[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Eligibility criteria for bariatric surgery in diabetes include BMI ≥35 kg/m(2) and poorly controlled glycemia. However, BMI does not predict diabetes remission, and thus, predictors need to be identified.
Research design and methods:
Seven hundred twenty-seven patients were included in a database merged from the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study and two randomized controlled studies, with 415 surgical and 312 medical patients in total. Bariatric operations were divided into gastric only (GO) and gastric plus diversion (GD).
Sixty-four percent of patients in the surgical arm and 15.0% in the medical arm experienced diabetes remission (P < 0.001). GO yielded 60% remission, and GD yielded 76% remission. The best predictors of diabetes remission were lower baseline glycemia and shorter diabetes duration. However, when operation type was considered, GD predicted a higher likelihood of remission and greater weight loss. Patients in remission (responders) lost more weight (25% vs. 17%) and waist circumference (18% vs. 13%) and experienced better insulin sensitivity than nonresponders.
Surgery is more effective than medical treatment in achieving diabetes remission and tighter glycemic control. Shorter diabetes duration, lower fasting glycemia before surgery, and GD versus GO procedures independently predict higher rates of remission, whereas baseline HbA1c and waist circumference predict improved glycemic control. The results show the advantage of an early operation together with better controlled glycemia on diabetes remission independently of BMI.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Bariatric surgery prevents and induces remission of type 2 diabetes in many patients. The effect of preoperative glucose status on long-term health-care costs is unknown. We aimed to assess health-care costs over 15 years for patients with obesity treated conventionally or with bariatric surgery and who had either euglycaemia, prediabetes, or type 2 diabetes before intervention.
The Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study is a prospective study of adults who had bariatric surgery and contemporaneously matched controls who were treated conventionally (age 37-60 years; BMI of ≥34 in men and ≥38 in women) recruited from 25 Swedish surgical departments and 480 primary health-care centres. Exclusion criteria were identical for both study groups, and were previous gastric or bariatric surgery, recent malignancy or myocardial infarction, selected psychiatric disorders, and other contraindicating disorders to bariatric surgery. Conventional treatment ranged from no treatment to lifestyle intervention and behaviour modification. In this study, we retrieved prescription drug costs for the patients in the SOS study via questionnaires and the nationwide Swedish Prescribed Drug Register. We retrieved data for inpatient and outpatient visits from the Swedish National Patient Register. We followed up the sample linked to register data for up to 15 years. We adjusted mean differences for baseline characteristics. Analyses were by intention to treat. The SOS study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01479452.
Between Sept 1, 1987, and Jan 31, 2001, 2010 adults who had bariatric surgery and 2037 who were treated conventionally were enrolled into the SOS study. In this study, we followed up 4030 patients (2836 who were euglycaemic; 591 who had prediabetes; 603 who had diabetes). Drug costs did not differ between the surgery and conventional treatment groups in the euglycaemic subgroup (surgery US$10 511 vs conventional treatment $10 680; adjusted mean difference -$225 [95% CI -2080 to 1631]; p=0·812), but were lower in the surgery group in the prediabetes ($10 194 vs $13 186; -$3329 [-5722 to -937]; p=0·007) and diabetes ($14 346 vs $19 511; -$5487 [-7925 to -3049]; p<0·0001) subgroups than in the conventional treatment group. Compared with the conventional treatment group, we noted greater inpatient costs in the surgery group for the euglycaemic ($51 225 vs $25 313; $22 931 [19 001-26 861]; p<0·0001), prediabetes ($58 699 vs $32 861; $27 152 [18 736-35 568]; p<0·0001), and diabetes ($61 569 vs $47 569; 18 697 [9992-27 402]; p<0·0001) subgroups. We noted no differences in outpatient costs. Total health-care costs were higher in the surgery group in the euglycaemic ($71 059 vs $45 542; $22 390 [17 358-27 423]; p<0·0001) and prediabetes ($78 151 vs $54 864; $26 292 [16 738-35 845]; p<0·0001) subgroups than in the conventional treatment group, whereas we detected no difference between treatment groups in patients with diabetes ($88 572 vs $79 967; $9081 [-1419 to 19 581]; p=0·090).
