who underwent CA (1.6 vs. 0.2%, P = 0.04 and 7.9 vs. 2.7%, P = 0.0009, respectively). Conclusion Almost one-third of ACS patients are managed without revascularization during the index hospitalization. In this population, a lower use of recommended antiplatelet therapy and worse clinical outcome were observed in those who did not undergo CA when compared with those who did. Clinical Trial Registration Unique identifier: NCT02015624, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . </sec
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: -Current recommendations require a QRS duration of ≥120ms as a condition for prescribing cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). This study was designed to test the hypothesis that patients with heart failure (HF) of ischemic origin, current indications for defibrillator implantation and QRS <120ms may benefit from CRT in the presence of marked mechanical dyssynchrony. METHODS AND RESULTS: -Patients with intraventricular dyssynchrony on echocardiography were randomly assigned to CRT or dual-chamber defibrillator implantation (CRT-D and D-ICD arm, respectively). The primary endpoint was the HF clinical composite response, which scores patients as improved, unchanged, or worsened. The secondary endpoint was the cumulative survival from HF hospitalization and HF death. An additional secondary endpoint was the composite of HF hospitalization, HF death and spontaneous ventricular fibrillation. Twenty-three of 56 CRT-D patients showed an improvement in their clinical composite response at 1 year, compared with 9 of 55 D-ICD patients (41% versus 16%, p=0.004). After a median follow-up of 16 months, the CRT-D arm showed a non-significant higher survival from HF hospitalization and HF death (p=0.077), and a significantly higher survival from the combined endpoint of HF hospitalization, HF death and spontaneous ventricular fibrillation (p=0.028). CONCLUSIONS: -In this comparison of CRT-D and D-ICD, CRT improved clinical status in some patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy, mild-to-moderate symptoms, narrow QRS duration, and mechanical dyssynchrony on echocardiography. Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov; Identifier: NCT01577446.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Atrial remodelling, leading to atrial fibrillation (AF), is mediated by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. METHODS: Mild hypertensive outpatients (systolic/diastolic blood pressure 140-159/90-99 mmHg) in sinus rhythm who had experienced ≥ 1 electrocardiogram (ECG)-documented AF episode in the previous six months received randomly telmisartan 80 mg/day or carvedilol 25 mg/day. Blood pressure and 24-hour ECG were monitored monthly for one year; patients were asked to report symptomatic AF episodes and to undergo an ECG as early as possible. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-two patients completed the study (telmisartan, n=70; carvedilol, n=62). Significantly fewer AF episodes were reported with telmisartan versus carvedilol (14.3% vs. 37.1%; p<0.003). Left atrial diameter, assessed by echocardiography, was similar with telmisartan and carvedilol (3.4±2.3 cm vs. 3.6±2.4 cm). At study end, both regimes significantly reduced mean left ventricular mass index, but the reduction obtained with telmisartan was significantly greater than with carvedilol (117.8±10.7 vs. 124.7±14.5; p<0.0001). Mean blood pressure values were not significantly different between the groups (telmisartan 154/97 to 123/75 mmHg; p<0.001; carvedilol 153/94 to 125/78 mmHg; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Telmisartan was significantly more effective than carvedilol in preventing recurrent AF episodes in hypertensive AF patients, despite a similar lowering of blood pressure.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is effective in selected patients with heart failure (HF). Nevertheless, the nonresponder rate remains high. The low-dose dobutamine stress-echo (DSE) test detects the presence of left ventricular (LV) contractile reserve (LVCR) in HF patients of any etiology and may be useful in predicting response to resynchronization.
The purpose of this study was to present the results of the LODO-CRT trial, which evaluated whether LVCR presence at baseline increases the chances of response to CRT.
LODO-CRT is a multicenter prospective study that enrolled CRT candidates according to guidelines. LVCR presence was defined as an LV ejection fraction increase >5 units during DSE test. CRT response is assessed at 6-month follow-up as an LV end-systolic volume reduction ≥10%.
