[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: . Glycogen storage disease type III (GSDIII) is a rare metabolic disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance, caused by deficiency of the glycogen debranching enzyme. There is a high phenotypic variability due to different mutations in the
Methods and Results
. We describe a 2.3-year-old boy from a nonconsanguineous Romanian family, who presented with severe hepatomegaly with fibrosis, mild muscle weakness, cardiomyopathy, ketotic fasting hypoglycemia, increased transaminases, creatine phosphokinase, and combined hyperlipoproteinemia. GSD type IIIa was suspected. Accordingly, genomic DNA of the index patient was analyzed by next generation sequencing of the AGL gene. For confirmation of the two mutations found, genetic analysis of the parents and grandparents was also performed. The patient was compound heterozygous for the novel mutation c.3235C>T, p.Gln107
(exon 24) and the known mutation c.1589C>G, p.Ser53
(exon 12). c.3235 >T, p.Gln107
was inherited from the father, who inherited it from his mother. c.1589C>G, p.Ser53
was inherited from the mother, who inherited it from her father.
. We report the first genetically confirmed case of a Romanian patient with GSDIIIa. We detected a compound heterozygous genotype with a novel mutation, in the context of a severe hepatopathy and an early onset of cardiomyopathy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims:
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) confers protection to the vasculature and suppresses inflammatory properties of monocytes and macrophages. It is unclear how HO-1 determines the extent of vascular dysfunction in mice and humans.
Methods and results:
Decreased HO-1 activity and expression was paralleled by increased aortic expression and activity of the nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate oxidase Nox2 in HO-1 deficient Hmox1(-/-) and Hmox1(+/-) compared with Hmox1(+/+) mice. When subjected to angiotensin II-infusion, streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus and aging, HO-1 deficient mice showed increased vascular dysfunction inversely correlated with HO activity. In a primary prevention population-based cohort, we assessed length polymorphisms of the HMOX1 promoter region and established a bipolar frequency pattern of allele length (long vs. short repeats) in 4937 individuals. Monocytic HMOX1 mRNA expression was positively correlated with flow-mediated dilation and inversely with CD14 mRNA expression indicating pro-inflammatory monocytes in 733 hypertensive individuals of this cohort. Hmox1(-/-) mice showed drastically increased expression of the chemokine receptor CCR2 in monocytes and the aorta. Angiotensin II-infused Hmox1(-/-) mice had amplified endothelial inflammation in vivo, significantly increased aortic infiltration of pro-inflammatory CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes and Ly6G(+) neutrophils and were marked by Ly6C(hi) monocytosis in the circulation and an increased blood pressure response. Finally, individuals with unfavourable HMOX1 gene promoter length had increased prevalence of arterial hypertension and reduced cumulative survival after a median follow-up of 7.23 years.
Heme oxygenase-1 is a regulator of vascular function in hypertension via determining the phenotype of inflammatory circulating and infiltrating monocytes with possible implications for all-cause mortality.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · European Heart Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies have identified and repeatedly confirmed the association of rs3197999 in MST1 with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the underlying pathophysiology remains unclear. rs3197999 is a non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism which modifies the function of macrophage stimulating protein-1 (MST1). We show by haplotyping that rs3197999 is in linkage disequilibrium with rs1050450 in GPX1, with almost complete cosegregation of the minor alleles. As shown by immunoassay, rs3197999 influences the MST-1 level in serum. But also rs1050450 causes an amino acid exchange in glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx-1) and reduced activity of this antioxidant enzyme. The association of GPx deficiency and IBD in mice was already shown. We propose that GPx-1 is a better candidate than MST1 for the pathophysiologic link between IBD locus 12 and IBD.Genes and Immunity advance online publication, 10 September 2015; doi:10.1038/gene.2015.35.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Genes and immunity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Context: Mutations in the four subunits of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) are the cause for the hereditary paraganglioma (PGL) syndromes type 1-4 and are associated with multiple and recurrent pheochromocytomas (Pheo) and PGLs. SDHC mutations most frequently result in benign, non-functional head-and neck PGLs (HNPGLs). The malignant potential of SDHC mutations remains unclear to date. Objectives: We report a patient with malignant PGL carrying a SDHC mutation and compare her case with two others of the same genotype but presenting with classic benign HNPGLs. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was demonstrated in the malignant PGL tissue. Design: In three unrelated patients referred for routine genetic testing SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD genes were sequenced and gross deletions were excluded by MLPA (MRC Holland). LOH was determined by pyrosequencing-based allele quantification and SDHB immunohistochemistry. Results: In a patient with a non-functioning thoracic PGL metastatic to the bone, the lungs and mediastinal lymph nodes we detected the SDHC mutation c.397C>T predicting a truncated protein due to a premature stop codon (p.Arg133*). We demonstrated LOH and loss of SDHB protein expression in the malignant tumor tissue. The two other patients also carried c.397C>T, p.Arg133*; they differed from each other with respect to their tumor characteristics but both showed benign HNPGLs. Conclusions We describe the first case of a malignant PGL with distant metastases caused by a SDHC germline mutation. The present case shows that SDHC germline mutations can have highly variable phenotypes and may cause malignant PGL even though malignancy is probably rare.
