[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: α-Synuclein aggregation is central to the pathogenesis of several brain disorders. However, the native conformations and functions
of this protein in the human brain are not precisely known. The native state of α-synuclein was probed by gel filtration coupled
with native gradient gel separation, an array of antibodies with non-overlapping epitopes, and mass spectrometry. The existence
of metastable conformers and stable monomer was revealed in the human brain.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The factors that contribute to pulmonary embolism (PE), a potentially fatal complication of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), remain poorly understood. Whereas fibrin clot structure and functional properties have been implicated in the pathology of venous thromboembolism and the risk for cardiovascular complications, their significance in PE remain incomplete. Therefore we systematically compared and quantified clot formation and lysis time, plasminogen levels, viscoelastic properties, activated factor XIII crosslinking and fibrin clot structure in isolated DVT and PE subjects. Clots made from plasma of PE subjects showed faster clot lysis times with no differences in lag time, rate of clot formation or maximum absorbance of turbidity as compared to DVT. Differences in lysis times were not due to alterations in plasminogen levels. Compared with DVT, clots derived from PE subjects showed accelerated establishment of viscoelastic properties, documented by a decrease in lag time and an increase in the rate of viscoelastic property formation. The rate and extent of fibrin crosslinking by activated factor XIII were similar between clots from DVT and PE subjects. Evaluation by electron microscopy revealed that plasma fibrin clots from PE subjects exhibited lower fiber density compared to those from DVT subjects. These data suggest that clot structure and functional properties differ between DVT and PE subjects and provide insights into mechanisms that may regulate embolization.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Several lines of evidence support a pathophysiological role of immunity in atherosclerosis. Tyrosine-nitrated proteins, a footprint of oxygen- and nitrogen-derived oxidants generated by cells of the immune system, are enriched in atheromatous lesions and in circulation of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the consequences of possible immune reactions triggered by the presence of nitrated proteins in subjects with clinically documented atherosclerosis have not been explored.
Methods and results:
Specific immunoglobulins that recognize 3-nitrotyrosine epitopes were identified in human lesions, as well as in circulation of patients with CAD. The levels of circulating immunoglobulins against 3-nitrotyrosine epitopes were quantified in patients with CAD (n=374) and subjects without CAD (non-CAD controls, n=313). A 10-fold increase in the mean level of circulating immunoglobulins against protein-bound 3-nitrotyrosine was documented in patients with CAD (3.75±1.8 μg antibody Eq/mL plasma versus 0.36±0.8 μg antibody Eq/mL plasma), and was strongly associated with angiographic evidence of significant CAD.
The results of this cross-sectional study suggest that posttranslational modification of proteins via nitration within atherosclerotic plaque-laden arteries and in circulation serve as neo-epitopes for the elaboration of immunoglobulins, thereby providing an association between oxidant production and the activation of the immune system in CAD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is linked to inflammation and oxidant production, although specific markers for these pathways with pathological relevance to VTE have not been explored. The coagulant protein fibrinogen is posttranslationally modified by nitric oxide-derived oxidants to nitrated fibrinogen in both acute and chronic inflammatory states. Therefore, nitrated fibrinogen may serve as a marker of inflammation and oxidative stress in VTE. To test this hypothesis we enrolled subjects (n=251) presenting with suspected VTE at the University of Pennsylvania Hospital emergency department, 50 (19.9%) of whom were positive by imaging or 90-day follow-up. Mean nitrated fibrinogen was elevated in VTE-positive (62.7 nM, 95% CI 56.6-68.8) compared to VTE-negative patients (54.2 nM, 95% CI 51.4-57.1; P<0.01). Patients in the highest quartile of nitrated fibrinogen had an increased risk of VTE compared with patients in the lowest quartile (OR 3.30; 95% CI 1.25-8.68; P<0.05). This risk persisted after univariate adjustment for age, active cancer, and recent surgery, but not after multivariate adjustment. Mean fibrinogen levels measured either by the Clauss assay or by ELISA were not different between VTE-negative and VTE-positive patients. These data indicate that nitrated fibrinogen is an oxidative risk marker in VTE, providing a novel mechanistic link between oxidant production, inflammation, and VTE.