Total health-care costs were higher for patients with euglycaemia or prediabetes in the surgery group than in the conventional treatment group, but we detected no difference between the surgery and conventional treatment groups for patients with diabetes. Long-term health-care cost results support prioritisation of patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes for bariatric surgery.
AFA Försäkring and Swedish Scientific Research Council.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanisms determining long-term weight maintenance after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) remain unclear. Cross sectional studies have suggested that enhanced energy expenditure (EE) may play a significant role and the aim of this study was to reveal the impact of RYGB on each major component constituting total EE.
Six obese female subjects, without other co-morbidities, were assessed before and at 10 days, 3 and 20 months after RYGB. Indirect calorimetry in a metabolic chamber was used to assess 24h EE at each study visit. Other measurements included body composition by DEXA, gut hormone profiles and physical activity (PA) using high sensitivity accelerometers.
Median Body Mass Index decreased from 41.1 (range 39.1-44.8) at baseline to 28 kg/m2 (range 22.3-30.3) after 20 months (p<0.05). Lean tissue decreased from 55.9 (range 47.5-59.3) to 49.5 (range 41.1-54.9) kg and adipose tissue from 61 (range 56-64.6) to 27 (range 12-34.3) kg (both p<0.05). PA over 24h did not change after surgery whereas 24h EE and basal metabolic rate (BMR) decreased. EE after a standard meal increased after surgery when adjusted for total tissue (p<0.05). After an initial drop, RQ (respiratory quotient) had increased at 20 months, both as measured during 24h and after food intake (p<0.05).
RYGB surgery up-regulates RQ and EE after food intake resulting in an increased contribution to total EE over 24h when corrected for total tissue.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to analyse the rates of incidence and remission of type 2 diabetes in relation to baseline BMI and weight change in the prospective, controlled Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study.
Three-thousand four-hundred and eighty-five obese individuals receiving bariatric surgery or conventional treatment were grouped into four baseline BMI categories (<35, 35-40, 40-45 or ≥45 kg/m(2)) and five weight-change categories according to their BMI at 2 years (increase [≥1 BMI unit increase], no change [less than 1 BMI unit change], minor reduction [-1 to -9 BMI units], medium reduction [-10 to -14 BMI units] and major reduction [< -15 BMI units]). The incidence and remission of diabetes at 2 years was assessed.
Among individuals with no weight change, diabetes incidence rates were 5.5%, 7.4%, 8.3% and 5.2%, in the four baseline BMI categories, respectively. In those with an initial BMI of 35-40, 40-45 and ≥45 kg/m(2) who attained a minor reduction in weight, the corresponding rates were 1.3%, 1.2% and 3.4%, respectively. In both the medium- and major-weight-reduction groups, diabetes incidence was ≤0.5%. Among individuals with diabetes at baseline, the remission rates were 15.3-26.9% in the no-weight-change groups, and 48.1-70% for individuals who attained a minor weight reduction. In the medium- and major-weight-reduction groups, the remission rate was 77-97%. There were no differences in 2 year incidence and remission rates between different baseline BMI groups that achieved the same degree of weight reduction.