Two hundred seventy-one patients were enrolled. The DSE test was feasible without complications in 99% of patients. Nine patients died from noncardiac disease, and 31 presented inadequate data. Two hundred thirty-one patients were included in the analysis. Mean patient age was 67 ± 10 years; 95% were in New York Heart Association class III, and 42% had HF of ischemic etiology. Mean QRS and LV ejection fraction were 147 ± 25 ms and 27% ± 6%, respectively. LVCR presence was found in 185 subjects (80%). At follow-up, 170 (74%) patients responded to CRT, 145/185 in the group with LVCR (78%) and 25/46 (54%) in the group without LVCR. Difference in responder proportion to CRT was 24% (P <.001). Reported test sensitivity is 85%.
The DSE test in CRT candidates is safe and feasible. LVCR presence at baseline increases the chances of response to CRT.
No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Heart rhythm: the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A quadricuspid pulmonary valve, exhibiting two equal and two smaller cusps, associated with severe regurgitation was found by cardiac magnetic resonance in a 65-year-old woman referred for evaluation of dyspnea and peripheral edema.
No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Much information is available regarding the possible negative effects of long-term right ventricular (RV) apical pacing, which may cause worsening of heart failure. However, very limited data are available regarding the effects of RV pacing in patients with a previous myocardial infarction (MI).
We screened 115 consecutive post-MI patients and matched a group of 29 pacemaker (PM) recipients with a group of 49 unpaced patients, for age, left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, and site of MI. During a median follow-up of 54 months, echocardiograms showed a decrease in LV ejection fraction in the paced group, from 51 +/- 10 to 39 +/- 11 (P < 0.01), and a minimal change in the unpaced group, from 57 +/- 8 to 56 +/- 7 (P = 0.98). Similar change was observed in systolic and diastolic diameters and volumes.
The study showed that, in post-MI patients, RV apical pacing was associated with a worsening of LV function, suggesting that, among MI survivors, the need for a PM is a marker of worse outcome.
No preview · Article · Apr 2009 · Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has a well-demonstrated therapeutic effect in selected patients with advanced heart failure on optimized drug therapy, nonresponder rate remains high. The LODO-CRT is designed to improve patient selection for CRT. Design and rationale of this study are presented herein.
LODO-CRT is a multicenter prospective study, started in late 2006, that enrolls patients with conventional indications for CRT (symptomatic stable New York Heart Association class III-IV on optimized drug therapy, QRS > or =120 milliseconds, left ventricular [LV] dilatation, LV ejection fraction < or =35%). This study is designed to assess the predictive value of LV contractile reserve (LVCR), determined through dobutamine stress echocardiography (defined as an LV ejection fraction increase >5 units), in predicting CRT response during follow-up. Assessment of CRT effects will follow 2 sequential phases: in phase 1, CRT response end point is defined as LV end-systolic volume reduction > or =10% at 6 months; in phase 2, both LV end-systolic volume reduction and clinical status via a clinical composite score will be evaluated at 12 months follow-up. Predictive value of LVCR will be compared to other measures, such as LV dyssynchrony measures, through adjusted multivariable analysis. For the purpose of the study, target patient number is 270 (with 95% confidence, 80% power, alpha < or = .05). Enrollment should be complete by the end of 2008.
The LODO-CRT trial is testing the hypothesis that LVCR assessment, using low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography test, should effectively predict positive response to CRT both in terms of the reverse remodeling process as well as favorable long-term clinical outcome. Moreover, the predictive value of LVCR will be compared to that of conventional intra-LV dyssynchrony measures.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2008 · American heart journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether in patients with ischemic heart failure (HF) with mechanical dyssynchrony the echocardiographic assessment of the extent of scarred ventricular tissue by end-diastolic wall thickness (EDWT) could predict reverse remodeling (RR) after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Recent studies using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging have shown that the burden of myocardial scar is an important factor influencing response to CRT, despite documented mechanical dyssynchrony. EDWT assessed by two-dimensional (2D) resting echocardiography is a simple and reliable marker to identify scar tissue in patients with ischemic left ventricular dysfunction.