No preview · Article · May 2012 · Free Radical Biology and Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical trials demonstrated decreasing rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants with hypoxic respiratory failure treated with inhaled nitric oxide (iNO). However, the molecular and biochemical effects of iNO on developing human fetal lungs remain vastly unknown. By using a well-characterized model of human fetal alveolar type II cells, we assessed the effects of iNO and hyperoxia, independently and concurrently, on NO-cGMP signaling pathway and differentiation. Exposure to iNO increased cGMP levels by 40-fold after 3 d and by 8-fold after 5 d despite constant expression of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5). The levels of cGMP declined significantly on exposure to iNO and hyperoxia at 3 and 5 d, although expression of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) was sustained. Surfactant proteins B and C (SP-B, SP-C) and thyroid transcription factor (TTF)-1 mRNA levels increased in cells exposed to iNO in normoxia but not on exposure to iNO plus hyperoxia. Collectively, these data indicate an increase in type II cell markers when undifferentiated lung epithelial cells are exposed to iNO in room air. However, hyperoxia overrides these potentially beneficial effects of iNO despite sustained expression of sGC.
Full-text · Article · May 2010 · Pediatric Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial dysfunction and associated oxidant stress have been linked with numerous complex diseases and aging largely by in vitro determination of mitochondria oxidant production and scavenging. We applied targeted in vivo fluorescence analyses of mitochondria-dense pharyngeal tissue in Caenorhabditis elegans to better understand relative mitochondrial effects, particularly on matrix oxidant burden, of respiratory chain complex, MnSOD, and insulin receptor mutants displaying variable longevity. The data demonstrate significantly elevated in vivo matrix oxidant burden in the short-lived complex I mutant, gas-1(fc21), which was associated with limited superoxide scavenging capacity despite robust MnSOD induction, as well as decreased mitochondria content and membrane potential. Significantly increased MnSOD activity was associated with in vivo matrix oxidant levels similar to wild-type in the long-lived respiratory chain complex III mutant, isp-1(qm150). Yet, despite greater superoxide scavenging capacity in the complex III mutant than in the significantly longer-lived insulin receptor mutant, daf-2(e1368), only the former showed modest oxidative stress sensitivity. Furthermore, increased longevity was seen in MnSOD knockout mutants (sod-2(ok1030) and sod-2(gk257)) that had decreased MnSOD scavenging capacity and increased in vivo matrix oxidant burden. Thus, factors beside oxidant stress must underlie RC mutant longevity in C. elegans. This work highlights the utility of the C. elegans model as a tractable means to non-invasively monitor multi-dimensional in vivo consequences of primary mitochondrial dysfunction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using high-resolution immuno-electron microscopy the steady-state subcellular distribution of tyrosine-nitrated proteins in different cells and tissues was evaluated. In quiescent eosinophils and neutrophils in the bone marrow intracellular nitrated proteins were mainly restricted to the peroxidase-containing secretory granules. The inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was expressed in the same granules. Proteins nitrated on tyrosine residues were also abundant in the cytosol of circulating erythrocytes. In the vasculature, nitrated proteins were mainly located in mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum of the endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and smooth muscle cells. Endogenous nitrated proteins were also found in chondrocytes in cartilage, where it was typically associated with the cytoplasmic interface of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Nitrated proteins were also prominent in the peroxisomes of liver hepatocytes and of secretory cells in the lacrimal gland. Challenge of mouse dendritic cells with lipopolysaccharide induced iNOS protein expression in cytosol and peroxisomes and was associated with an increased 3-nitrotyrosine formation in cytosol, mitochondria, and peroxisomes. These data indicate that nitric oxide-dependent protein tyrosine nitration is a physiologically relevant process localized within specific subcellular compartments in close proximity to iNOS and to enzymes capable of peroxidative chemistry and reactive oxygen species production.