In obese individuals, the favourable effect of weight reduction on type 2 diabetes incidence and remission is independent of initial BMI. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01479452.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
The longitudinal associations between a dietary pattern (DP) and cardiometabolic risk factors and cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence were investigated in a cohort of adults with severe obesity.Methods
The analysis included 2,037 individuals with severe obesity (>34 and >38 kg/m2 for men and women, respectively) from the Swedish Obese Subjects study repeatedly followed up for 10 years. Reduced rank regression was used to identify a DP characterized by dietary energy density, saturated fat intake, and fiber density. Mixed models examined relationships between repeated measures of DP z-scores and cardiometabolic risk factors. Cox proportional hazards models assessed relationships between DP scores and CVD incidence.ResultsAn energy-dense, high-saturated-fat, and low-fiber DP was derived. A one-unit increase in the DP z-score between follow-ups was associated with an increase in weight [β (SE)] (1.71 ± 0.10 kg), waist circumference (1.49 ± 0.07 cm), BMI (0.60 ± 0.34 kg/m2), serum cholesterol (0.06 ± 0.01 mmol/l), and serum insulin (1.22 ± 0.17 mmol/l; all P < 0.0001), as well as in serum triglycerides (0.05 ± 0.02 mmol/l; P < 0.05), systolic blood pressure (1.05 ± 0.27 mmHg; P < 0.001), and diastolic blood pressure (0.55 ± 0.16 mmHg; P < 0.05). No significant association was observed between repeated measures of the DP z-scores and CVD incidence (HR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.83-1.12).Conclusions
An energy-dense, high-saturated-fat, and low-fiber DP was longitudinally associated with increases in cardiometabolic risk factors in severe obesity but not with CVD incidence.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/objectives:
The prevalence of obesity, defined as body mass index (BMI) ⩾30 kg/m(2), differs between populations; however, there is a need for data on description on body composition in reference populations of different ages and from different countries. The objective of this study was to pool dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) body composition reference data from population-based Swedish cohorts.
Four population-based cross-sectional cohort studies including 1424 adult Swedes were divided into five age groups (20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-61 and 75 years of age); BMI 24.6±3.9 kg/m(2) were pooled. Body composition was measured with DXA.
The difference in BMI from the youngest to the oldest age group was 3.2 and 4.3 kg/m(2) in men and women, respectively (P<0.001, both sexes), and fat mass (FM) was 9.9 and 9.1% higher in the oldest compared with the youngest men and women (P<0.001, both sexes). Fat-free mass (FFM) remained stable up to 60 years of age in men (P=0.83) and was lower at 75 years of age compared with the younger ages. In women, FFM was lower from age 60. From youngest to oldest age groups, height-adjusted FM differed from 4.6 to 7.8 kg/m(2) in men and from 6.8 to 10.8 kg/m(2) in women (P<0.001, both sexes).
Our results provide reference data on body composition in Swedish populations. BMI and FM were higher among older age groups compared with the younger ones. FFM remained stable up to 60 years of age and was lower first among the 75 years of age.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To test the hypothesis that the growth hormone (GH) receptor (GHR) d3/fl polymorphism influences anthropometry and body composition in the general population. Design and Setting: The Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) reference study is a cross-sectional population-based study, randomly selected from a population registry. A sub-group of the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDC-CC) was used as a replication cohort. Methods: The SOS reference study comprises 1135 subjects (46.2% men), with an average age of 49.5 yrs. The MDC-CC includes 5451 successfully genotyped subjects (41.5% men), with an average age of 57.5 yrs. GHR d3/fl genotypes were determined using tagSNP rs6873545. Linear regression analyses were used to test for genotype - phenotype associations. Results: In the SOS reference study, subjects homozygous for the d3-GHR weighed approximately four kilos more (p=0.011), had larger waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, p=0.036), waist circumference (p=0.016) and more fat free mass estimated from total body potassium (TBK, p=0.026) than grouped fl/d3 and fl/fl subjects (d3-recessive genetic model). The association with WHR was replicated in the MDC-CC (p=0.002), but not those with other anthropometric traits. Conclusions: In this population-based study the GHR d3/fl polymorphism was found to be of functional relevance and associated with central adiposity, such that subjects homozygous for the d3-GHR showed an increased abdominal obesity.
