Jörg D Leuppi

Kantonsspital Liestal, Liestal, Basel-Landschaft, Switzerland

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Publications (126)453.56 Total impact


  • No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · European Respiratory Journal

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · European Respiratory Journal

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · European Respiratory Journal

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · European Respiratory Journal

  • No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Therapeutische Umschau

  • No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Therapeutische Umschau
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    ABSTRACT: European and North-American guidelines for the diagnosis and therapy of arterial hypertension refer to hypertensive crisis as an acute and critical increase of blood pressure>180/120 mmHg. Presence of acute hypertensive target organ damage, such as stroke, myocardial infarction or heart failure, in this situation defines a “hypertensive emergency”. In these patients, immediate lowering of blood pressure (about 25% within one to two hours) in an intensive care setting is mandatory to prevent further progression of target organ damage. In contrast to hypertensive emergencies, hypertensive urgencies are characterized by an acute and critical increase in blood pressure without signs or symptoms of acute hypertensive target organ damage. In these patients, blood pressure should be lowered within 24 to 48 hours in order to avoid hypertensive target organ damage. In general, hospitalization is not required, and oral antihypertensive therapy usually is sufficient. However, further and continuing outpatient care has to be ensured.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Therapeutische Umschau
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    ABSTRACT: To analyze prospectively the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and clinical outcome in patients treated with prednisone for exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Prospective observational study. Patients presenting to the emergency department were randomized to receive 40 mg prednisone daily for 5 or 14 days in a placebo-controlled manner. The HPA axis was longitudinally assessed with the 1 μg corticotropin test and a clinical hypocortisolism score at baseline, on day 6 prior to blinded treatment, at hospital discharge, and for up to 180 days of follow-up. Prednisone was stopped abruptly, irrespective of test results. Patients discharged with pathological test results received instructions about emergency hydrocortisone treatment. A total of 311 patients were included in the analysis. Mean basal and stimulated serum total cortisol levels were highest on admission (496 ± 398 and 816 ± 413 nmol/l, respectively) and lowest on day 6 (235 ± 174 and 453 ± 178 nmol/l, respectively). Pathological stimulation tests were found in 63%, 38%, 9%, 3% and 2% of patients on day 6, at discharge, and on days 30, 90 and 180, respectively; without significant difference between treatment groups. Clinical indicators of hypocortisolism did not correlate with stimulation test results, but cortisol levels were inversely associated with reexacerbation risk. There were no hospitalizations or deaths due to adrenal crisis. Dynamic changes in the HPA axis occur during and after treatment of acute exacerbations of COPD. In hypocortisolemic patients, provided with instructions about stress prophylaxis, abrupt termination of prednisone appeared safe.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · European Journal of Endocrinology
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    ABSTRACT: Background and objectiveBoth comorbidities and physical inactivity have been shown to impair quality of life and contribute to hospital admissions and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. We hypothesized that the comorbid status predicts the level of daily physical activity (PA) in COPD.Methods In 228 patients with COPD (76% men; median (quartiles) age: 64 (59/69) years; percentage of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1% pred): 44 (31/63)), comorbidities were assessed by medical history, clinical interviews, examination and blood analysis. PA level (PAL) was measured by an activity monitor (SenseWear Pro, Bodymedia Inc., Pittsburgh, PA, USA). The association between PAL and comorbidities was investigated by univariate and multivariate regression analysis.ResultsSeventy-nine per cent of the COPD patients had at least one additional chronic comorbidity, 56% had two or more comorbidities and 35% had three or more comorbidities. In univariate analysis body mass index, the number of pack years and having at least one additional comorbidity was negatively associated with PAL while there was a positive nonlinear association between FEV1 and PAL. The presence of at least one additional comorbidity was independently associated with PAL irrespective of airflow limitation.Conclusions In this cohort, almost 80% of COPD patients had at least one additional chronic comorbidity. The level of daily PA seems to be significantly impaired by the presence of comorbidities irrespective of the type of comorbidity and independent of the degree of airflow limitation.Clinical Trial RegistrationNCT01527773 at http://www.clinicalTrials.gov.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Respirology
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Acute exacerbations (AE) in patients with COPD are associated with a decline in lung function, increased risk of hospitalization, and mortality. In this cross-sectional study we tested whether the level of objectively measured daily physical activity and exercise capacity are associated with the number of COPD exacerbations. METHODS: In 210 patients with COPD (67 % men; mean (SD) age: 63 (8) years) enrolled in The Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Outcomes Cohort of Switzerland (TOPDOCS) physical activity (PA) (steps per day, physical activity level, (PAL)), exercise capacity (6-min walking distance, (6MWD)), comorbidities, lung function, and medication were assessed. Differences between COPD patients with frequent (≥2 year) and infrequent (0-1 year) exacerbations were assessed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate whether the level of objectively measured daily physical activity and exercise capacity are associated with the number of COPD exacerbations. RESULTS: Patients with frequent AE had a significantly lower FEV1 and 6MWD compared to patients with infrequent AE. In univariate analysis, the number of exacerbations was inversely associated with FEV1, 6MWD, BMI, and smoking status while there was a positive association with RV/TLC and combined inhaled medication. However, there was no significant association with PAL and steps per day. In multivariate analysis, FEV1 and the use of combined inhaled medication were independently associated with the number of AE, after correction for covariates. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study imply that FEV1, independent of inhaled medication, is significantly associated with COPD exacerbations. Neither physical activity nor exercise capacity was independently associated with COPD exacerbations.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Beiträge zur Klinik der Tuberkulose
