[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Postinfarction ventricular septal defects (pVSDs) are a serious complication of acute myocardial infarctions. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical outcomes of the surgical treatment of pVSDs.
The medical records of 23 patients who underwent operations (infarct exclusion in 21 patients and patch closure in two patients) to treat acute pVSDs from 2001 to 2011 were analyzed. Intra-aortic balloon counter-pulsation was performed in 19 patients (82.6%), one of whom required extracorporeal membrane support due to cardiogenic shock. The mean follow-up duration was 26.2±18.6 months.
The in-hospital mortality rate was 4.3% (1/23). Residual shunts were found in seven patients and three patients required reoperation. One patient needed reoperation due to the transformation of an intracardiac hematoma into an abscess. No patients required reoperation due to recurrence of a ventricular septal defect during the follow-up period. The cumulative survival rate was 95.5% at one year, 82.0% at five years, and 65.6% at seven years.
The use of a multiple-patch technique with sealants appears to be a reliable method of reducing early mortality and the risk of significant residual shunting in patients with pVSDs.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amyloid deposits in the heart are not exceptional in systemic amyloidosis. The clinical manifestations of cardiac amyloidosis may include restrictive cardiomyopathy, characterized by progressive diastolic and eventually systolic bi-ventricular dysfunction; arrhythmia; and conduction defects. To the best of our knowledge, no previous cases of isolated tricuspid regurgitation as the initial manifestation of cardiac amyloidosis have been reported. We describe a rare case of cardiac amyloidosis that initially presented with severe tricuspid regurgitation in a 42-year-old woman who was successfully treated with tricuspid valve replacement. Unusual surgical findings prompted additional evaluation that established a diagnosis of plasma cell myeloma.
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Congenital pericardial defects (CPDs) are infrequent anomalies that are usually asymptomatic and are discovered incidentally during unrelated interventions. Here we report the case of a CPD with herniation of an enlarged left atrial appendage identified during total thoracoscopic ablation (TTA) for persistent atrial fibrillation (AF). The persistent AF was successfully treated with a hybrid procedure, in which TTA was followed by an electrophysiological study.
Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kinsenoside is a major bioactive constituent isolated from Anoectochilus formosanus and is investigated as an antihyperlipidemic candidate. In this study, a rapid, sensitive, and reliable bioanalytical method was developed for the determination of kinsenoside in rat plasma using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS). The plasma sample was pretreated with 1% acetic acid, followed by protein precipitation with acetonitrile:methanol (70:30). Chromatographic separation was performed on a HILIC silica column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 3 μm). The mobile phases consisted of 0.1% acetic acid in distilled water (solvent A) and 0.1% acetic acid in acetonitrile (solvent B). A gradient program was used at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. For mass spectrometric detection, the multiple reaction monitoring mode was used; the MRM transitions were m/z 265.2 → m/z 102.9 for kinsenoside and m/z 163.3 → m/z 132.1 for the internal standard (IS) nicotine in the positive ionization mode. A calibration curve was constructed in the range of 2-500 ng/mL. The intra- and interday precision and accuracy were within 5%. The HILIC-MS/MS method was specific, accurate, and reproducible and was successfully applied in a pharmacokinetic study of kinsenoside in rats.
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Amlodipine is a representative calcium channel blocker that is frequently prescribed for the treatment of hypertension. In this study, the possibility of drug-drug interactions between amlodipine and coadministered antibiotics (ampicillin) was investigated in rats; thus, changes in the metabolic activities of gut microflora and the consequent pharmacokinetic pattern of amlodipine following ampicillin treatment were characterized.
Methods and results:
In human and rat fecalase incubation samples, amlodipine was metabolized to yield a major pyridine metabolite. The remaining amlodipine decreased and the formation of pyridine metabolite increased with incubation time, indicating the involvement of gut microbiota in the metabolism of amlodipine. Pharmacokinetic analyses showed that systemic exposure of amlodipine was significantly elevated in antibiotic-treated rats compared with controls.
