[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) provides cardiovascular benefits independent of its role on peripheral glycemic control. However, the precise mechanism(s) by which GLP-1 treatment renders cardioprotection during myocardial ischemia remain unresolved. Here we examined the role for GLP-1 treatment on glucose and fatty acid metabolism in normal and ischemic rat hearts following a 30 min ischemia and 24 h reperfusion injury, and in isolated cardiomyocytes (CM). Relative carbohydrate and fat oxidation levels were measured in both normal and ischemic hearts using a 1-13C glucose clamp coupled with NMR-based isotopomer analysis, as well as in adult rat CMs by monitoring pH and O2 consumption in the presence of glucose or palmitate. In normal heart, GLP-1 increased glucose uptake (↑64%, p<0.05) without affecting glycogen levels. In ischemic hearts, GLP-1 induced metabolic substrate switching by increasing the ratio of carbohydrate versus fat oxidation (↑14%, p<0.01) in the LV area not at risk, without affecting cAMP levels. Interestingly, no substrate switching occurred in the LV area at risk, despite an increase in cAMP (↑106%, p<0.05) and lactate (↑121%, p<0.01) levels. Furthermore, in isolated CMs GLP-1 treatment increased glucose utilization (↑14%, p<0.05) and decreased fatty acid oxidation (↓15%, p<0.05) consistent with in vivo finding. Our results show that this benefit may derive from distinct and complementary roles of GLP-1 treatment on metabolism in myocardial sub-regions in response to this injury. In particular, a switch to anaerobic glycolysis in the ischemic area provides a compensatory substrate switch to overcome the energetic deficit in this region in the face of reduced tissue oxygenation, whereas a switch to more energetically favorable carbohydrate oxidation in more highly oxygenated remote regions supports maintaining cardiac contractility in a complementary manner.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its mimetics reduce infarct size in the setting of acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the short serum half-life of GLP-1 and its mimetics may limit their therapeutic use in acute myocardial ischemia. Domain antibodies to serum albumin (AlbudAbs) have been developed to extend the serum half-life of short lived therapeutic proteins, peptides and small molecules. In this study, we compared the effect of a long acting GLP-1 agonist, DPP-IV resistant GLP-1 (7--36, A8G) fused to an AlbudAb (GAlbudAb), with the effect of the GLP-1 mimetic, exendin-4 (short half-life GLP-1 agonist) on infarct size following acute myocardial I/R injury.
Male Sprague--Dawley rats (8-week-old) were treated with vehicle, GAlbudAb or exendin-4. Myocardial ischemia was induced 2 h following the final dose for GAlbudAb and 30 min post the final dose for exendin-4. In a subgroup of animals, the final dose of exendin-4 was administered (1 mug/kg, SC, bid for 2 days) 6 h prior to myocardial ischemia when plasma exendin-4 was at its minimum concentration (Cmin). Myocardial infarct size, area at risk and cardiac function were determined 24 h after myocardial I/R injury.
GAlbudAb and exendin-4 significantly reduced myocardial infarct size by 28% and 23% respectively, compared to vehicle (both p < 0.01 vs. vehicle) after I/R injury. Moreover, both GAlbudAb and exendin-4 markedly improved post-ischemic cardiac contractile function. Body weight loss and reduced food intake consistent with the activation of GLP-1 receptors was observed in all treatment groups. However, exendin-4 failed to reduce infarct size when administered 6 h prior to myocardial ischemia, suggesting continuous activation of the GLP-1 receptors is needed for cardioprotection.
Cardioprotection provided by GAlbudAb, a long acting GLP-1 mimetic, following myocardial I/R injury was comparable in magnitude, but more sustained in duration than that produced by short-acting exendin-4. Very low plasma concentrations of exendin-4 failed to protect the heart from myocardial I/R injury, suggesting that sustained GLP-1 receptor activation plays an important role in providing cardioprotection in the setting of acute myocardial I/R injury. Long-acting GLP-1 agonists such as GAlbudAb may warrant additional evaluation as novel therapeutic agents to reduce myocardial I/R injury during acute coronary syndrome.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Cardiovascular Diabetology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cardioprotective effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and analogs have been previously reported. We tested the hypothesis that albiglutide, a novel long half-life analog of GLP-1, may protect the heart against I/R injury by increasing carbohydrate utilization and improving cardiac energetic efficiency.
Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with albiglutide and subjected to 30 min myocardial ischemia followed by 24 h reperfusion. Left ventricle infarct size, hemodynamics, function and energetics were determined. In addition, cardiac glucose disposal, carbohydrate metabolism and metabolic gene expression were assessed. Albiglutide significantly reduced infarct size and concomitantly improved post-ischemic hemodynamics, cardiac function and energetic parameters. Albiglutide markedly increased both in vivo and ex vivo cardiac glucose uptake while reducing lactate efflux. Analysis of metabolic substrate utilization directly in the heart showed that albiglutide increased the relative carbohydrate versus fat oxidation which in part was due to an increase in both glucose and lactate oxidation. Metabolic gene expression analysis indicated upregulation of key glucose metabolism genes in the non-ischemic myocardium by albiglutide.
Albiglutide reduced myocardial infarct size and improved cardiac function and energetics following myocardial I/R injury. The observed benefits were associated with enhanced myocardial glucose uptake and a shift toward a more energetically favorable substrate metabolism by increasing both glucose and lactate oxidation. These findings suggest that albiglutide may have direct therapeutic potential for improving cardiac energetics and function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose- This study assessed the pharmacological effect of a novel selective C-C chemokine receptor (CCR) 2 antagonist (GSK1344386B) on monocyte/macrophage infiltration into atherosclerotic plaque using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an atherosclerotic mouse model. METHODS AND RESULTS: Apolipoprotein E(-/-) mice expressing human CCR2 were fed a Western diet (vehicle group) or a Western diet plus10 mg/kg per day of GSK1344386B (GSK1344386B group). After the baseline MRI, mice were implanted with osmotic pumps containing angiotensin II, 1000 ng/kg per minute, to accelerate lesion formation. After five weeks of angiotensin II administration, mice received ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide, an MRI contrast agent for the assessment of monocyte/macrophage infiltration to the plaque, and underwent imaging. After imaging, mice were euthanized, and the heart and aorta were harvested for ex vivo MRI and histopathological examination. After 5 weeks of dietary dosing, there were no significant differences between groups in body or liver weight or plasma cholesterol concentrations. An in vivo MRI reflected a decrease in ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide contrast agent uptake in the aortic arch of the GSK1344386B group (P<0.05). An ex vivo MRI of the aortic root also reflected decreased ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide uptake in the GSK1344386B group and was verified by absolute iron analysis (P<0.05). Although there was no difference in aortic root lesion area between groups, there was a 30% reduction in macrophage area observed in the GSK1344386B group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: An MRI was used to noninvasively assess the decreased macrophage content in the atherosclerotic plaque after selective CCR2 inhibition.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the use of an ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) contrast agent as a marker for the detection of macrophage in a preclinical abdominal aortic aneurysm animal (AAA) model.
Osmotic pumps were implanted subcutaneously in apoE(-/-) mice for continuous infusion of Angiotensin II (Ang-II). Weekly bright-blood gradient echo scans were performed on the suprarenal abdominal aorta to evaluate aneurysm development. Once an AAA was detected, animals were administered 1000 mumol/kg of the USPIO contrast agent ferumoxtran-10 (Combidex) followed by in vivo scanning 24 h post-USPIO administration. After in vivo imaging, aortas were harvested for ex vivo imaging, histology, iron quantification, and gene expression analysis.
Reduced signal intensity was evident in the post-USPIO transverse images of the abdominal aorta. The areas of reduced signal were primarily along the aneurysm shoulder and outer perianeurysm areas and corresponded to regions of macrophage infiltration and colocalized USPIO determination by means of histological staining. The absolute iron content measured significantly correlated to the area of signal reduction in the ex vivo images (r = 0.9; P < 0.01). In the AAA tissue, the macrophage-driven cytokine gene expression was up-regulated along with a matrix metalloproteinase known to mediate extracellular matrix breakdown in this disease model.
These results demonstrate the feasibility of using an USPIO contrast agent as a surrogate for detecting the acute inflammatory process involved in the development of abdominal aneurysms.
No preview · Article · Aug 2009 · Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperlipidimic mice administered angiotensin II have been used for the study of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). The purpose of this study was to examine the use of MRI for studying AAA development and for examining the effects of pharmacological intervention on AAA development in the apolipoprotein E-deficient mouse.
Suprarenal aortic aneurysms were generated in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice administered angiotensin II (1000 ng/kg per min) for up to 28 days. In vivo MRI was performed serially (once weekly) to assess AAA development and rupture. Comparison of AAA size as measured by in vivo and ex vivo MRI resulted in excellent agreement (r=0.96, P<0.0001). In addition, MRI correlated with histology-derived AAA area assessment (in vivo versus histology: r=0.84, P<0.0001; ex vivo versus histology: r=0.89, P<0.0001). In a separate study, angiotensin II-administered apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were treated with doxycycline (broad-based matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor; 30 mg/kg per day for 28 days). MRI was able to noninvasively assess a reduced rate of AAA development (46% versus 71%, P<0.05), a decreased AAA area (2.56 versus 4.02 mm(2), P<0.01), and decreased incidence of rupture (43% versus 100%) in treated versus control animals. Inhibition of aorta matrix metalloproteinase 2/9 activity was observed in the treated animals.