No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · European Journal of Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
Excess hepatic storage of triglycerides is considered a benign condition, but nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) may progress to fibrosis and promote atherosclerosis. Carriers of the TM6SF2 E167K variant have fatty liver as a result of reduced secretion of very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs). As a result, they have lower circulating lipids and reduced risk of myocardial infarction. In this study, we aimed to assess whether TM6SF2 E167K affects liver damage and cardiovascular outcomes in subjects at risk of NASH. Liver damage was evaluated in 1,201 patients who underwent liver biopsy for suspected NASH; 427 were evaluated for carotid atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular outcomes were assessed in 1,819 controls from the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) cohort. Presence of the inherited TM6SF2 E167K variant was determined by TaqMan assays. In the liver biopsy cohort, 188 subjects (13%) were carriers of the E167K variant. They had lower serum lipid levels than noncarriers (P < 0.05), had more-severe steatosis, necroinflammation, ballooning, and fibrosis (P < 0.05), and were more likely to have NASH (odds ratio [OR]: 1.84; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23-2.79) and advanced fibrosis (OR, 2.08; 95% CI: 1.20-3.55), after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, fasting hyperglycemia, and the I148M PNPLA3 risk variant. However, E167K carriers had lower risk of developing carotid plaques (OR, 0.49; 95% CI: 0.25-0.94). In the SOS cohort, E167K carriers had higher alanine aminotransferase ALT and lower lipid levels (P < 0.05), as well as a lower incidence of cardiovascular events (hazard ratio: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.39-0.95).
Carriers of the TM6SF2 E167K variant are more susceptible to progressive NASH, but are protected against cardiovascular disease. Our findings suggest that reduced ability to export VLDLs is deleterious for the liver.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Importance
Short-term studies show that bariatric surgery causes remission of diabetes. The long-term outcomes for remission and diabetes-related complications are not known.Objectives
To determine the long-term diabetes remission rates and the cumulative incidence of microvascular and macrovascular diabetes complications after bariatric surgery.Design, Setting, and Participants
The Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) is a prospective matched cohort study conducted at 25 surgical departments and 480 primary health care centers in Sweden. Of patients recruited between September 1, 1987, and January 31, 2001, 260 of 2037 control patients and 343 of 2010 surgery patients had type 2 diabetes at baseline. For the current analysis, diabetes status was determined at SOS health examinations until May 22, 2013. Information on diabetes complications was obtained from national health registers until December 31, 2012. Participation rates at the 2-, 10-, and 15-year examinations were 81%, 58%, and 41% in the control group and 90%, 76%, and 47% in the surgery group. For diabetes assessment, the median follow-up time was 10 years (interquartile range [IQR], 2-15) and 10 years (IQR, 10-15) in the control and surgery groups, respectively. For diabetes complications, the median follow-up time was 17.6 years (IQR, 14.2-19.8) and 18.1 years (IQR, 15.2-21.1) in the control and surgery groups, respectively.Interventions
Adjustable or nonadjustable banding (n = 61), vertical banded gastroplasty (n = 227), or gastric bypass (n = 55) procedures were performed in the surgery group, and usual obesity and diabetes care was provided to the control group.Main Outcomes and Measures
Diabetes remission, relapse, and diabetes complications. Remission was defined as blood glucose <110 mg/dL and no diabetes medication.Results