These results showed that antibiotic intake might increase the bioavailability of amlodipine by suppressing gut microbial metabolic activities, which could be followed by changes in therapeutic potency. Therefore, coadministration of amlodipine with antibiotics requires caution and clinical monitoring.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Hypertension
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, use of novel synthetic cannabinoids has increased greatly despite worldwide efforts to regulate these drugs. XLR-11 ((1-[5'-fluoropentyl]indol-3-yl)-(2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl)methanone), a fluorinated synthetic cannabinoid with a tetramethylcyclopropyl moiety, has been frequently abused since 2012. XLR-11 produces a number of metabolites in common with its non-fluorinated parent analogue, UR-144 ((1-pentylindol-3-yl)-(2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl)methanone). Therefore, it is essential to develop effective urinary markers to distinguish between these drugs. In this study, we investigated the metabolic profile of authentic human urine specimens from suspected users of XLR-11 using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Furthermore, we quantified four potential XLR-11 metabolites by using commercially available reference standards. In vitro metabolism of XLR-11 and UR-144 using human liver microsomes was also investigated to compare patterns of production of hydroxypentyl metabolites. Urine samples were prepared with and without enzymatic hydrolysis, and subjected to solid-phase extraction. We identified 19 metabolites generated by oxidative defluorination, hydroxylation, carboxylation, dehydrogenation, glucuronidation, and combinations of these reactions. Among the identified metabolites, 12 were generated from a cyclopropyl ring-opened XLR-11 degradation product formed during smoking. The XLR-11 metabolite with a hydroxylated 2,4-dimethylpent-1-ene moiety was detected in most specimens after hydrolysis and could be utilized as a specific marker for XLR-11 intake. Quantitative results showed that the concentration ratio of 5- and 4-hydroxypentyl metabolites should also be considered as a useful marker for differentiating between the abuse of XLR-11 and UR-144.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to develop a simultaneous method to quantify 10 bioactive compounds in Rhus verniciflua extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. The chromatographic separation was performed
using a C18 column under gradient elution with 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile as the mobile phase solvents. The analytes were detected
in the negative-ion mode using multiple-reaction monitoring detection with an electrospray ionization interface. The calibration
curves for all the analytes showed good linearity (r2 >0.997) over the concentration range of 1–1,000 ng/mL. The recovery values were within 89.53–110.14%, and the intra- and
interday coefficients of variation were <4.86% for all the tested compounds. The developed method was successfully applied
to a quality assessment of the R. verniciflua extract samples.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of chromatographic science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 6-Shogaol [(4E)-1-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-4-decen-3-one] is a pungent and bioactive ingredient of ginger. This study investigated the biotransformation of 6-shogaol by Aspergillus niger. 6-Shogaol was fermented by A. niger, and the resultant metabolites were structurally characterized by liquid chromatography–quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF MS). As a result, 6-shogaol was biotransformed to yield metabolites: M1, M2 (6-paradol), M3, and M4. The major metabolic routes were reduction and hydroxylation; the carbonyl group and double bond of 6-shogaol were reduced to generate M1 and M2, respectively, which were further hydroxylated or reduced to M3 and M4. Among these metabolites, M1 was reported for the first time in this study.
No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · European Food Research and Technology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eurycoma longifolia (Simaroubaceae) is a popular folk medicine that has traditionally been used in Southeast Asia as an antimalarial, aphrodisiac, antidiabetic, and antimicrobial and in antipyretic remedies. This study evaluates the effects of Eurycoma longifolia extract on cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme-mediated drug metabolism to predict the potential for herb-drug interactions. Methanolic extract of E. longifolia root was tested at concentrations of 1, 3, 10, 30, 100, 300, and 1000 µg/mL in human liver microsomes or individual recombinant CYP isozymes. The CYP inhibitory activity was measured using the cocktail probe assay based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. E. longifolia showed weak, concentration-dependent inhibition of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, and CYP2C19. The inhibitory effects on these CYP isozymes were further tested using individual recombinant CYP isozymes, showing IC50 values of 324.9, 797.1, and 562.9 μg/mL, respectively. In conclusion, E. longifolia slightly inhibited the metabolic activities of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, and CYP2C19 but this issue requires careful attention in taking herbal medicines or dietary supplements containing E. longifolia extracts.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rhus verniciflua (Toxicodendron vernicifluum) is a medicinal tree popularly used in Asian countries such as China, Japan and Korea as a food additive or herbal medicine because of its beneficial effects. R. verniciflua extract (RVE) contains diverse phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids, as its major biological active constituents. In this study, the pharmacokinetic profiles of eight phenolic compounds were investigated following oral administration of RVE to rats. The eight phenolic compounds were 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, fisetin, fustin, butin, sulfuretin, taxifolin, and garbanzol. The plasma concentrations of the eight compounds were determined by using a liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometer before and after treatment with β-glucuronidase. When 1.5 g/kg RVE was administered, the eight compounds were all detected in plasma, mainly as conjugated forms. These pharmacokinetic data would be useful for understanding the pharmacological effects of RVE.
