[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carcinogenesis is an exceedingly complicated process, which involves multi-level dysregulations, including genomics (majorly caused by somatic mutation and copy number variation), DNA methylomics, and transcriptomics. Therefore, only looking into one molecular level of cancer is not sufficient to uncover the intricate underlying mechanisms. With the abundant resources of public available data in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, an integrative strategy was conducted to systematically analyze the aberrant patterns of colorectal cancer on the basis of DNA copy number, promoter methylation, somatic mutation and gene expression. In this study, paired samples in each genomic level were retrieved to identify differentially expressed genes with corresponding genetic or epigenetic dysregulations. Notably, the result of gene ontology enrichment analysis indicated that the differentially expressed genes with corresponding aberrant promoter methylation or somatic mutation were both functionally concentrated upon developmental process, suggesting the intimate association between development and carcinogenesis. Thus, by means of random walk with restart, 37 significant development-related genes were retrieved from a priori-knowledge based biological network. In five independent microarray datasets, Kaplan–Meier survival and Cox regression analyses both confirmed that the expression of these genes was significantly associated with overall survival of Stage III/IV colorectal cancer patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A tumor can be perceived as a special "organ" that undergoes aberrant and poorly regulated organogenesis. Embryonic development and carcinogenesis share striking similarities in their cellular behavior and underlying molecular mechanisms. This intimate association makes embryonic development a viable reference model for studying cancer thereby circumventing the potentially misleading complexity of tumor heterogeneity. Therefore, on the basis of global expression profile, the genes simultaneously activated (up-regulated in terms of expression profile) or suppressed (down-regulated) in both the embryonic development and cancer stage, probably contain profound information on the molecular mechanism of cancer. In this study, the Affymetrix expression profile of 1593 colorectal cancer samples was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. The 1396 differentially expressed probes were robustly obtained using 660 colorectal normal and cancer samples, the expression pattern of which was analyzed using our human colorectal developmental data. All of these 1396 probes were classified into 27 distinct patterns based on their expression patterns during the developmental process. By means of gene set enrichment analysis, we collected 393 V probes simultaneously up-regulated in both development and carcinogenesis and 207 A probes down-regulated in both. Functional enrichment analysis indicated that the V probes were significantly related to cell cycle regulation. Notably, 28 cell-cycle related probes within the V probe group were found to be significantly associated with an overall survival of Stage III/IV patients (GSE17536 cross validation, n = 96, p = 5.70 × 10(-3); GSE29621, n = 36, p = 1.70 × 10(-3); GSE39084, n = 38, p = 0.05; GSE39582, n = 264, p = 0.047; GSE17537, n = 36, p = 5.90 × 10(-3)).
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Molecular BioSystems
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genome-wide expression profiling during development provides useful information to uncover the potential molecular mechanisms of development in mammals. Recent studies have revealed that a subset of lncRNAs can regulate major biological processes during development. Here, we sequenced four tissues, including brain, colon, liver and lung, using RNA-seq across three developmental stages (early, middle and late stage), and then constructed genome-wide expression profiles during macaque development. In each tissue, we identified developmental time-specific lncRNA and mRNA clusters that displayed diverse expression alteration patterns, including a gradual increase, a gradual decrease, or a reversal of expression. These lncRNAs showed more specific functional associations with their corresponding tissues relative to the developmental time-specific mRNAs. Furthermore, we identified 20 spatiotemporal-specific co-modules including 101 lncRNAs and 609 mRNAs distributed at different developmental stages in different tissues. Our findings suggested that lncRNAs could play critical roles in the development of macaques through close cooperation with mRNAs. Finally, we predicted the functions of the spatiotemporal-specific lncRNAs by their spatiotemporal cooperation with mRNAs and further validated our findings using gene knockdown data of mouse. Our study reveals the spatiotemporal characteristics of lncRNAs and provides a functional map of the spatiotemporal-specific lncRNAs during the development of macaques.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Molecular BioSystems