Seventy-four patients with ischemic HF were evaluated 1 week before and 6 months after CRT. Inclusion criteria were New York Heart Association class III or IV, ejection fraction < 35%, QRS duration > 120 ms, and mechanical intraventricular dyssynchrony >/= 65 ms. The left ventricle was divided into 16 segments; left ventricular (LV) segments with EDWT < 6 mm were considered scarred. Percentage global scar area (GSA) was calculated by dividing the number of scarred LV segments by 16.
RR, defined as a reduction of LV end-systolic volume >/= 15%, was found in 38 patients (51.4%) with ischemic HF. A significant inverse linear relationship was found between GSA and RR (r = -0.57; P = .0001). Mean percentage GSA was significantly higher in nonresponders (31.6 +/- 18% vs 6.4 +/- 11%; P < .001). GSA </= 18% showed sensitivity and specificity of 94.7% and 77.8%, respectively (area under the curve, 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-0.95; P < .0001), to predict RR.
The extent of ventricular segments with EDWT < 6 mm assessed by 2-D echocardiography is an important factor influencing response to CRT at follow-up. GSA may represent an essential simple adjunct to mechanical asynchrony to better select patients suitable for CRT.
No preview · Article · Sep 2008 · Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography: official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiac mechanical efficiency requires that opposing left ventricular regions are coupled both in shortening and lengthening during the same phase of cardiac cycle. Aim of this study was to evaluate whether global measures of mechanical dyssynchrony are able to predict reverse remodeling of the left ventricle in patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT).
Sixty-two patients underwent a clinical examination, including New York Heart Association class evaluation and 6-minute walking distance and both echocardiographic study before and 6 months after CRT. Intraventricular dyssynchrony was evaluated by two-dimensional strain echocardiography, measuring the amount of uncoordinated contraction and relaxation between septum and free wall for both longitudinal and radial function and was presented as the longitudinal global dyssynchrony index (LGDI) and the radial global dyssynchrony index (RGDI). Reverse remodeling was defined by a left ventricular end systolic volume reduction >or= 15%.
After CRT 39 patients showed reverse remodeling. In this group, RGDI (0.74 +/- 0.26 vs 0.32 +/- 0.30; P = 0.0001) and LGDI (0.52 +/- 0.28 vs 0.30 +/- 0.24; P = 0.002) were significantly higher than in nonresponders. A receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis showed that RGDI >0.47 and LGDI >0.34 had a sensitivity and a specificity to predict reverse remodeling of 87% and 74%, 82%, and 74%, respectively. Stepwise forward multiple logistic regression analysis showed that RGDI (O.R.:13.4; 95%C.I.:4.2-120.5; P < 0.0001) was an independent determinant of a positive response to CRT.
A radial global dyssynchrony index predicts left ventricular reverse remodeling after CRT.
No preview · Article · Aug 2008 · Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated whether the dobutamine stress-echo test can select responders to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Up to 50% of patients do not respond to CRT. Lack of response may be due to a significant amount of scar or fibrotic tissue at myocardial level.
We studied 42 CRT patients. After clinical and echocardiographic evaluation, all patients underwent a dobutamine stress-echo test to assess contractile reserve. Cut-off for the test was an increase of 25% of the left ventricular ejection fraction. Patients were implanted with a CRT-defibrillator and followed up at 6 months. Cut-off for CRT response was a reduction of 15% of left ventricular end-systolic volume. Twenty-five patients responded to CRT; all of them showed presence of contractile reserve. The test showed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 88%.