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2006 · Free Radical Biology and Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) occurs in vivo under both physiological and pathological settings. The clearance of apoptotic cells may be accomplished in part by the surrounding normal VSMCs. However, the fate of internalized apoptotic cells, the rate of intracellular degradation, and the consequences of these processes to VSMC biology are unknown. Electron microscopy and confocal fluorescence imaging showed that rat VSMCs effectively bound and internalized autologous apoptotic VSMCs in vitro. Within 2 hours, the internalized apoptotic cells were delivered to lysosomes, and the majority of these internalized cells and their proteins were efficiently degraded by 24 hours. After degradation was completed, the phagocytic VSMCs remained viable with normal rates of proliferation. Clearance of apoptotic cells by VSMCs did not induce the release of vascular wall matrix proteases but was associated with a 1.6-fold increase in transforming growth factor-beta1 release. Interestingly, clearance of apoptotic cells stimulated VSMCs to secrete monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1 and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant. The coordinated release of transforming growth factor-beta1 and chemokines suggests that autologous apoptotic cell clearance stimulates VSMCs to release molecules that specifically recruit professional phagocytes while simultaneously dampening the inflammatory response and preventing vascular injury.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2005 · American Journal Of Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The oxidative environment within the lung generated upon administration of oxygen may be a critical regulator for the efficacy of inhaled nitric oxide therapy, possibly as a consequence of changes in nitrosative and nitrative chemistry. Changes in S-nitrosocysteine and 3-nitrotyrosine adducts were therefore evaluated after exposure of rats to 80% or >95% oxygen for 24 or 48 h with and without 20 ppm inhaled nitric oxide. Exposure to 80% oxygen led to increased formation of S-nitrosocysteine and 3-nitrotyrosine adducts in lung tissue that were also associated with increased expression of iNOS. The addition of inhaled nitric oxide in 80% oxygen exposure did not alter any of these adducts in the lung or in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Exposure to >95% oxygen led to a significant decrease in S-nitrosocysteine and an increase in 3-nitrotyrosine adducts in the lung. Co-administration of inhaled nitric oxide with >95% oxygen prevented the decrease in S-nitrosocysteine levels. The levels of S-nitrosocysteine and 3-nitrotyrosine returned to baseline in a time-dependent fashion after termination of exposure to >95% oxygen and inhaled nitric oxide. These data suggest the formation of S-nitrosating and tyrosine-nitrating species is regulated by oxygen tensions and co-administration of inhaled nitric oxide restores the nitrosative chemistry without a significant impact upon the nitrative pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Novel classes of pain-relieving molecules are needed to fill the void between nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and narcotics. Our studies have identified superoxide as a novel mediator of hyperalgesia (clinically defined as an augmented sensitivity to painful stimuli) and have exposed potential pathways through which this radical modulates the hyperalgesic response. The role of superoxide in pain was elucidated using a superoxide dismutase mimetic, M40403 [a manganese(II) complex with a bis(cyclo-hexylpyridine-substituted) macrocyclic ligand]. Intraplantar injection of carrageenan in rats led to time-dependent development of peripheral inflammation [measured parameters of inflammation included paw edema, cytokine release in the paw exudates, nitrotyrosine formation (a marker of peroxynitrite formation and oxidative stress), and poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase activation (the nuclear enzyme activated by superoxide/peroxynitrite)] and hyperalgesia. M40403 blocked all measured parameters of inflammation and hyperalgesia. Furthermore, when given therapeutically (2 h after the induction of hyperalgesia) either by intravenous or intrathecal administration, M40403 but not its inactive congener M40404 inhibited hyperalgesia with a rapid onset of action. Our results also show that, at the level of the spinal cord and time of peak hyperalgesia, endogenous manganese superoxide dismutase was nitrated and subsequently deactivated, losing its capacity to remove superoxide. The antihyperalgesic effects of M40403 were not reversed by naloxone excluding the potential involvement of an opiate pathway. Collectively, these studies have unraveled a critical role for superoxide in the nociceptive signaling cascade both peripherally and centrally. The discovery of this pathway opens a new therapeutic strategy for the development of novel nonnarcotic antihyperalgesic agents.