The diabetes remission rate 2 years after surgery was 16.4% (95% CI, 11.7%-22.2%; 34/207) for control patients and 72.3% (95% CI, 66.9%-77.2%; 219/303) for bariatric surgery patients (odds ratio [OR], 13.3; 95% CI, 8.5-20.7; P < .001). At 15 years, the diabetes remission rates decreased to 6.5% (4/62) for control patients and to 30.4% (35/115) for bariatric surgery patients (OR, 6.3; 95% CI, 2.1-18.9; P < .001). With long-term follow-up, the cumulative incidence of microvascular complications was 41.8 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 35.3-49.5) for control patients and 20.6 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 17.0-24.9) in the surgery group (hazard ratio [HR], 0.44; 95% CI, 0.34-0.56; P < .001). Macrovascular complications were observed in 44.2 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 37.5-52.1) in control patients and 31.7 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 27.0-37.2) for the surgical group (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.54-0.85; P = .001).Conclusions and Relevance
In this very long-term follow-up observational study of obese patients with type 2 diabetes, bariatric surgery was associated with more frequent diabetes remission and fewer complications than usual care. These findings require confirmation in randomized trials.Trial Registration
clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01479452
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Understanding how dietary intake changes over time is important for studies of diet and disease and may inform interventions to improve dietary intakes. We investigated how a dietary pattern (DP) tracked over 10-years in the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study control group. Dietary intake was assessed at multiple time-points in 2037 severely obese individuals (BMI 41±4 kg/m2). Reduced rank regression was used to derive a dietary pattern using dietary energy density (kJ/g), saturated fat (%) and fibre density (mg/kJ) as response variables and score respondents at each follow-up. Tracking coefficients for the DP, its key foods and macronutrient response variables and corrected for time-dependent and time-independent covariates were calculated using generalised estimating equations to take into account all available data. The DP tracking coefficient was moderate for women (0.40; 95% CI: 0.38-0.42) and men (0.38; 95% CI: 0.35-0.41). Of the eleven foods key to this DP, fruit and vegetable intakes had the strongest tracking coefficient for both sexes. Fast food and candy had the lowest tracking coefficients for women and men respectively. Scores for an energy dense, high saturated fat, low fibre density DP appear moderately stable over a 10-year period in this severely obese population. Furthermore, some food groups appear more amenable to change while others, often the most healthful, appear more stable and may require intervention before adulthood.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Obesity is associated with increased risk of chronic kidney disease and albuminuria is a predictor of renal impairment. Bariatric surgery reduces body weight in obese subjects, but it is not known whether surgery can prevent development of albuminuria. This study aims to determine the long-term effect of bariatric surgery on the incidence of albuminuria.SubjectsThe Swedish Obese Subjects study is a nonrandomized, prospective, controlled study conducted at 25 public surgical departments and 480 primary health care centers in Sweden. Between September 1, 1987 and January 31, 2001, 2010 participants who underwent bariatric surgery and 2037 controls were recruited. Inclusion criteria were age 37-60 years and BMI⩾34 in men and BMI⩾38 in women. In this analysis, we included 1498 patients in the surgery group and 1610 controls without albuminuria at baseline. Patients in the bariatric-surgery group underwent banding (18%), vertical banded gastroplasty (69%), or gastric bypass (13%); controls received usual obesity care. Date of analysis was January 1, 2011. Median follow up was 10 years, and the rates of follow up were 87%, 74% and 52% at 2, 10 and 15 years, respectively. The main outcome of this report is incidence of albuminuria (defined as urinary albumin excretion>30 mg/24 hours) over up to 15 years.ResultsDuring the follow-up, albuminuria developed in 246 participants in the control group and in 126 in the bariatric surgery group, corresponding to incidence rates of 20.4 and 9.4 per 1000 person-years, respectively (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.30 to 0.47; P<0.001). The expected number of surgeries needed to prevent the development of albuminuria in one patient at 10 years was 9.Conclusions
Bariatric surgery is associated with reduced incidence of albuminuria compared to usual obesity care.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 06 May 2014; doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.72.