Contractile reserve was a strong predictive factor of response to CRT in the studied population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anomalous origin of the circumflex coronary artery from the right sinus of Valsalva is the most common coronary anomaly. This anomaly is thought to be of little clinical significance without the presence of severe narrowing of the vessel. A 43-year-old woman was referred to our institution for evaluation of atypical chest pain and equivocal results of the exercise stress test. We decided to perform multislice computed tomography coronary angiography before any other invasive studies. The scan was performed with a 16-row scanner (Aquilion 16 CFX, Toshiba Medical Systems, Tokyo, Japan) after intravenous administration of non-ionic contrast material. Scans revealed that the circumflex coronary artery originated from the right sinus of Valsalva; the initial course was retro-aortic until it reached its target in the atrioventricular groove; peripheral distribution of the circumflex coronary artery was then normal. The anomalous vessel presented a significant stenosis in its proximal tract. Coronary angiography confirmed that the origin of the circumflex coronary artery was from the right aortic sinus and the significant stenosis of the proximal portion of this vessel. This case confirms the full capability and accuracy of multislice computed tomography with the aid of post-processing techniques in the identification and evaluation of the ectopic origin of the left circumflex coronary artery from the right sinus of Valsalva, displaying accurately the origin, size, course, and relationship of the anomalous vessel with respect to surrounding structures.
No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Giornale italiano di cardiologia (2006)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to assess the in-stent restenosis and occlusion of coronary artery stents by multislice computed tomography (MSCT) compared with conventional coronary angiography in patients with atypical chest pain and not practicable/non-conclusive stress test.
Between December 2004 and March 2006, 81 patients were scheduled and of these 72 (65 men, mean age 61 years) with 90 stents underwent MSCT angiography using a 16-slice scanner, Toshiba Aquilion 16, 8-12 months after stent placement.
Of the 90 stents, 71 (79%) could be assessed and 19 (21%) were excluded because the image quality at the stent level was incompatible with diagnostic assessment. This results in sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for all assessable stents in the identification of occlusion and/or in-stent restenosis of 82, 96, 87, and 94%, respectively. When the 19 uninterpretable stents were included in the analysis, the diagnostic accuracy of MSCT in detecting in-stent restenosis and occlusion resulted in a sensitivity of 82%, specificity of 71%, positive predictive value of 40%, and negative predictive value of 94%.
The results of the study suggest that MSCT angiography is a useful method for evaluating patency/occlusion of large (>or=3 mm) coronary stents in symptomatic patients with atypical chest pain and concomitant not practicable/non-conclusive exercise or stress imaging test.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2008 · Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the impact of multiple cardiovascular risk factors on coronary flow reserve (CFR) in a large patient population with acute chest pain referred for coronary angiography.
Three hundred and ninety-four consecutive patients (mean age 59 +/- 10 years) were enrolled in the study. Blood flow velocity was measured, using transthoracic echocardiography, in the middle-distal tract of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) at rest and during infusion of high-dose dipyridamole in 6 min. CFR was calculated as the ratio of hyperaemic to basal peak diastolic flow velocity. All patients underwent coronary angiography within 48-72 h of CFR evaluation and a LAD stenosis was considered significant for lumen diameter narrowing > or =70%.
Out of 394 patients, 11 patients (3%) were excluded because of inadequate quality of the spectral Doppler envelope. In the group of 269 patients with LAD stenosis <70%, CFR was significantly reduced in 64 patients with >2 risk factors compared to 205 patients with < or =2 risk factors (2.24 +/- 0.48 vs. 2.52 +/- 0.53, P < 0.005). On multiple logistic regression analysis, age, hypertension and diabetes mellitus were related to reduced CFR. In 114 patients with significant LAD disease, CFR was not reduced in patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. On multiple logistic regression analysis, the percentages of stenosis and diabetes mellitus were independent determinants of CFR.
In patients with acute chest pain, the occurrence of multiple cardiovascular risk factors adversely affected CFR in an additive manner, in absence of significant angiographic stenosis. Diabetes mellitus was a powerful coronary risk factor decreasing CFR both in patients with or without significant LAD disease.
No preview · Article · Apr 2008 · Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A randomized prospective study to evaluate the efficacy, safety and long-term outcomes of the complete disappearance of local electrograms along the linear lesion using the EnSite NavX three-dimensional mapping system compared to the conventional fluoroscopy-based mapping for the ablation of typical atrial flutter (AFL).
83 patients with spontaneous AFL episodes were randomized to the conventional procedure (group I, 41 patients) or to the EnSite NavX three-dimensional mapping system (group II, 42 patients). When bidirectional block was achieved, a renavigation of the ablation line was performed to verify the absence of local potentials along the line.