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immune response-related genes play a major role in colorectal carcinogenesis by mediating inflammation or immune-surveillance evasion. Although remarkable progress has been made to investigate the underlying mechanism, the understanding of the complicated carcinogenesis process was enormously hindered by large-scale tumor heterogeneity. Development and carcinogenesis share striking similarities in their cellular behavior and underlying molecular mechanisms. The association between embryonic development and carcinogenesis makes embryonic development a viable reference model for studying cancer thereby circumventing the potentially misleading complexity of tumor heterogeneity. Here we proposed that the immune genes, responsible for intra-immune cooperativity disorientation (defined in this study as disruption of developmental expression correlation patterns during carcinogenesis), probably contain untapped prognostic resource of colorectal cancer. In this study, we determined the mRNA expression profile of 137 human biopsy samples, including samples from different stages of human colonic development, colorectal precancerous progression and colorectal cancer samples, among which 60 were also used to generate miRNA expression profile. We originally established Spearman correlation transition model to quantify the cooperativity disorientation associated with the transition from normal to precancerous to cancer tissue, in conjunction with miRNA-mRNA regulatory network and machine learning algorithm to identify genes with prognostic value. Finally, a 12-gene signature was extracted, whose prognostic value was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis in five independent datasets. Using the log-rank test, the 12-gene signature was closely related to overall survival in four datasets (GSE17536, n = 177, p = 0.0054; GSE17537, n = 55, p = 0.0039; GSE39582, n = 562, p = 0.13; GSE39084, n = 70, p = 0.11), and significantly associated with disease-free survival in four datasets (GSE17536, n = 177, p = 0.0018; GSE17537, n = 55, p = 0.016; GSE39582, n = 557, p = 4.4e-05; GSE14333, n = 226, p = 0.032). Cox regression analysis confirmed that the 12-gene signature was an independent factor in predicting colorectal cancer patient's overall survival (hazard ratio: 1.759; 95% confidence interval: 1.126-2.746; p = 0.013], as well as disease-free survival (hazard ratio: 2.116; 95% confidence interval: 1.324-3.380; p = 0.002).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence suggests that interferon (IFN) alpha/beta are involved in antitumor immunity and cancer immunoediting, but information on the antitumor effects of IFN alpha/beta in lung cancer is limited. In our study, we elucidated the IFN alpha/beta signature during both human fetal lung development and lung tumorigenesis. Our findings indicated gradual upregulation in the IFN alpha/beta signature during human fetal lung development. In addition, this signature was progressively downregulated in normal human airway epithelial cells from lung cancer patients, in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell lines from later passages, in late-stage lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) tissues, and in LSCC tissues exhibiting lymph node metastasis. Therefore, from its earliest stages, lung tumorigenesis may be associated with a decreased IFN alpha/beta signature. This association may provide insight to guide the detection of high-risk lung cancer patients.
No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of interferon & cytokine research: the official journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Long-term exposure to airborne PM2.5 is associated with increased lung cancer risk but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We characterized global microRNA and mRNA expression in human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to PM2.5 organic extract and integrally analyzed microRNA-mRNA interactions. Foci formation and xenograft tumorigenesis in mice with NIH3T3 cells expressing genes targeted by microRNAs were performed to explore the oncogenic potential of these genes. We also detected plasma levels of candidate microRNAs in subjects exposed to different levels of air PM2.5 and examined the aberrant expression of genes targeted by these microRNAs in human lung cancer. Under our experimental conditions, treatment of cells with PM2.5 extract resulted in downregulation of 138 microRNAs and aberrant expression of 13 mRNAs (11 upregulation and 2 downregulation). In silico and biochemical analyses suggested SLC30A1, SERPINB2 and AKR1C1, among the upregulated genes, as target for miR-182 and miR-185, respectively. Ectopic expression of each of these genes significantly enhanced foci formation in NIH3T3 cells. Following subcutaneous injection of these cells into nude mice, fibrosarcoma were formed from SLC30A1- or SERPINB2-expressing cells. Reduced plasma levels of miR-182 were detected in subjects exposed to high level of PM2.5 than in those exposed to low level of PM2.5 (P = 0.043). Similar results were seen for miR-185 although the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.328). Increased expressions of SLC30A1, SERPINB2 and AKR1C1 were detected in human lung cancer. These results suggest that modulation of miR-182 and miR-185 and their target genes may contribute to lung carcinogenesis attributable to PM2.5 exposure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Conventional bronchoscopy with brushing alone for diagnosing peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPLs) is of low sensitivity. A manual mapping method was introduced and evaluated in this study, which could be routinely applied with bronchoscopic brushing to improve the sensitivity for malignant PPLs.Methods