No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical and experimental evidence suggests a protective role for the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1) in the atherogenic process. GPx-1 deficiency accelerates atherosclerosis and increases lesion cellularity in ApoE(-/-) mice. However, the distribution of GPx-1 within the atherosclerotic lesion as well as the mechanisms leading to increased macrophage numbers in lesions is still unknown. Accordingly, the aims of the present study were (1) to analyze which cells express GPx-1 within atherosclerotic lesions and (2) to determine whether a lack of GPx-1 affects macrophage foam cell formation and cellular proliferation. Both in situ-hybridization and immunohistochemistry of lesions of the aortic sinus of ApoE(-/-) mice after 12 weeks on a Western type diet revealed that both macrophages and - even though to a less extent - smooth muscle cells contribute to GPx-1 expression within atherosclerotic lesions. In isolated mouse peritoneal macrophages differentiated for 3 days with macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (MCSF), GPx-1 deficiency increased oxidized low density-lipoprotein (oxLDL) induced foam cell formation and led to increased proliferative activity of peritoneal macrophages. The MCSF- and oxLDL-induced proliferation of peritoneal macrophages from GPx-1(-/-)ApoE(-/-) mice was mediated by the p44/42 MAPK (p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase), namely ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2), signaling pathway as demonstrated by ERK1/2 signaling pathways inhibitors, Western blots on cell lysates with primary antibodies against total and phosphorylated ERK1/2, MEK1/2 (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2), p90RSK (p90 ribosomal s6 kinase), p38 MAPK and SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase), and immunohistochemistry of mice atherosclerotic lesions with antibodies against phosphorylated ERK1/2, MEK1/2 and p90RSK. Representative effects of GPx-1 deficiency on both macrophage proliferation and MAPK phosphorylation could be abolished by the GPx mimic ebselen. The present study demonstrates that GPx-1 deficiency has a significant impact on macrophage foam cell formation and proliferation via the p44/42 MAPK (ERK1/2) pathway encouraging further studies on new therapeutic strategies against atherosclerosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Knowledge of the genetic backgrounds of hereditary syndromes, which are increasingly being characterized, enables genetic screening of family members of affected patients. Upon detection of a mutation, genetic counselling and clinical screening including imaging modalities and biochemical analyses are commonly performed.
Unaffected, mutation-positive relatives of index patients with hereditary paraganglioma syndromes were offered PET imaging with [(18)F]fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine and the incidence of pathological findings was retrospectively analysed in relation to mutations of the succinate dehydrogenase enzyme complex. PET only or PET/CT was performed in 21 individuals from eight families with SDHD, one family with SDHC and two families with SDHB mutations. Screening was offered every 2 to 5 years.
Of the 21 individuals, 14 showed paraganglioma during screening. In particular, in only 2 of 15 patients with a SDHD mutation were the findings completely unremarkable on PET screening. However, false-negative lesions for abdominal manifestations in two SDHD-positive patients were detected.
FDOPA PET is a sensitive imaging modality which should be offered to patients with a detected SDHx (SDHD) mutation, preferably using a hybrid technique.
No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · European Journal of Nuclear Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Dyslipidemia in Gaucher disease includes reduced total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (C). No prospective analysis of lipid profile changes in treatment-naïve patients under enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is available.
We analyzed lipid profile changes during ERT in a prospective controlled manner. Twelve treatment-naïve patients, Gaucher disease type 1 (GD1), 29.5 ± 12.9 years, 4M/8F. Diagnosis was made by enzymatic measurement and mutational analysis. Total-, LDL-, and HDL-C, triglycerides (TG), and LDL subfractions were assessed before the start of ERT with imiglucerase and biannually for 3 years. Patients were matched with healthy controls before and after 3 years of ERT.
At baseline, we found severely reduced HDL-C concentrations (23.6 ± 5.4 mg/dl) and enhanced LDL/HDL ratios (3.1 ± 0.7). HDL-C increased after 6 months (29.2 ± 5.7, p = 0.023), LDL/HDL ratio decreased after 30 months (2.5 ± 0.5, p = 0.039). TG, even not consistently enhanced at baseline (128 ± 31.3 mg/dl), yet higher than in controls (p
No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Attention of the otorhinolaryngologist needs to be drawn to the versatile aspects of head and neck paragangliomas (PGLs).