In all patients, bidirectional isthmus block was achieved. Total mean fluoroscopy time was 19.8 +/- 4.1 min and 9.1 +/- 3.5 min (p < 0.001) and radiofrequency (RF) mean fluoroscopy time was 6.9 +/- 1.4 min and 0.6 +/- 0.3 min (p < 0.001), respectively, in group I and II. During long-term follow-up of 16 +/- 9 months, there were 4 (10%) AFL recurrences in group I and 0 in group II (p < 0.005).
NavX accurately renavigates the lesion line and verifies local potentials. The electro-anatomic activation map accurately identifies gaps in the RF lesion line and no recurrences were found compared with 10% recurrences after standard procedures for typical AFL.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Permanent right ventricular (RV) pacing leads have been traditionally implanted in the right ventricular apex (RVA). Nowadays, some deleterious effects of RVA pacing have been recognized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different sites of RV pacing in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation (AF) and low ejection fraction (LEF) needing a pacemaker (PM) implantation.
Two hundred seventy-three patients with permanent AF and EF <30% underwent a one-chamber rate responsive (VVIR) PM implant procedure. Patients were divided into two groups: Group A, including 113 patients with the pacing lead tip placed in the RV mid-septum, and Group B of 120 patients with the pacing lead tip placed at the apex of RV. All patients had clinical and Echo control after 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months after PM implantation to assess New York Heart Association (NYHA) class and EF.
After 18 months, NYHA class changed in Group A from 2.9 +/- 0.4 at implant to 1.7 +/- 0.3 at 18 months (P = 0.01), and in Group B from 3.0 +/- 0.5 at implant to 3.3 +/- 0.6 at 18 months (P = n.s.). EF increased in Group A: 28 +/- 2% at implant, 33 +/- 1% at 18 months (P = 0.0125), while no significant changes were observed in Group B: at implant 27 +/- 2%, 26 +/- 2% at 18 months (P = n.s.).
The present study suggests that more physiological pacing from the RV sept can improve EF and quality of life (QoL) in patients with permanent AF and low EF needing a PM.
No preview · Article · Sep 2007 · Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this prospective, randomised study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety and long-term outcomes of the complete disappearance of local electrograms along the linear lesion using the EnSite NavX three-dimensional mapping system as compared with conventional fluoroscopy for ablation of typical atrial flutter (AFL).
Seventy-three patients with spontaneous AFL episodes were randomised to undergo fluoroscopy-guided (group I, n=35) or EnSite NavX-guided (group II, n=38) ablation. When bidirectional isthmus block was achieved, the catheter was navigated back along the ablation line to assess the presence of local potentials along the lesion line.
Bidirectional isthmus block was achieved in all patients. Mean total fluoroscopy time was 19.8 +/- 4.1 min in group I and 9.1 +/- 3.5 min in group II (P<0.001); mean fluoroscopy time required for radiofrequency ablation was 6.9 +/- 1.4 min in group I and 0.6 +/- 0.3 min in group II (P<0.001). During a follow-up of 16 +/- 9 months, three patients in group I (10%) experienced recurrence of AFL as opposed to none in group II (P<0.005).
NavX technology allows accurate re-navigation of the lesion line to assess the presence of local potentials during an ablation procedure for typical AFL. Electroanatomic activation mapping can accurately identify gaps in the linear radiofrequency lesion with no AFL recurrence compared with 20% of recurrences after a standard procedure.
No preview · Article · Jun 2007 · Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Incisional sustained tachycardias are frequent in patients who have undergone a surgical repair of interatrial defect. A 43-year-old woman with drug refractory, highly symptomatic, persistent atrial tachycardia in the last year, was referred to our unit for catheter ablation. The patient had undergone a cardiac operation for repairing interatrial secundum ostium type defect with a patch five years before. A previous radiofrequency ablation procedure had been performed for common atrial flutter. We describe a case of incisional atrial tachycardia ablation guided by the new EnSite NavX system equipped with a new electroanatomic mapping system.
Preview · Article · Feb 2007 · Indian pacing and electrophysiology journal