This mapping method involves the bronchoscopist drawing the route with a series of bronchial opening sketches and marking the leading bronchus at every bifurcation point based on thin-section computed tomography. This map is then used to guide bronchoscope insertion for brushing. A cross-sectional study on the evaluation of this method for the diagnosis of malignant PPLs was conducted on patients from July 2010 to June 2013.ResultsThe sensitivity for malignant PPLs of conventional brushing, conventional brushing with mapping on a portion of patients, and conventional brushing with mapping method increased from 17.0% to 25.8% to 31.5% (P < 0.001), respectively. For lesion sizes over 3 cm, the rate of these three groups increased from 25.1% to 38.6% to 50.9% (P < 0.001), respectively. The sensitivity of this mapping method for malignant PPLs was statistically associated with lesion size, lesion character, relationship between the lesion and the leading bronchus, linear distance between the targeted bronchus and the opening of the lobe bronchus, and accessibility (P < 0.001, P = 0.039, P < 0.001, P = 0.031, and P = 0.020, respectively).Conclusions
The manual mapping method greatly increased the bronchoscopic brushing sensitivity for malignant PPLs compared to the conventional brushing method. During routine clinical work, it is economical and convenient for guiding bronchoscope insertion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A tumor can be viewed as a special "organ" that undergoes aberrant and poorly regulated organogenesis. Progress in cancer prognosis and therapy might be facilitated by re-examining distinctive processes that operate during normal development, to elucidate the intrinsic features of cancer that are significantly obscured by its heterogeneity. The global gene expression signatures of 44 human lung tissues at four development stages from Asian descent and 69 lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) tissue samples from ethnic Chinese patients were profiled using microarrays. All of the genes were classified into 27 distinct groups based on their expression patterns (named as PTN1 to PTN27) during the developmental process. In lung ADC, genes whose expression levels decreased steadily during lung development (genes in PTN1) generally had their expression reactivated, while those with uniformly increasing expression levels (genes in PTN27) had their expression suppressed. The genes in PTN1 contain many n-gene signatures that are of prognostic value for lung ADC. The prognostic relevance of a 12-gene demonstrator for patient survival was characterized in five cohorts of healthy and ADC patients [ADC_CICAMS (n = 69, p = 0.007), ADC_PNAS (n = 125, p = 0.0063), ADC_GSE13213 (n = 117, p = 0.0027), ADC_GSE8894 (n = 62, p = 0.01), and ADC_NCI (n = 282, p = 0.045)] and in four groups of stage I patients [ADC_CICAMS (n = 22, p = 0.017), ADC_PNAS (n = 76, p = 0.018), ADC_GSE13213 (n = 79, p = 0.02), and ADC_qPCR (n = 62, p = 0.006)]. In conclusion, by comparison of gene expression profiles during human lung developmental process and lung ADC progression, we revealed that the genes with a uniformly decreasing expression pattern during lung development are of enormous prognostic value for lung ADC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
The aim of this study was to detect the plasma concentration of OLC1 (overexpressed in lung cancer 1) protein as a potential cancer biomarker, and evaluating its clinical application value in the diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
We prepared OLC1 antibody with OLC1 full length protein, in 5-6-week old Bal B/c mice. Each mouse was immunized four times at a dose of 15-30 µg antigen protein, and the interval between two consecutive immunizations was two weeks. Antibody screening was made by ELISA and Western blot, and a double antibody sandwich ELISA kit was developed. We used this established ELISA kit to detect the plasma concentration of OLC1 protein in 281 NSCLC patients and 92 gender- and age-matched healthy controls. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the detection efficacy of OLC1.
We obtained 11 OLC1 monoclonal antibodies and successfully established the ELISA kit to detect the plasma concentration of OLC1 with a detection range from 1.95 ng/ml to 62.50 ng/ml. OLC1 concentration in the case group (124.69 ng/ml) was significantly higher than that in the control group (67.07 ng/ml, P < 0.001). In the scenario of distinguishing NSCLC from control group, AUC result was 0.69. When the cut-off was set at 67.72 ng/ml, the sensitivity and specificity was 84.4% and 51.1%, respectively. In term of distinguishing early lung cancer (IA) from normal controls, the AUC, sensitivity and specificity were 0.68, 77.8% and 54.4%, respectively.
The plasma concentration of OLC1 protein is significantly elevated in NSCLC patients. OLC1 may be as a potential cancer biomarker applied in clinical diagnosis.