No preview · Article · May 2015 · Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical data show that estrogen levels are inversely associated with the production of sclerostin, a Wnt antagonist that recently attracted great attention over the use of its antibody in the anabolic treatment of osteoporotic conditions. However, the molecular link between sclerostin expression and estrogen signaling is not yet known. We investigated the mechanisms by which estrogen modulates sclerostin (SOST) gene expression at the cellular level in human osteoblast cells in association with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)2 signaling, given that BMP2 is a potential inducer of SOST in human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). 17β-estradiol (E2) alone had no effect on SOST expression, which was significantly induced by treatment with BMP2 in hMSCs and osteoblasts derived from the mandibles of female donors. However, E2 suppressed the induction of SOST and other BMP2 target genes by BMP2 in hMSCs. E2 signaling was independent of the Smad pathway, which plays a critical role in SOST induction mediated by BMP2. Instead, E2 increased the transcriptional expression of β-catenin and levels of its activated form. Silencing of the gene encoding estrogen receptor (ER)α decreased E2 activity in β-catenin activation and the suppression of SOST induction by BMP2 but had no influence on BMP2-mediated SOST induction in the same conditions. Similar results were obtained after treatment with ERα antagonist as a Wnt inhibitor. In human osteoblasts, the effect of E2 on SOST expression was either suppressive or absent, depending on the cell donor. Interestingly, the SOST expression pattern after treatment with BMP2 or BMP2/E2 in human osteoblasts showing a pattern of E2-suppression on SOST induction by BMP2 correlated with the ratio of RANKL to OPG expression. These results demonstrate that estrogen signaling in osteoblasts negatively regulates SOST expression in an indirect manner through interaction with BMP2 signaling and that this regulation involves the Wnt/ERα and β-catenin pathway. This study highlights several interactions between estrogen and BMP cascades in osteoblasts that may provide a basis for therapeutic intervention for the modification of bone mass density.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Tissue Engineering Part A
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia) is one of the most popular traditional herbs in Southeast Asia and generally consumed as forms of dietary supplements, tea, or drink additives for coffee or energy beverages. In this study, the liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantitation of six major quassinoids of Tongkat Ali (eurycomanone, 13,21-dihydroeurycomanone, 13α,(21)-epoxyeurycomanone, 14,15β-dihydroxyklaineanone, eurycomalactone and longilactone) was developed and validated. Using the developed method, the content of the six quassinoids was measured in Tongkat Ali containing dietary supplement tablets or capsules, and the resulting data was used to confirm the presence of Tongkat Ali in those products. Among the six quassinoids, eurycomanone was the most abundant quassinoid in all samples tested. The developed method would be useful for the quality assessment of Tongkat Ali containing dietary supplements. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to examine effects of a cardiocerebrovascular disease (CVD) prevention education program on knowledge, self-efficacy and health behavior among postmenopausal middle-aged women.
A non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. Participants were 53 postmenopausal middle-aged women who registered in two community culture centers in G metropolitan city. Experimental group (n=26) received a CVD prevention education program 8 times over 8 weeks. Knowledge, self-efficacy and health behavior of the participants were examined with self-report structured questionaries. Data were collected between October 15 and December 11, 2013, and were analyzed using chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, independent t-test, and analysis of covariance with SPSS/PC version 21.0.
After the intervention the experimental group showed significant increases in the knowledge of CVD symptoms (p<.001) and CVD risk factors (p<.001), level of self-efficacy (p=.028) and health behavior (p<.001) compared to the control group. However, no significant difference was found between groups for knowledge of CVD prevention (p<.133).
Results suggest that a CVD prevention education program can be an effective strategy to improve knowledge on CVD symptoms and risk factors, self-efficacy and health behavior for postmenopausal middle-aged women.
Preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, the red ginseng-specific bioactive ginsenosides Rg3, Rk1, and Rg5 were selectively enriched in ginseng prepared using a steaming and drying process. To achieve a selective increase in ginsenoside Rg3, Rk1, and Rg5 content, white ginsengs were steamed in a hermetically sealed container at 98 °C for 30 h, dried, and then further processed by steaming for another 30–45 h, and dried once more. The ginsenoside content of the resultant ginseng was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography with an evaporative light scattering detector. In steamed ginsengs, polar ginsenosides, such as Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rg1, were not present or could only be detected in negligible amounts, whereas ginsenosides 20(S)-Rg3, 20(R)-Rg3, Rk1, and Rg5 were newly generated; their dry weight contents were up to 23.98, 15.01, 11.36, and 17.56 mg/g, respectively, in 75 h (30 + 45 h) steaming condition. These results indicate that the preparation method developed in the present study can selectively increase the content of the ginsenosides Rg3, Rk1, and Rg5, and therefore would be very useful for selective preparation of red ginseng-specific minor ginsenosides.