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    ABSTRACT: Psychological morbidity is common in chronic respiratory diseases. The diagnostic accuracy of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and risk factors for comorbid depression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are addressed. Consecutive COPD patients (GOLD stage I–IV, 40–75 years old) were enrolled in a multicentre, cross-sectional cohort study. Diagnosis of depression was ascertained through clinical records. Lung function, HADS score, 6-minute walking test (6-MWT), MRC dyspnoea score, and COPD Assessment Test (CAT) were evaluated. Two hundred fifty-nine COPD patients (mean age 62.5 years; 32% female; mean FEV1 48% predicted) were included. Patients diagnosed with depression (29/259; 11.2%) had significantly higher HADS-D and HADS-Total scores than nondepressed patients (median (quartiles) HADS-D 6 [4; 9] versus 4 [2; 7], median HADS-Total 14 [10; 20] versus 8 [5; 14]). Receiver-operating characteristic plots showed moderate accuracy for HADS-D, AUC 0.662 (95%CI 0.601–0.719), and HADS-Total, AUC 0.681 (95%CI 0.620–0.737), with optimal cut-off scores of >5 and >9, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity were 62.1% and 62.6% for HADS-D compared to 75.9% and 55.2% for HADS-Total. Age, comorbidities, sex, and lower airflow limitation predicted depression. The HADS exhibits low diagnostic accuracy for depression in COPD patients. Younger men with comorbidities are at increased risk for Depression.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Pulmonary Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The occurrence of both chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in an individual patient has been described as 'overlap syndrome', which has been associated with poor prognosis. Little is known about the possible predictors of the overlap syndrome and its association with comorbidities contributing to impaired outcome. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and possible predictors of the overlap syndrome and its association with comorbidities in a cohort of COPD patients. Methods: Individuals with COPD (GOLD stages I-IV, risk groups A-D) were recruited from outpatient clinics. Information on age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), COPD assessment test, comorbidities, medications and exacerbations in the past year was collected and a spirometry was performed. Participants underwent a nocturnal polygraphy using the ApneaLink™ device at home. An apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) >10 per hour was considered to indicate OSA. Results: We enrolled 177 COPD patients (112 men) with a mean age of 64 years (range 42-90), of whom 35 (20%) had an ESS score above 10. During nocturnal polygraphy, 33 patients (19%) had evidence of OSA. In multivariate analysis, BMI and pack years were positively associated with AHI, independent of other significant AHI determinants from univariate analysis. Arterial hypertension and diabetes were more common in patients with the overlap syndrome. Conclusions: Almost 20% of COPD patients also have OSA. BMI and smoking history seem to be predictors of the overlap syndrome, and these patients may be more often affected by hypertension and diabetes. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Respiration
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: With respect to the overweight epidemic, this study aimed to investigate the association between domain-specific physical activity and body composition measures in Swiss male employees. Methods: A total of 192 healthy male adults in full-time employment were investigated. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured and body mass index was calculated. Relative fat mass and relative muscle mass were determined by bioelectric impedance analysis. Physical activity was assessed by the validated International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results: In multiple linear regressions, leisure-time activity showed an inverse association with waist circumference and relative fat mass and a positive correlation with relative muscle mass. Work activity was positively related to waist circumference and body mass index. Conclusions: This study shows that leisure-time activity may be the most effective physical activity domain for body composition. Work activity does not seem to be protective against overweight.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Background The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease proposed in 2011 a new system to classify chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients into risk groups A-D, which considers symptoms and future exacerbation risk to grade disease severity. The aim of this study was to investigate the agreement between COPD risk group classifications using COPD assessment test (CAT) or modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) and severity grades or past-year exacerbations. Furthermore, physical activity across risk groups was examined. Methods 87 patients with stable COPD were classified into risk groups A-D. CAT and mMRC were completed. Severity grades I-IV were determined using spirometry and the number of past-year exacerbations was recorded. To test the interrater agreement, Cohen’s Kappa was calculated. Daily physical activity was measured by the SenseWear Mini armband. Results Using CAT, 65.5% of patients were in high-symptom groups (B and D). With mMRC, only 37.9% were in B and D. Using severity grades, 20.7% of patients were in high-exacerbation risk groups (C and D). With past-year exacerbations, 9.2% were in C and D. Interrater agreement between CAT and mMRC (κ = 0.21) and between severity grades and past-year exacerbations (κ = 0.31) was fair. Daily steps were reduced in risk groups B and C + D compared to A (p < 0.01), using either classification. Conclusions When classifying COPD patients into risk groups A-D, the use of CAT or mMRC and severity grades or past-year exacerbations does not provide equal results. Daily steps decreased with increasing COPD risk groups.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · BMC Research Notes