No preview · Article · May 2014 · Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Advances in three-dimensional (3D) printing have enabled the direct assembly of cells and extracellular matrix materials to form in vitro cellular models for 3D biology, the study of disease pathogenesis and new drug discovery. In this study, we report a method of 3D printing for Hela cells and gelatin/alginate/fibrinogen hydrogels to construct in vitro cervical tumor models. Cell proliferation, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) protein expression and chemoresistance were measured in the printed 3D cervical tumor models and compared with conventional 2D planar culture models. Over 90% cell viability was observed using the defined printing process. Comparisons of 3D and 2D results revealed that Hela cells showed a higher proliferation rate in the printed 3D environment and tended to form cellular spheroids, but formed monolayer cell sheets in 2D culture. Hela cells in 3D printed models also showed higher MMP protein expression and higher chemoresistance than those in 2D culture. These new biological characteristics from the printed 3D tumor models in vitro as well as the novel 3D cell printing technology may help the evolution of 3D cancer study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Following a previous study reporting that BRK1 is upregulated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the present study sought to clarify the role of specificity protein 1 (Sp1) in the transcriptional regulation of the BRK1 gene. Therefore, a construct, named F8, consisting of the -1341 to -1nt sequence upstream of the start codon of the BRK1 gene inserted into pGL4.26 was made. A series of truncated fragments was then constructed based on F8. Segment S831, which contained the -84 to -1nt region, displayed the highest transcriptional activity in the A549, H1299 and H520 NSCLC cell lines. Bioinformatic analysis showed a potential Sp1-binding element at -73 to -64nt, and a mutation in this region suppressed the transcriptional activity of S831. Then the RNAi assays of Sp1 and its coworkers Sp3 and Sp4 were performed, and suppression of Sp1 by siRNA inhibited the mRNA expression of BRK1. Both an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay demonstrated that Sp1 bound to the promoter area of the BRK1 gene. Our data identified a functional and positive Sp1 regulatory element from -73 to -64nt in the BRK1 promoter, which may likely explain the overexpression of BRK1 in NSCLC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transmembrane and secreted protein delta-like 1 homolog (DLK1) belongs to the EGF-like family. It is widely accepted that DLK1 plays important roles in regulating cell differentiation, such as adipogenesis and osteogenesis. Aberrant expression of DLK1 has been found in various types of human cancers, including lung cancer. A previous study in this lab has revealed that DLK1 is associated with tumor invasion, although the mechanism is still unknown. To explore the potential effects that DLK1 might have on invasion, DLK1 was overexpressed or knocked down in the human lung cancer cell lines. The protein's influences on cell invasion were subsequently evaluated. A transwell assay showed that DLK1 overexpression significantly promoted cancer cell invasion. Western blotting and gelatin zymography analysis indicated that DLK1 could affect both matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) expression and its extracellular activity. An analysis of NOTCH1 and HES1 gene expression and Notch intracellular domain (NICD) nuclear translocation during DLK1 stimulation or depletion demonstrated that DLK1 could activate Notch signaling in lung cancer cells. Additionally, the elevated expression of MMP9 induced by DLK1 stimulation could be significantly decreased by inhibiting Notch signaling using γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI). The data presented in this study suggest that DLK1 can promote the invasion of lung cancer cells by upregulating MMP9 expression, which depends on Notch signaling.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
This study was aimed to create a large-scale laryngeal cancer relevant secretory/releasing protein database and further discover candidate biomarkers.
Primary tissue cultures were established using tumor tissues and matched normal mucosal tissues collected from four laryngeal cancer patients. Serum-free conditioned medium (CM) samples were collected. These samples were then sequentially processed by SDS-PAGE separation, trypsin digestion, and LC-MS/MS analysis. The candidates in the database were validated by ELISA using plasma samples from laryngeal cancer patients, benign patients, and healthy individuals.
Combining MS data from the tumor tissues and normal tissues, 982 proteins were identified in total; extracellular proteins and cell surface proteins accounted for 15.0% and 4.3%, respectively. According to stringent criteria, 49 proteins were selected as candidates worthy of further validation. Of these, human tissue kallikrein 6 (KLK6) was verified. The level of KLK6 was significantly increased in the plasma samples from the cancer cohort compared to the benign and healthy cohorts and moreover showed a slight decrease in the postoperative plasma samples in comparison to the preoperative plasma samples.
This laryngeal cancer-derived protein database provides a promising repository of candidate blood biomarkers for laryngeal cancer. The diagnostic potential of KLK6 deserves further investigation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For successful therapy, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) must be detected at an early stage. Herein, we used a proteomic approach to analyze the secretory/releasing proteome of HCC tissues to identify plasma biomarkers. Serum-free conditioned media (CM) were collected from primary cultures of cancerous tissues and surrounding noncancerous tissues. Proteomic analysis of the CM proteins permitted the identification of 1365 proteins. The enriched molecular functions and biological processes of the CM proteins, such as hydrolase activity and catabolic processes, were consistent with the liver being the most important metabolic organ. Moreover, 19% of the proteins were characterized as extracellular or membrane-bound. For validation, secretory proteins involved in transforming growth factor-β signaling pathways were validated in plasma samples. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), metalloproteinase (MMP)1, osteopontin (OPN), and pregnancy-specific beta-1-glycoprotein (PSG)9 were significantly increased in HCC patients. The overall performance of MMP1 and OPN in the diagnosis of HCC remained greater than that of AFP. In addition, this study represents the first report of MMP1 as a biomarker with a higher sensitivity and specificity than AFP. Thus, this study provides a valuable resource of the HCC secretome with the potential to investigate serological biomarkers. MMP1 and OPN could be used as novel biomarkers for the early detection of HCC and to improve the sensitivity of biomarkers compared with AFP.
Preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Science China. Life sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been proven that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical process which is precisely regulated by multiple signaling pathways during the progression and metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Canonical MAPK signaling is essential to transforming growth factor β (TGFβ)-induced EMT. Using the NSCLC cell line A549 as a model, the aim of this study is to explore the molecular mechanism of ENO1 affecting EMT.
We established an A549 strain stably overexpressing ENO1. Cell mobility was measured by the wound-healing assay. EMT-related molecular alterations were detected by Western blot analysis. The effect of ENO1 on EMT was also detected by TGFβ-1-inducing assay. EGF-stimulating assay was performed to illustrate ERK1/2 phosphorylation changes resulting from ENO1 overexpression.
Overexpressed ENO1 inhibited the mobility of A549 (P<0.05), as well as the expression of the mesenchymal markers N-cadherin and vimentin, but upregulated the epithelial marker E-cadherin. TGFβ-inducing assay also showed that the negative effect of ENO1 on EMT. ERK1/2 phosphorylation was also obviously suppressed by ENO1 in the EGF-stimulating assay.
In NSCLC cells, ENO1 overexpression can inhibit EMT in vitro by suppressing ERK1/2 phosphorylation.
No preview · Article · May 2013 · Zhongguo fei ai za zhi = Chinese journal of lung cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whether the heterogeneity in tumor cell morphology and behavior is the consequence of a progressive accumulation of genetic alterations or an intrinsic property of cancer-initiating cells established at initiation remains controversial. The hypothesis of biological predetermination in human cancer was proposed many years ago and states that the biological potency of cancer cells is predestinated in the precancerous stage. The present study aimed to investigate whether the aberrant molecular events occurring in initial cancer stages could eventually influence colorectal cancer (CRC) progression. We analyzed the mRNA and miRNA expression profiles of colorectal normal mucosa, low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (LIN), high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HIN), and adenocarcinoma tissues. Compared with the transitions from LIN to HIN to invasive carcinoma, the transition from normal epithelium to LIN appeared to be associated with greater changes in the number and expression levels of mRNAs and miRNAs, with a differential expression of 2,322 mRNAs and 71 miRNAs detected. Utilizing these early molecular changes, a miRNA-hub network analysis showed that 166 genes were identified as targets regulated by 30 miRNAs. Among these genes, a 55-gene signature regulated by 5 miRNAs was shown to be associated with overall survival or disease-free survival in three independent sample sets. Thus, the molecular changes in the transcriptome associated with the transition from normal to intraepithelial neoplasm may influence CRC progression.
No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DENND2D was identified as being down-regulated in lung cancer using a lung cancer low-expression suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library. In this study, DENND2D down-regulation has been observed not only in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) tissues, but also in immortalized human bronchial epithelial (IHBE) cell lines and precancerous lesions, indicating that the down-regulation of DENND2D may be an early event in lung cancer. The relative DNA copy number and mRNA and protein expression levels of DENND2D were determined in vitro, and they revealed a complicated regulatory network at the genomic, transcriptional and translational levels. Over-expression of DENND2D significantly suppressed the proliferation of NSCLC cells in vitro and in vivo by inducing apoptosis. These results indicate that DENND2D might function as a tumor suppressor-like gene to prevent the survival and expansion of cells with genetic damage through apoptosis mechanism, and absence of DENND2D might play a permissive role, as an early event, in tumorigenesis.
No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are highly immunogenic in many tumors, especially in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A low-density protein microarray, which consisted of 72 CTAs and six non-CTAs, was used to screen for lung cancer-related autoantibodies. The CTA panel of NY-ESO-1, XAGE-1, ADAM29 and MAGEC1, had sensitivity and specificity values of 33% and 96%, respectively. When examined in a test set, this panel of markers had sensitivity and specificity values of 36% and 89%, respectively. This array of markers preferentially detected NSCLC, but did not detect breast cancer, and non-cancer lung disease.