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · European Food Research and Technology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
Physical activity (PA) tends to decline throughout the college years, and close friends’ influence is known to be an important factor in maintaining PA. This study examined the actor effect and partner effect between an individual and his/her friend regarding the influence of self-efficacy and social support on PA among Korean college students.Design and SampleCross-sectional survey data from 108 pairs of individual students and friends were analyzed.MeasuresThe survey questionnaire measured PA, self-efficacy toward exercise, social support for PA, anxiety and depression, community environments, and perceived health status. Structural equation modeling with path analysis was conducted to test Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) explaining close relationships on PA.ResultsOne-sided partner effect that friends' perceived friend support was directly related to individual's PA (β = 0.20, p < .05) was revealed. Regarding actor effects, self-efficacy was directly related to higher levels of PA for individual and friend. Perceived health status was related to higher level of individuals’ PA.Conclusions
These results suggest a role for public health nurses in developing interventions for college-aged young adults that promotes friend support for PA as well as individual self-efficacy toward PA, to engage young adults in establishing lifelong health-promoting PA.
No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Public Health Nursing
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of intestinal microbiota on the metabolism of geniposide by using a rat model treated with a mixture of antibiotics. The plasma concentration of geniposide was determined after oral administration in control and antibiotics-treated rats by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) of geniposide in control and antibiotics-treated rats were 0.91 ± 0.26 and 1.01 ± 0.04 μg/mL, respectively, and the area under the curve (AUC) values were 7.34 ± 3.32 and 11.9 ± 2.1 μg·h/mL (p < 0.05), respectively. The levels of geniposide in rat feces were 0.64 and 15.6 mg, respectively, in the control and antibiotics-treated groups. Thus, the systemic exposure of geniposide was greater in the antibiotics-treated rats. This may be due to the antibiotic-induced suppression of the metabolic activities of the intestinal microbiota. These results suggest that the gut microbiota may have an impact on the bioavailability of geniposide.
No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Orally-administered drugs may be metabolized by intestinal microbial enzymes before absorption into the blood. Accordingly, co-administration of drugs affecting the metabolic activities of gut microbes (e.g. antibiotics) may lead to drug-drug interactions (DDI). In this study, gut microbiota-mediated DDI were investigated by studying the pharmacokinetics of lovastatin in antibiotic-treated rats. Incubation of lovastatin with human and rat fecalase preparations produced four metabolites, M1 (demethylbutyryl metabolite), M4 (hydroxylated metabolite), M8 (the active hydroxy acid metabolite), and M9 (hydroxylated M8) indicating involvement of the gut microbiota in lovastatin metabolism. The plasma concentration-time profiles of M8 were compared after oral administration of lovastatin to control rats or those treated with either ampicillin (100 mg/kg), or an antibiotic mixture consisting of cefadroxil (150 mg/kg), oxytetracycline (300 mg/kg), and erythromycin (300 mg/kg). Pharmacokinetic analyses indicated that systemic exposure to M8 was significantly lower in antibiotic-treated rats, as compared with controls. In addition, fecal M8 formation decreased by 58.3% and 59.9% in the ampicillin- and antibiotic mixture-treated rats, respectively. These results suggested that antibiotic intake may reduce the biotransformation of orally-administered drugs by gut microbiota and that the subsequent decrease of drug absorption could induce pharmacokinetic drug interactions.
Preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract 1. The absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of a novel dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor, gemigliptin, were examined following single oral administration of (14)C-labeled gemigliptin to rats. 2. The (14)C-labeled gemigliptin was rapidly absorbed after oral administration, and its bioavailability was 95.2% (by total radioactivity). Distribution to specific tissues other than the digestive organs was not observed. Within 7 days after oral administration, 43.6% of the administered dose was excreted via urine and 41.2% was excreted via feces. Biliary excretion of the radioactivity was about 17.7% for the first 24 h. After oral administration of gemigliptin to rats, the in vivo metabolism of gemigliptin was investigated with bile, urine, feces, plasma and liver samples. 3. The major metabolic pathway was hydroxylation, and the major circulating metabolites were a dehydrated metabolite (LC15-0516) and hydroxylated metabolites (LC15-0635 and LC15-0636).