Full-text · Article · May 2014 · International journal of obesity (2005)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE
Adiponectin has been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, but its role for incident diabetes, myocardial infarction, or stroke in obesity is unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze the associations between systemic levels of adiponectin and the aforementioned outcomes in a population with severe obesity at high risk of diabetes and cardiovascular events.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We measured serum concentrations of total adiponectin in 3,299 participants of the prospective controlled Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) Study (bariatric surgery group, n = 1,570; control group given usual care, n = 1,729). Median follow-up periods ranged between 10 and 13 years for different outcomes.RESULTSIn models containing both baseline adiponectin and 2-year changes in adiponectin, high baseline adiponectin and 2-year increases in adiponectin were associated with decreased risk of diabetes and myocardial infarction among controls. In the surgery group, the 2-year weight loss was paralleled by substantial increase in circulating adiponectin (1,807-1,958 ng/mL per 10-kg weight loss). However, neither baseline adiponectin nor 2-year increases in adiponectin were associated with risk of diabetes or myocardial infarction in the fully adjusted models in the surgery group. No associations were found for stroke in either group.CONCLUSIONS
Taken together, baseline adiponectin and 2-year changes were associated with incident diabetes and myocardial infarction in the control group but not in the surgery group. Baseline adiponectin did not predict treatment benefit of bariatric surgery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is known to be associated with carotid artery remodelling, but less is known about how body fat distribution, inflammation and weight loss may affect this relation.
Ultrasonography, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography were performed to evaluate carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), body composition and fat distribution, respectively. Participants were divided into three matched study groups (n = 44 per group): obese patients with sustained weight loss 10 years after bariatric surgery [surgery group, body mass index (BMI) 31.5 kg/m(2) ]; obese patients who maintained stable weight during the same time period (obese group, BMI 42.5 kg/m(2) ); and normal-weight subjects (lean group, BMI 24.4 kg/m(2) ).
Patients in the surgery group, compared to those in the obese group, had slightly lower common carotid artery (CCA) IMT (0.75 ± 0.18 vs. 0.78 ± 0.17 mm) and common carotid bulb (CCB) IMT (0.92 ± 0.32 vs. 0.97 ± 0.32 mm); however, these differences were not statistically significant. Lean individuals, compared with those in the surgery group, had significantly lower CCA and CCB IMT values (P < 0.001). In forward stepwise multiple regression analyses including all subjects (n = 132), CCA IMT was predicted mainly by visceral adipose tissue, but was also related to blood pressure and levels of triglycerides and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Carotid lumen diameter was primarily influenced by lean body mass.
Visceral adiposity was the main determinant of premature carotid artery atherosclerosis, possibly through elevated blood pressure, dyslipidaemia and inflammation. Lean body mass predicted carotid artery lumen diameter. Obese patients with long-term sustained weight loss did not have thinner carotid artery walls compared to their weight-stable obese counterparts. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Journal of Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
Obesity is linked to both increased metabolic disturbances and increased adipose tissue macrophage infiltration. However, whether macrophage infiltration directly influences human metabolism is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate if there are obesity-independent links between adipose tissue macrophages and metabolic disturbances.
Design and Methods
Expression of macrophage markers in adipose tissue was analyzed by DNA microarrays in the SOS Sib Pair study and in patients with type 2 diabetes and a BMI-matched healthy control group.
The expression of macrophage markers in adipose tissue was increased in obesity and associated with several metabolic and anthropometric measurements. After adjustment for BMI, the expression remained associated with insulin sensitivity, serum levels of insulin, C-peptide, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol) and triglycerides. In addition, the expression of most macrophage markers was significantly increased in patients with type 2 diabetes compared to the control group.
Our study shows that infiltration of macrophages in human adipose tissue, estimated by the expression of macrophage markers, is increased in subjects with obesity and diabetes and associated with insulin sensitivity and serum lipid levels independent of BMI. This indicates that adipose tissue macrophages may contribute to the development of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Increased sensitivity to alcohol after gastric bypass has been described. The aim of this study was to investigate whether bariatric surgery is associated with alcohol problems.
Design and methods:
The prospective, controlled Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study enrolled 2,010 obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery (68% vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG), 19% banding, and 13% gastric bypass) and 2,037 matched controls. Patients were recruited between 1987 and 2001. Data on alcohol abuse diagnoses, self-reported alcohol consumption, and alcohol problems were obtained from the National Patient Register and questionnaires. Follow-up time was 8-22 years.