These results demonstrate the use of MRI to noninvasively and temporally assess AAA development on pharmacological intervention in this preclinical cardiovascular disease model.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2008 · Circulation Cardiovascular Imaging
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) contrast agents have been used for noninvasive MRI assessment of atherosclerotic plaque inflammation. The purpose of this study was to noninvasively evaluate USPIO uptake in aorta of apoE-/- mice and to determine the effects of Angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion and chronic antiinflammatory treatment with a p38 MAPK inhibitor on this uptake.
ApoE-/- mice were administered saline or Ang II (1.44 mg/kg/d) for 21 days. In vivo MRI assessment of USPIO uptake in the aortic arch was observed in all animals. However, although the Ang II group had significantly higher absolute iron content (increased 103%, P<0.001) in the aortic arch compared with the saline group, the p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB-239063, 150 mg/kg/d) treatment group did not (increased 6%, NS). The in vivo MRI signal intensity was significantly correlated to the absolute iron content in the aortic arch. Histological evaluation of the aortic root lesion area showed colocalization of USPIO with macrophages and a reduction in USPIO but not macrophage content with SB-239063 treatment.
The present study demonstrates that noninvasive assessment of USPIO uptake, as a marker for inflammation in murine atherosclerotic plaque, is feasible and that p38 MAPK inhibition attenuates the uptake of USPIO in aorta of Ang II-infused apoE-/- mice.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2008 · Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The liver X receptors (LXRs) alpha and beta are responsible for the transcriptional regulation of a number of genes involved in cholesterol efflux from cells and therefore may be molecular targets for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. However, the effects of LXR ligands on cholesterol turnover in cells has not been examined comprehensively. In this study, cellular cholesterol handling (e.g., synthesis, catabolism, influx, and efflux) was examined using a stable isotope labeling study and a two-compartment modeling scheme. In HepG2 cells, the incorporation of 13C into cholesterol from [1-13C]acetate was analyzed by mass isotopomer distribution analysis in conjunction with nonsteady state, multicompartment kinetic analysis to calculate the cholesterol fluxes. Incubation with synthetic, nonsteroidal LXR agonists (GW3965, T0901317, and SB742881) increased cholesterol synthesis (approximately 10-fold), decreased cellular cholesterol influx (71-82%), and increased cellular cholesterol efflux (1.7- to 1.9-fold) by 96 h. As a consequence of these altered cholesterol fluxes, cellular cholesterol decreased (36-39%) by 96 h. The increased cellular cholesterol turnover was associated with increased expression of the LXR-activated genes ABCA1, ABCG1, FAS, and sterol-regulatory element binding protein 1c. In summary, the mathematical model presented allows time-dependent calculations of cellular cholesterol fluxes. These data demonstrate that all of the cellular cholesterol fluxes were altered by LXR activation and that the increase in cholesterol synthesis did not compensate for the increased cellular cholesterol efflux, resulting in a net cellular cholesterol loss.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2006 · The Journal of Lipid Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The liver X receptors α and β (LXR) are responsible for transcriptional regulation of a number of genes involved in cholesterol efflux from cells and therefore may be molecular target for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. However, the effects of LXR ligands on cholesterol turnover in cells and in animals have not been examined comprehensively. Here we examined the effects of LXR agonists on cholesterol handling in both in-vitro (HepG2 cells) and in-vivo (Golden Syrian hamsters) models using stable isotope probes and corresponding multi-compartmental mathematical modeling. A two compartmental analysis of 1-13C sodium acetate tracer in combination with Mass Isotopomer Distribution Analysis (MIDA) revealed varying responses to cholesterol handling (e.g. synthesis, catabolism, influx and efflux) in cultured HepG2 cells following treatment with synthetic non-steroidal LXR agonists (GW3965, T0901317, SB742881) and steroidal LXR agonists (22(R)-hydroxycholesterol, 24(S),25-epoxycholesterol, Dimethyl-3β-hydroxy-cholenamide). Unlike the steroidal LXR agonists, non-steroidal LXR agonists increased cholesterol synthesis by 5 fold, decreased cholesterol influx by 70-80% and increased cholesterol efflux by 2 fold. For experiments assessing LXR effects on cholesterol handling in hamsters, six compartmental model was created to define free cholesterol and esterified cholesterol flux in three separate pools (plasma, liver, extrahepatic tissue). The six compartmental analysis of 3,4-13C cholesterol tracer in hamsters resulted in a slight, but non-significant increase in free cholesterol efflux from liver (60%) following treatment with LXR agonist: GW3965, consistent with in vitro observations. In summary, comprehensive mathematical models were developed in order to assess cholesterol handling in cells and in animals. For the first time, LXR perturbation of cholesterol handling in these in vivo systems was assessed.