This study is a retrospective, nonrandomized clinical study of all 175 individuals with PGLs treated in our department between 1989 and 2010. A genetic analysis was performed on 86 patients.
The 175 patients presented 224 head and neck PGLs as well as 2 thyroid papillary carcinomas. Genetic analysis resulted in 1 patient positive for a von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene mutation and 34 for succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) gene mutations (22 SDHD, 7 SDHC, and 5 SDHB), 12 of the latter carrying a novel mutation. Thirty-three patients (18.9%) had multiple PGLs and 11 patients (6.3%) had a malignant paraganglioma. SDH-mutation carriers had multiple tumors in 64.7% and malignant paragangliomas in 20.6%.
Multifocal occurrence, potential malignancy, genetic aspects, possible coincidence of thyroid carcinoma, and hormone production have to be considered in patients with head and neck PGLs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, the two main types of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), were reported to be associated with a variety of genetic polymorphisms. A subset of these polymorphisms was identified in both diseases and only three of them were found in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). rs3197999 (Arg689Cys) located in the MST1 gene is one of the most convincingly replicated IBD/PSC-associated polymorphisms but its functional consequences have not been investigated, yet. We expressed both MST1 gene variants (Arg(689) (MSP(wt)) and Cys(689) (MSP(mut)) in a eukaryotic cell system and compared their stimulatory effects on macrophage-like THP-1 cells. Except for the rate of apoptosis that remained unchanged, MSP(mut) significantly increased the stimulatory effect of MSP (macrophage-stimulating protein) on chemotaxis and proliferation by THP-1 cells, indicating a gain of function associated with the Arg689Cys exchange. A broad set of evidence reported previously suggests that pro-inflammatory changes in macrophage function have a major role in the initiation of the inflammatory process in IBD and PSC. Therefore, the gain of function observed with rs3197999 in MST1 might provide a cellular mechanism for the consistent association of this polymorphism with an increased risk for IBD and PSC.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Genes and immunity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One major expectation from the transcriptome in humans is to characterize the biological basis of associations identified by genome-wide association studies. So far, few cis expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) have been reliably related to disease susceptibility. Trans-regulating mechanisms may play a more prominent role in disease susceptibility. We analyzed 12,808 genes detected in at least 5% of circulating monocyte samples from a population-based sample of 1,490 European unrelated subjects. We applied a method of extraction of expression patterns-independent component analysis-to identify sets of co-regulated genes. These patterns were then related to 675,350 SNPs to identify major trans-acting regulators. We detected three genomic regions significantly associated with co-regulated gene modules. Association of these loci with multiple expression traits was replicated in Cardiogenics, an independent study in which expression profiles of monocytes were available in 758 subjects. The locus 12q13 (lead SNP rs11171739), previously identified as a type 1 diabetes locus, was associated with a pattern including two cis eQTLs, RPS26 and SUOX, and 5 trans eQTLs, one of which (MADCAM1) is a potential candidate for mediating T1D susceptibility. The locus 12q24 (lead SNP rs653178), which has demonstrated extensive disease pleiotropy, including type 1 diabetes, hypertension, and celiac disease, was associated to a pattern strongly correlating to blood pressure level. The strongest trans eQTL in this pattern was CRIP1, a known marker of cellular proliferation in cancer. The locus 12q15 (lead SNP rs11177644) was associated with a pattern driven by two cis eQTLs, LYZ and YEATS4, and including 34 trans eQTLs, several of them tumor-related genes. This study shows that a method exploiting the structure of co-expressions among genes can help identify genomic regions involved in trans regulation of sets of genes and can provide clues for understanding the mechanisms linking genome-wide association loci to disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Morbus Fabry is a hereditary metabolic disorder with low prevalence and late clinical manifestation. A defect in the α-galactosidase gene leads to lysosomal accumulation of the glycolipid globotriaosylceramide (Gb3). Gb3 may be used for monitoring of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), but diagnostic sensitivity is limited. Recently, globotriaosylsphingosine (lysoGb3) was introduced as a promising new marker with significantly better sensitivity. For Fabry diagnosis, clinical studies and possible therapy monitoring, we established a fast and reliable LC-MS/MS assay for quantification of lysoGb3 in human plasma. Protein precipitation and glycolipid extraction from EDTA plasma was performed using acetone/methanol. Samples were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS in MRM mode. In contrast to HPLC with fluorescence detection, the LC-MS/MS method requires no derivatization, less sample preparation and less instrument analysis time (<3 min). As internal standard (ISTD), a glycine derivative of lysoGb3 was synthesized, and the product was purified by HPLC. ISTD properties such as polarity (affecting extraction and elution), ionization and fragmentation pathway were almost identical compared to the analyte. The new LC-MS/MS assay for the Fabry marker lysoGb3 shows good performance and allowed for better discrimination between Fabry patients and controls than Gb3.
