[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective treatment for patients with medically refractory Parkinson's disease (PD). The degree to which the anatomic location of the DBS electrode tip determines the improvement of contralateral limb movement function has not been defined. This retrospective study was performed to address this issue. Forty-two DBS electrode tips in 21 bilaterally implanted patients were localized on postoperative MRI. The postoperative and preoperative planning MRIs were merged with the Stealth FrameLink 4.0 stereotactic planning workstation (Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA) to determine the DBS tip coordinates. Stimulation settings were postoperatively optimized for maximal clinical effect. Patients were videotaped 1 year postoperatively and assessed by a movement disorder neurologist blinded to electrode tip locations. The nine limb-related components of the Unified PD Rating Scale Part III were tabulated to obtain a limb score, and the electrode tip locations associated with the 15 least and 15 greatest limb scores were evaluated. Two-tailed t-tests revealed no significant difference in electrode tip location between the two groups in three-dimensional distance (p=0.759), lateral-medial (x) axis (p=0.983), anterior-posterior (y) axis (p=0.949) or superior-inferior (z) axis (p=0.894) from the intended anatomical target. The range of difference in tip location and limb scores was extensive. Our results suggest that anatomic targeting alone may provide the same clinical efficacy as is achieved by "fine-tuning" DBS placement with microelectrode recording to a specific target.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with medically refractory Parkinson's disease (PD) obtain significant clinical benefit from subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation. The degree to which a successful outcome relates to the anatomic location of the stimulating electrode has not yet been clearly established. Many studies have attempted to correlate the clinical result with the electrode location using postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and there have been a few that used autopsy-determined locations. In this report, we describe long-term clinical follow-up in a patient with autopsy-determined electrode tip anatomic location.
A 67-year-old patient with a 27-year history of idiopathic PD complicated by disabling motor fluctuations and dopaminergic dyskinesias underwent bilateral STN deep brain stimulation (DBS). He was prospectively followed in a long-term clinical protocol until his death 40 months after electrode placement. Postoperative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and postmortem studies of this patient's brain were performed to localize DBS tip locations.
STN stimulation produced improvement of the patient's motor fluctuations, dyskinesias and clinical motor performance, especially appendicular tremors, rigidity and bradykinesia. MRI showed the electrode tips to be within 2 mm of the intended target. Postmortem brain analysis identified the right DBS tip location at the dorsomedial edge of the STN, with the left electrode in the vicinity (but not within) the STN. Chronic DBS elicited minor reactive changes were confined to the immediate vicinity of the electrode tracks. The pathological analysis demonstrated numerous cortical Lewy bodies and degenerative encephalopathy, establishing the diagnosis of transitional type diffuse Lewy body disease (DLBD) rather than simple PD.
This patient obtained clinical benefit from STN stimulation typical of that seen for most PD patients. Both the MR analysis and the autopsy demonstrated electrode placement at or outside the boundaries of the STN, suggesting that that clinical efficacy may not depend on electrode location within the central region of the STN.
Preview · Article · Nov 2007 · Clinical neuropathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation for patients with medically refractory Parkinson disease (PD) is expanding. Reported experience has provided some indication of techniques, efficacy, and morbidity, but few centres have reported more than 50 patients. To expand this knowledge, we reviewed our experience with a large series of consecutive patients.
From March 1999 to September 2003, 191 subthalamic stimulator devices (19 unilateral) were implanted in 100 patients with PD at New York Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center. Sixteen patients had undergone a prior surgery for PD (pallidotomy, thalamotomy, or fetal transplant). Microelectrode guided implantations were performed using techniques similar to those described previously. Electrode implantation occurred 1-2 weeks before outpatient pulse generator implantation.
Reductions of dyskinesias and off severity/duration were similar to prior published reports. Morbidity included: 7 device infections (3.7%), 1 cerebral infarct, 1 intracerebral haematoma, 1 subdural haematoma, 1 air embolism, 2 wound haematomas requiring drainage (1.0%), 2 skin erosions over implanted hardware (1.0%), 3 periprocedural seizures (1.6%), 6 brain electrode revisions (3.1%), postoperative confusion in 13 patients (6.8%), and 16 battery failures (8.4%). Of the 100 patients, there were no surgical deaths or permanent new neurological deficits. The average hospital stay for all 100 patients was 3.1 days.
Subthalamic stimulator implantation in a large consecutive series of patients with PD produced significant clinical improvement without mortality or major neurological morbidity. Morbidity primarily involved device infections and hardware/wound revisions.