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2004 · Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of hyperoxia alone and in combination with inhaled nitric oxide (NO) on the integrity of lung mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in vivo was evaluated in Fischer 344 rats. PCR amplification of lung mtDNA using two sets of primers spanning 10.1 kb of the mtDNA revealed that inhalation of 20 ppm of NO in conjunction with hyperoxia (>95% O2) reduced the amplification of mtDNA templates by 10 +/- 1% and 26 +/- 3% after 24 h of exposure. The ability of mtDNA to amplify was not compromised in rats exposed to 80% O2, even in the presence of 20 ppm of inhaled NO. Surprisingly, exposure to >95% O2 alone for either 24 or 48 h did not compromise the integrity of mtDNA templates compared with air-exposed controls, despite evidence of genomic DNA injury. Interestingly, inhaling NO alone for 48 h increased mtDNA amplification by 12 +/- 2% to 21 +/- 7%. Injury to the lung mtDNA after exposure to >95% O2 plus 20 ppm of NO was transient as rats allowed to recover in room air after exposure displayed increased amplification, with levels exceeding controls by 20 +/- 3% to 29 +/- 4%. Increased amplification was not due to cellular proliferation or increased mitochondrial number. Moreover, the ratio of pulmonary mtDNA to genomic DNA remained the same between treatment groups. The results indicate that hyperoxia fails to induce significant injury to mtDNA, and whereas inhalation of NO with hyperoxia results in mtDNA damage, the lesions are rapidly repaired during recovery.
No preview · Article · Jan 2004 · AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative and nitrative injury is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Down syndrome (DS), but no direct evidence links this type of injury to the formation of neurofibrillary tau lesions. To address this, we generated a monoclonal antibody (mAb), n847, which recognizes nitrated tau and alpha-synuclein. n847 detected nitrated tau in the insoluble fraction of AD, corticobasal degeneration (CBD), and Pick's disease (PiD) brains by Western blots. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) showed that n847 labeled neurons in the hippocampus and neocortex of AD and DS brains. Double-label immunofluorescence with n847 and an anti-tau antibody revealed partial co-localization of tau and n847 positive tangles, while n847 immunofluorescence and Thioflavin-S double-staining showed that a subset of n847-labeled neurons were Thioflavin-S-positive. In addition, immuno-electron microscopy revealed that tau-positive filaments in tangle-bearing neurons were also labeled by n847 and IHC of other tauopathies showed that some of glial and neuronal tau pathologies in CBD, progressive supranuclear palsy, PiD, and frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 also were n847-positive. Finally, nitrated and Thioflavin-S-positive tau aggregates were generated in a oligodendrocytic cell line after treatment with peroxynitrite. Taken together, these findings imply that nitrative injury is directly linked to the formation of filamentous tau inclusions.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2003 · American Journal Of Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The oxygen-insensitive nitroreductases nfsA and nfsB are known to reduce para-nitrated aromatic compounds. We tested the hypothesis that these nitroreductases are capable of reducing 3-nitrotyrosine in proteins and peptides, as well as in free amino acids using wild-type and nfsA nfsB mutant strains of Escherichia coli. E. coli homogenates were incubated with nitrated proteins and the level of 3-nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity was assayed by Western blotting. Assay conditions that allow the nitroreductases to rapidly reduce nitrofurantoin did not result in the modification of 3-nitrotyrosine in protein, peptide, or free amino acid. Stimulation of nfsA nfsB activity with paraquat had no effect on 3-nitrotyrosine reduction. Nonlethal exposure of E. coli to peroxynitrite/CO(2) resulted in the reproducible nitration of tyrosine residues in endogenous proteins. The degree of 3-nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity over the 2-h postexposure period did not differ between mutant and wild-type strains. These results indicate that the nfsA and nfsB enzymes do not reduce 3-nitrotyrosine.
No preview · Article · May 2000 · Free Radical Biology and Medicine