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Existing prediction models for mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients have not yet been validated in primary care, which is where the majority of patients receive care. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to validate the ADO (age, dyspnoea, airflow obstruction) index as a predictor of 2-year mortality in 2 general practice-based COPD cohorts. METHODS: Six hundred and forty-six patients with COPD with GOLD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) stages I-IV were enrolled by their general practitioners and followed for 2 years. The ADO regression equation was used to predict a 2-year risk of all-cause mortality in each patient and this risk was compared with the observed 2-year mortality. Discrimination and calibration were assessed as well as the strength of association between the 15-point ADO score and the observed 2-year all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Fifty-two (8.1%) patients died during the 2-year follow-up period. Discrimination with the ADO index was excellent with an area under the curve of 0.78 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.71-0.84]. Overall, the predicted and observed risks matched well and visual inspection revealed no important differences between them across 10 risk classes (p = 0.68). The odds ratio for death per point increase according to the ADO index was 1.50 (95% CI 1.31-1.71). CONCLUSIONS: The ADO index showed excellent prediction properties in an out-of-population validation carried out in COPD patients from primary care settings.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Respiration
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    ABSTRACT: Background Mannitol- and exercise bronchial provocation tests are both used to diagnose exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. The study aim was to compare the short-term treatment response to budesonide and montelukast on airway hyperresponsiveness to mannitol challenge test and to exercise challenge test in children and adolescents with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Methods Patients were recruited from a paediatric asthma rehabilitation clinic located in the Swiss Alps. Individuals with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction and a positive result in the exercise challenge test underwent mannitol challenge test on day 0. All subjects then received a treatment with 400 μg budesonide and bronchodilators as needed for 7 days, after which exercise- and mannitol-challenge tests were repeated (day 7). Montelukast was then added to the previous treatment and both tests were repeated again after 7 days (day 14). Results Of 26 children and adolescents with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, 14 had a positive exercise challenge test at baseline and were included in the intervention study. Seven of 14 (50%) also had a positive mannitol challenge test. There was a strong correlation between airway responsiveness to exercise and to mannitol at baseline (r = 0.560, p = 0.037). Treatment with budesonide and montelukast decreased airway hyperresponsiveness to exercise challenge test and to a lesser degree to mannitol challenge test. The fall in forced expiratory volume in one second during exercise challenge test was 21.7% on day 0 compared to 6.7% on day 14 (p = 0.001) and the mannitol challenge test dose response ratio was 0.036%/mg on day 0 compared to 0.013%/mg on day 14 (p = 0.067). Conclusion Short-term treatment with an inhaled corticosteroid and an additional leukotriene receptor antagonist in children and adolescents with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction decreases airway hyperresponsiveness to exercise and to mannitol.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · BMC Pediatrics
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: In the therapy of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), it is a major goal to improve health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Patients with COPD often suffer from exertional dyspnea and adopt a sedentary lifestyle, which could be associated with poorer HRQOL. The aim of this study was to investigate the independent association of objectively measured daily physical activity and functional capacity with HRQOL in patients with COPD. Methods: In this cross-sectional study conducted at the University Hospital Basel, Switzerland, 87 stable patients (58.6% male, mean age: 67.3 ± 9.6 yrs) with COPD in GOLD grades I (n = 23), II (n = 46), III (n = 12) and IV (n = 6) were investigated. To assess HRQOL, the COPD assessment test (CAT) was completed. Patients performed spirometry and 6-min walk test. Physical activity was measured by the SenseWear Mini Armband on 7 consecutive days. By performing a multiple linear regression analysis, independent predictors of CAT score were identified. Results: Age (β = -0.39, p = 0.001), average daily steps (β = -0.31, p = 0.033) and 6-min walk distance (β = -0.32, p = 0.019) were found to be independent predictors of CAT score, whereas physical activity duration above 3 METs (p = 0.498) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s in% of predicted (p = 0.364) showed no significant association. Conclusions: This study showed that average daily steps and functional capacity are independent determinants of HRQOL in patients with COPD. This emphasizes the importance to remain active and mobile, which is associated with better HRQOL.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · COPD Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
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    ABSTRACT: Sleep problems are a well-known risk factor for work injuries, but less is known about which vulnerable populations are most at risk. The aims of this study were to investigate the association between sleep quality and the risk of work injury and to identify factors that may modify the association. A case-control study including 180 cases and 551 controls was conducted at the University Hospital in Basel, Switzerland, from 1 December 2009 to 30 June 2011. Data on work injuries and sleep quality were collected. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of the association between sleep quality and work injury were estimated in multivariable logistic regression analyses and were stratified by hypothesized effect modifiers (age, gender, job risk, shift work, sleep duration and working hours). Poor sleep quality was associated significantly with work injury of any type (P < 0.05) and with being caught in particular (P < 0.05). The association between poor sleep quality and work injury was significantly higher for workers older than 30 years (odds ratio>30 1.30 versus odds ratio≤30 0.91, P < 0.01), sleeping 7 h or less per night (odds ratio≤7 1.17 versus odds ratio>7 0.79, P < 0.05) and working 50 h or more per week (odds ratio≥50 1.79 versus odd ratio<50 1.10, P < 0.01). Work injury risk increased with increasing severity of sleep problems (P < 0.05). Prior work injury frequency increased with decreasing sleep quality (P < 0.05). Older age, short sleep duration and long working hours may enhance the risk of work injuries associated with sleep quality.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Sleep Research