Preview · Article · Feb 2006 · Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) performed using intraoperative microelectrode recording (MER) to adjust electrode placement has become a widely used treatment for patients with advanced Parkinson disease (PD). Few studies have been conducted to examine the location of implanted electrodes relative to the intended target, and even fewer have been undertaken to investigate the degree to which variations in the location of these electrodes impacts their clinical efficacy. This study was performed to examine these issues.
The authors located 52 bilaterally implanted DBS electrode tips on postoperative magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained in 26 consecutive patients. Postoperative and preoperative planning MR images were merged to determine the DBS electrode tip coordinates relative to the midcommissural point. Surgical records listed the intended target coordinates for each DBS electrode tip. Clinical outcome assessment included the Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor score at 1 year, standardized questionnaires, and routine follow-up visits. The mean difference between electrode tip location and intended target for all 52 electrodes was less than 2 mm in all axes. Only one electrode was farther than 3 mm from the intended target, and this was the only electrode that had to be replaced due to lack of clinical efficacy (lack of tremor suppression); its reimplantation 4 mm more medially provided excellent tremor control. High correlation coefficients indicate that the MR imaging analysis accurately determined the anatomical location of the electrode tips. Blinded videotape reviews of UPDRS motor scores comparing effects of stimulation in patients who were "on" and "off" medication identified subgroups in whom there was minimal and maximal stimulation response. Patients in these subgroups had no differences between the MR imaging-determined actual electrode tip location and its intended location. Similarly, improvements of dyskinesias and severity of symptoms encountered during the wearing-off period for the drug did not correlate with variations of electrode tip location.
The findings in this study lead the authors to suggest that a DBS electrode placed anywhere within a 6-mm-diameter cylinder centered at the presumed middle of the STN (based on stereotactic atlas coordinates) provides similar clinical efficacy. Future studies may be warranted to evaluate prospectively the degree to which MER modification of the anatomically and/or image-determined target improves clinical efficacy of DBS electrodes.
Preview · Article · Dec 2005 · Neurosurgical FOCUS
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has become a popular treatment for patients with medically refractory Parkinson disease. Many surgeons believe that microelectrode recording (MER) during DBS electrode implantation is needed to optimize placement, whereas stimulation-induced side effects such as paresthesias, dystonic contractions, dyskinesias, and ocular motor signs that become apparent postoperatively may be an indicator of the proximity of the electrode to various boundaries of the STN. This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between mapping of the STN by using MER and postoperative stimulation-induced side effects.
Eighty-two electrodes implanted in 75 patients between March 1999 and March 2003 were retrospectively examined to evaluate the length of the STN defined by MER, and the number of and threshold for postoperative stimulation-induced side effects. Electrodes were typically tested with increasing stimulation amplitudes (maximum 6 V) by using a monopolar array. The 82 electrodes were associated with 97 stimulation-induced side effects. The mean time between surgery and testing stimulation-induced side effects was 3.9 months. Statistical analysis (two-tailed t-test) revealed no significant difference in the number of stimulation-induced side effects (or the mean threshold for paresthesias, the most common side effect) for electrodes associated with an STN length less than 4.5 mm (13 electrodes) compared with those associated with an STN greater than or equal to 4.5 mm (69 electrodes, p = 0.616). For every electrode, the target adjustment based on MER results was within 2 mm of the image-planned target (usually 1 mm anterior). In the x axis (medial-lateral orientation), there was no systematic difference in adjustments made for the electrodes associated with the shorter compared with the longer STN lengths. In the y axis (anterior-posterior orientation), there was a very small statistically significant difference in the mean adjustment (0.4 mm) between the two groups.
Analysis of these results suggests that a shorter MER-determined STN length alone does not reliably predict the incidence of stimulation-induced side effects.