Preview · Article · Mar 2006 · The Journal of Lipid Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Liver X receptor (LXR) nuclear receptors regulate the expression of genes involved in whole body cholesterol trafficking, including absorption, excretion, catabolism, and cellular efflux, and possess both anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic actions. Accordingly, LXR is considered an appealing drug target for multiple indications. Synthetic LXR agonists demonstrated inhibition of atherosclerosis progression in murine genetic models; however, these and other studies indicated that their major undesired side effect is an increase of plasma and hepatic triglycerides. A significant impediment to extrapolating results with LXR agonists from mouse to humans is the absence in mice of cholesteryl ester transfer protein, a known LXR target gene, and the upregulation in mice but not humans of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase. To better predict the human response to LXR agonism, two synthetic LXR agonists were examined in hamsters and cynomolgus monkeys. In contrast to previously published results in mice, neither LXR agonist increased HDL-cholesterol in hamsters, and similar results were obtained in cynomolgus monkeys. Importantly, in both species, LXR agonists increased LDL-cholesterol, an unfavorable effect not apparent from earlier murine studies. These results reveal additional problems associated with current synthetic LXR agonists and emphasize the importance of profiling compounds in preclinical species with a more human-like LXR response and lipoprotein metabolism.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2005 · The Journal of Lipid Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare atherosclerotic plaque uptake of a first (ferumoxtran-10) and second generation (ferumoxytol) ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) contrast agent with different pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties.
New Zealand White rabbits maintained on a high cholesterol/fat diet were subjected to balloon injury to the abdominal aorta. Ferumoxtran-10 or ferumoxytol (500 micromol/kg) was administered at 2, 4, and 8 weeks following injury. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed immediately prior to, immediately after, and 6 days post-contrast administration. Ex vivo MRI, histologic, and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) iron analyses were performed on the excised vessels.
The blood pool clearance of ferumoxytol (t(1/2) < or = 6 hours) was more rapid than that of ferumoxtran-10 (t(1/2) < or = 48 hours). Decreased in vivo MRI signal intensity in the abdominal aorta was observed at 2, 4, and 8 weeks following injury with ferumoxtran-10, but not with ferumoxytol. Consistent with these observations, ex vivo MRI signal intensity was decreased in the ferumoxtran-10 vessels, and to a lesser degree in the ferumoxytol vs. control vessels (- contrast agent). In contrast, in vitro macrophage phagocytosis of USPIO was four to six fold greater with ferumoxytol than with ferumoxtran-10. Additionally, the absolute iron content correlated with ex vivo MRI signal intensity in all vessels (r = -0.86, P < 0.0001).
These data suggest that the exposure period of atherosclerotic plaque to USPIO rather than the kinetics of the USPIO uptake by plaque alone is a critical criterion for experimental design of in vivo studies.
No preview · Article · Apr 2005 · Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha) is expressed in the heart and regulates genes involved in myocardial fatty acid oxidation (FAO). The role of PPAR-alpha in acute ischemia/reperfusion myocardial injury remains unclear.
The coronary arteries of male mice were ligated for 30 minutes. After reperfusion for 24 hours, ischemic and infarct sizes were determined. A highly selective and potent PPAR-alpha agonist, GW7647, was administered by mouth for 2 days, and the third dose was given 1 hour before ischemia. GW7647 at 1 and 3 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) reduced infarct size by 28% and 35%, respectively (P<0.01), and myocardial contractile dysfunction was also improved. Cardioprotection by GW7647 was completely abolished in PPAR-alpha-null mice. Ischemia/reperfusion downregulated mRNA expression of cardiac PPAR-alpha and FAO enzyme genes, decreased myocardial FAO enzyme activity and in vivo cardiac fat oxidation, and increased serum levels of free fatty acids. All of these changes were reversed by GW7647. Moreover, GW7647 attenuated ischemia/reperfusion-induced release of multiple proinflammatory cytokines and inhibited neutrophil accumulation and myocardial expression of matrix metalloproteinases-9 and -2. Furthermore, GW7647 inhibited nuclear factor-kappaB activation in the heart, accompanied by enhanced levels of inhibitor-kappaBalpha.
Activation of PPAR-alpha protected the heart from reperfusion injury. This cardioprotection might be mediated through metabolic and antiinflammatory mechanisms. This novel effect of the PPAR-alpha agonist could provide an added benefit to patients treated with PPAR-alpha activators for dyslipidemia.