No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cerebral hypometabolism and abnormal levels of amyloid beta (Aβ), total (t-tau) and phosphorylated tau (ptau) proteins in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are established biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We examined the agreement between these biomarkers in a single center study of patients with AD of severity extending over a wide range. Forty seven patients (MMSE 21.4 ± 3.6, range 13-28 points) with incipient and probable AD underwent positron emission tomography with [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) and lumbar puncture for CSF assays of Aβ1-42, p-tau181, and t-tau. All findings were classified as either positive or negative for AD. Statistical analyses were performed for the whole sample (n=47) and for the subgroups stratified as mild (MMSE > 20 points, n=30) and moderate (MMSE < 21 points, n=17) AD. In the whole patient sample, the agreement with the FDG-PET finding was 77% (chance-corrected kappa [κ]=0.34, p=0.016) for t-tau, 68% (κ=0.10, n.s.) for p-tau181, and 68% (κ=0.04, n.s.) for Aβ1-42. No significant agreement was found in the mild AD subgroup, while there was a strong agreement for t-tau (94%, κ=0.77, p=0.001) and p-tau181 (88%, κ=0.60, p=0.014) in the moderate AD group. A significant agreement between the FDG-PET and CSF tau findings in patients with AD supports the view that both are markers of neurodegeneration. CSF tau proteins and FDG-PET might substitute each other as supportive diagnostic tools in patients with suspected moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's dementia, while this is not the case in subjects at an earlier disease stage.
No preview · Article · Oct 2011 · Current Alzheimer research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Esophageal involvement in the context of opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients is a frequent phenomenon. However, worldwide esophageal achalasia has been described only twice in HIV-infected patients.
We report the case of a 44-year-old Caucasian patient with HIV and Hepatitis C virus (HIV/HCV) coinfection who, within 2.5 years, displayed a progressive symptomatology with dysphagia, retrosternal pain, regurgitation as well as a considerable loss of weight before achalasia was finally diagnosed. Treatment was performed primarily surgically by means of laparoscopic Heller myotomy with an anterior 180° semifundoplication according to Dor.
Histopathology of the specimens taken from the lower esophageal sphincter high-pressure zone proved alterations with abundant connective tissue and only scarce parts of the smooth muscular system without inflammatory infiltrations. In addition, the ganglia cells of the myenteric plexus as well as the interstitial cells of Cajal were significantly reduced. Interestingly, specific gene sequences of the hepatitis C virus could be detected in the esophageal tissue specimen. In contrast, analysis of specific HIV-gene sequences in the same tissue revealed a negative result.
The possible but previously unknown relationship between esophageal achalasia and coinfection with HIV and HCV, also described as neurotropic viruses, will be discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NASH (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis) is considered the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome (MS). We aimed to analyze lipid, carbohydrate, and iron metabolism in NASH.
37 patients with MS (17 M/20 F, 51+/-15 years), elevated transaminases; 25 patients had histologically proven NASH (NAS score≥5), 12 patients had toxic background (nonNASH). 37 age, sex, BMI-matched healthy controls. Lipid variables, LDL-subfractions, iron, ferritin, transferrin (T), transferrin saturation (TS), and hepcidin (H) were measured in patients/controls. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed.
NASH patients with steatosis gr. 2 and 3 (>33% hepatic fat) had higher sd-LDL (mg/dl) concentrations than patients with steatosis gr. 1 (<33%) (p=0.002), nonNASH patients (p=0.03) and controls (p=0.001). Sd absolute (mg/dl) correlated directly with the steatosis grade only in patients with NASH and steatosis >33% (p=0.04). NASH-patients showed higher insulin, C-peptide and IRI values than nonNASH patients (p=0.034; 0.032; 0.04). H was increased in patients versus controls (p<0.001). H correlated with ferritin in MS-patients (p=0.01), correlated directly with sd-LDL (mg/dl) (p=0.017) and IRI (p<0.001) and indirectly with HDL (p=0.05) in NASH. No associations between hepatic inflammation/iron content on liver biopsy and variables of lipid metabolism were found but hepcidin correlated with hepatic inflammation in all patients and with NAS scores in NASH.
NASH-patients show insulin resistance and increased sd-LDL subfractions, suggesting an atherogenic profile. The correlation of H with sd-LDL and IRI, without relation to hepatic iron content suggests a putative link between inflammation, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in NASH.
No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · European Journal of Internal Medicine