Preview · Article · Dec 2005 · Neurosurgical FOCUS
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become an important modality in the treatment of refractory Parkinson disease (PD). In patients with comorbid arrhythmias requiring cardiac pacemakers, DBS therapy is complicated by concerns over a possible electrical interaction between the devices (or with device programming) and the inability to use magnetic resonance imaging guidance for implantation. The authors report two cases of PD in which patients with preexisting cardiac pacemakers underwent successful implantation of bilateral DBS electrodes in the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Each patient underwent computerized tomography-guided stereotactic frame-based placement of DBS electrodes with microelectrode recording. Both extension wires were passed from the right side of the head and neck (contralateral to the pacemaker) to place the cranial pulse generators subcutaneously in the left and right abdomen. The cranial pulse generators were placed farther than 6 in from the cardiac pacemaker and from each other to decrease the chance of interference between the devices during telemetry reprogramming. Postoperative management involved brain stimulator programming sessions with simultaneous cardiological monitoring of pacemaker function and cardiac rhythm. No interference was noted at any time, and proper pacemaker function was maintained throughout the follow-up period. With bilateral STN stimulation, both patients experienced a dramatic improvement in their PD symptoms, including elimination of dyskinesias, reduction of "off" severity, and increase of "on" duration. With some modifications of implantation strategy, two patients with cardiac pacemakers were successfully treated with bilateral DBS STN therapy for refractory PD. To our knowledge, this is the first report on patients with cardiac pacemakers undergoing brain stimulator implantation.
Preview · Article · Jan 2005 · Journal of Neurosurgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To measure the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease.
Open label follow up using blinded ratings of videotaped neurological examinations.
30 patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (19 male, 11 female; mean age 58.8 years; mean disease duration 12.8 years), complicated by intractable wearing off motor fluctuations and dopaminergic dyskinesias.
Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS), part III (motor), score at one year, from blinded reviews of videotaped neurological examinations. Secondary outcomes included the other UPDRS subscales, Hoehn and Yahr scale, activities of daily living (ADL) scale, mini-mental state examination (MMSE), estimates of motor fluctuations and dyskinesia severity, drug intake, and patient satisfaction questionnaire.
Subthalamic nucleus stimulation was associated with a 29.5% reduction in motor scores at one year (p<0.0001). The only important predictors of improvement in UPDRS part III motor scores were the baseline response to dopaminergic drugs (p = 0.015) and the presence of tremor (p = 0.027). Hoehn and Yahr scores and ADL scores in the "on" and "off" states did not change, nor did the mean MMSE score. Weight gain occurred in the year after surgery, from (mean) 75.8 kg to 78.5 kg (p = 0.028). Duration of daily wearing off episodes was reduced by 69%. Dyskinesia severity was reduced by 60%. Drug requirements (in levodopa equivalents) declined by 30%.
The 30% improvement in UPDRS motor scores was a more modest result than previously reported. DBS did not improve functional capacity independent of drug use. Its chief benefits were reduction in wearing off duration and dyskinesia severity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine if bilateral transplantation of embryonic mesencephalic dopamine cells into the putamen of patients with PD significantly affected their cognitive functioning when compared with patients receiving sham surgery and to examine the effect of age on cognitive performance after implantation.
Forty patients (19 women, 21 men; age 34 to 75 years) with idiopathic PD of at least 7 years' duration (mean 14 years) who had disabling motor signs despite optimal drug management were randomly assigned to tissue implants or sham craniotomies in a double-blind design. Neuropsychological tests assessing orientation, attention, language, verbal and visual memory, abstract reasoning, executive function, and visuospatial and construction abilities were administered before and 1 year after surgery. Treatment groups did not differ at baseline in demographic, neuropsychological, motor, depression, or levodopa equivalent measures.
Postsurgical change in cognitive performance was not significantly different for real or sham surgery groups. Performance in both groups remained unchanged at follow-up for most measures.
Embryonic dopamine producing neurons can be implanted safely into the putamen bilaterally without impairing cognition in patients with PD, but within the first year, improved cognition should not be expected.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Twenty consecutive patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease underwent stereotactic posteroventral pallidotomy. Schwab and England ADL scores in the "off" state were improved by 18% and in the "on" state the scores declined by 2%. Three patients also reported marked improvement in "off" state dystonia. One-year data are available on 12 patients who underwent evaluations according to the Core Assessment Program for Intracerebral Transplantation protocol preoperatively and at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Significant improvements in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale sections II and III scores in the "off" state, composite "off" state scores of bradykinesia and rigidity, contralateral tremor in the "off" state, and contralateral dyskinesias were observed. Although there was reduction in the daily levodopa dose, this did not reach statistical significance. Major complications (15%) included hemiparesis (one of 20) and visual field cuts (two of 20); minor complications (45%) included mild cognitive dysfunction (four of 20), reading difficulty not related to visual disturbance (one of 20), and 5-10 lb weight gain (four of 20).
No preview · Article · Apr 1999 · Movement Disorders