During follow-up, 93.1% of the surgery patients and 96.0% of the controls reported alcohol consumption classified as low risk by the World Health Organization (WHO). However, compared to controls, the gastric bypass group had increased risk of alcohol abuse diagnoses (adjusted hazard ratio [adjHR] = 4.97), alcohol consumption at least at the WHO medium risk level (adjHR = 2.69), and alcohol problems (adjHR = 5.91). VBG increased the risk of these conditions with adjHRs of 2.23, 1.52, and 2.30, respectively, while banding was not different from controls.
Alcohol consumption, alcohol problems, and alcohol abuse are increased after gastric bypass and VBG.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Obesity is frequently associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Both conditions are proinflammatory and proposed to deteriorate cardiac function. We used a nested cohort study design to evaluate the long-term impact of bariatric surgery on OSA and how weight loss and OSA relate to inflammation and cardiac performance.
Design and methods:
At 10-year follow-up in the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study, we identified 19 obese subjects (BMI 31.2 ± 5.3 kg m(-2) ), who following bariatric surgery at SOS-baseline had displayed sustained weight losses (surgery group), and 20 obese controls (BMI 42.0 ± 6.2 kg m(-2) ), who during the same time-period had maintained stable weight (control group). All study participants underwent overnight polysomnography examination, echocardiography and analysis of inflammatory markers.
The surgery group displayed a lower apnea hypopnea index (AHI) (19.9 ± 21.5 vs. 37.8 ± 27.7 n/h, P = 0.013), lower inflammatory activity (hsCRP 2.3 ± 3.0 vs. 7.2 ± 5.0 mg L(-1) , P < 0.001), reduced left ventricular mass (165 ± 22 vs. 207 ± 22 g, P < 0.001) and superior left ventricular diastolic function (E/A ratio 1.24 ± 1.10 vs. 1.05 ± 0.20, P = 0.006) as compared with weight stable obese controls. In multiple regression analyses including all subjects (n = 39) and controlling for BMI, the AHI remained independently associated with hsCRP (β = 0.09, P < 0.001), TNF-α (β = 0.03, P = 0.031), IL-6 (β = 0.01, P = 0.007), IL 10 (β = -0.06; P = 0.018), left ventricular mass (β = 0.64, P < 0.001), left atrial area (β = 0.08, P = 0.002), pulmonary artery pressure (β = 0.08, P = 0.011) and E/Ea ratio (β = 0.04, P = 0.021).
Patients with sustained weight loss after bariatric surgery display less severe sleep apnea, reduced inflammatory activity, and enhanced cardiac function. Persisting sleep apnea appears to limit the beneficial effect of weight loss on inflammation and cardiac performance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is associated with elevated serum transaminase levels and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and weight loss is a recommended therapeutic strategy. Bariatric surgery is effective in obtaining and maintaining weight loss. Aim of the present study was to examine the long-term effects of bariatric surgery on transaminase levels in obese individuals.
The Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study is a prospective controlled intervention study designed to compare the long-term effects of bariatric surgery and usual care in obese subjects. A total of 3,570 obese participants with no excess of alcohol consumption at baseline (1,795 and 1,775 in the control and surgery group, respectively) were included in the analyses. Changes in transaminase levels during follow-up were compared in the surgery and control groups.
Compared to usual care, bariatric surgery was associated with lower serum ALT and AST levels at 2- and 10- year follow up. The reduction in ALT levels was proportional to the degree of weight loss. Both the incidence of and the remission from high transaminase levels were more favorable in the surgery group compared to the control group. Similarly, the prevalence of ALT/AST ratio <1 was lower in the surgery compared to the control group at both 2- and 10-year follow up.
Bariatric surgery results in a sustained reduction in transaminase levels and a long-term benefit in obese individuals.