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2014
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    ABSTRACT: We report a case of a 63 year old woman with progressive small red spots that can not be diminished with pressure. They appeared on the feet first and spread out to the legs, trunk and arms. This was accompanied with non-bloody diarrhoea and the laboratory diagnostics showed minor impairment of the kidney. The biopsy of the skin showed deposits of immunoglobulin A and C3 complement in the stratum papillare of the small vessels and a necrosis of the wall, which made the diagnosis of the Schönlein-Henoch purpura clear. It was accompanied by a systemic participation of the gastrointestinal tract. The quick reversible renal insufficiency was rather interpreted as a prerenal cause, than as an origin of the Schönlein-Henoch purpura. We further discussed the diagnostic methods, the aetiology and the possible therapy options.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Praxis

Publication Stats

2k Citations
453.56 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014-2015
    • Kantonsspital Liestal
      Liestal, Basel-Landschaft, Switzerland
  • 2013-2015
    • Universität Basel
      • Faculty of Medicine
      Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland
  • 2001-2014
    • Universitätsspital Basel
      • • Klinik für Infektiologie & Spitalhygiene
      • • Institute for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics (CEB)
      Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland
    • Royal Prince Alfred Hospital
      • Department of Pet & Nuclear Medicine
      Camperdown, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2005
    • St. Vincent's Hospital Sydney
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2004
    • Woolcock Institute of Medical Research
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2001-2003
    • University of Sydney
      • Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2002
    • Kantonsspital St. Gallen
      San Gallo, Saint Gallen, Switzerland