[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
T1ρ and T2* relaxation times are capable of providing information about early biochemical changes in intervertebral disk degeneration (IVDD). The purpose of this study was to assess and compare T1ρ and T2* mapping in IVDD with reference to Pfirrmann grade.
Lumbar sagittal T2-weighted, T1ρ and T2* relaxation MRI were performed at 3.0T in 42 subjects covering discs L1–L2 to L5–S1. All the discs were morphologically assessed according to the Pfirrmann grade. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn over the T1ρ and T2*mappings, including nucleus pulposus (NP) and annulus fibrosus (AF). Wilcoxon signed rank test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Spearman rank correlation were performed.
The difference in T1ρ and T2* values between NP and AF were highly significant (P<0.001). The trends of decreasing T1ρ and T2* values of both NP and AF with increasing Pfirrmann grades was significant (P<0.01), particularly between Pfirrmann grade II and III (P<0.001), whereas T2* mapping was additionally able to detect changes in the AF between Pfirrmann grade I and II (P<0.05). Pfirrmann grades were inversely significantly correlated with both T1ρ and T2* values in the NP (r=–0.69, P<0.001; r=−0.56, P<0.001) and AF (r=−0.45, P<0.001; r=−0.26, P<0.001).
The process of IVDD can be detected by T1ρ and T2* mapping, particularly at early stage, and both methodologies displayed roughly comparable performance.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify and justify the best section to reveal each segment of the abducens nerve according to 3D-SPACE magnetic resonance sequences and correlate with cryosectional specimens.
Thirty-four healthy adults were recruited for MRI using a 3D-SPACE sequence. Eighteen adult head specimens were cut into serial transverse, sagittal and coronal section using an electric band saw after the specimens were frozen. The MRI characteristics and the anatomical features of the abducens nerve were analyzed by correlation with the cryosection.
We divided the abducens nerve into five segments, the cisternal segment, Dorello canal (DC) segment, cavernous sinus (CS) segment, superior orbital fissure (SOF) segment and intraorbital segment. In the transverse sections, the detection rates for the cisternal and Dorello canal segments of the abducens nerve were 97.06 and 94.12 %, respectively, on 3D-SPACE MR images. In the sagittal section of the frozen specimens, only the cisternal segment of the abducens nerve could be observed, and its detection rate was 51.50 %. In the coronal section, the CS segment of the abducens nerve was located inferior lateral to the ICA as well as, inferior to the oculomotor and trochlear nerves, and the detection rate of the CS segment was 42.60 % on 3D-SPACE MR images.
3D-SPACE sequence MR scanning was a useful method for observing the cisternal and DC segment of the abducens nerve in a transverse section, observing the cisternal segment in a sagittal section and observing the CS segment in a coronal section.
No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The morphometry of fetal adrenal gland is rarely described with MRI of high magnetic field. The purpose of this study is to assess the normal fetal adrenal gland length (AL), width (AW), height (AH), surface area (AS) and volume (AV) in the second half of gestation with 3.0T post-mortem MRI.
Fifty-two fetal specimens of 23-40 weeks gestational age (GA) were scanned by 3.0T MRI. Morphological changes and quantitative measurements of the fetal adrenal gland were analyzed. Asymmetry and sexual dimorphism were also obtained. The shape of the fetal adrenal gland did not change substantially from 23 to 40 weeks GA. The bilateral adrenal glands appeared as a 'Y', pyramidal or half-moon shape after reconstruction. There was a highly linear correlation between AL, AW, AH, AS, AV and GA. AW, AH, AS and AV were larger for the left adrenal gland than the right. No sexual dimorphism was found.
Our data delineated the normal fetal adrenal gland during the second half of gestation, and can serve as a useful precise reference for anatomy or in vivo fetus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the fetal cerebral lobes development between 20 and 28 weeks gestational age, 36 fetus specimen without CNS abnormality, with 4 fetuses in each gestation week, were scanned with 3.0T MR. Lobular parameters were measured, including the parenchyma thickness of the frontoparietal and the temporal lobes, the margin length of frontoparietal, the insula and the temporal lobes, the Sylvian fissure and the perimeter of hippocampus, on the plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of hippocampus body across the base of cerebral peduncle. The relative value of parenchyma thickness and the lobes' length ratios to the same side hemisphere were calculated and their correlation with gestational weeks was analyzed. All measured parameters were positively correlated with gestational age. No significant tendency was found for relative value of the parenchyma thickness (P>0.05). The temporal lobe length ratio increased while the frontoparietal ratio decreased before 24 weeks GA and then the two reversed. The Sylvian fissure length ratio increased (P<0.001) and the hippocampus decreased (P<0.001) throughout this period. In conclusion, the early fetal cerebrum lobes developed asynchronously during this period, the 24 weeks GA could be a turning point for cerebrum development pattern changing from primitive to mature.
No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · International journal of developmental neuroscience: the official journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract This study aims to investigate metabolic changes in frontal and parietal cortices in the 6-OHDA induced Parkinson's rats. Ratios of N-acetyl-aspartic acid / creatine (NAA/Cr), choline / creatine (Cho/Cr), and glumatic acid and glutamine glutaminic acid /creatine(Glx/Cr) of regions of interests (ROIs) in the frontal and parietal cortices, and the substantia nigra were analyzed. NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr and Glx/Cr in the frontal and parietal cortices in the lesion side did not show any significant differences 2 weeks after operation compared with the contralateral side (p>0.05). NAA/Cr in the frontal cortex in the lesion side was significantly lower in the 5 weeks after operation; Cho/Cr remained normal; Glx/Cr increased (p<0.05), and all ratios of parietal cortex were normal. In the 8 weeks after operation, NAA/Cr in the frontal cortex in the lesion side was lower than that of the 5 weeks (p<0.01); Cho/Cr still remained normal, while Glx/Cr was higher than before (p<0.01). Regarding the parietal cortex, NAA/Cr increased significantly, while Cho/ Cr and Glx/Cr remained normal. In the 12 weeks after operation, NAA/Cr, Cho/ Cr and Glx/Cr in frontal cortex were consistent with that of the 8 weeks, while they remained at the normal level in parietal cortex. The NAA/Cr in the substantia nigra decreased and Cho/Cr increased significantly during 2-8 weeks, and remained at the same level during 8-12 weeks. There are metabolic disturbances in PD rats. The transient hyperfunction in the parietal cortex can be considered as a compensation for the dysfunction of the frontal cortex and substantia nigra.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · The International journal of neuroscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the second trimester, the human fetal brain undergoes numerous changes that lead to substantial variation in the neonatal in terms of its morphology and tissue types. As fetal MRI is more and more widely used for studying the human brain development during this period, a spatiotemporal atlas becomes necessary for characterizing the dynamic structural changes. In this study, 34 postmortem human fetal brains with gestational ages ranging from 15 to 22weeks were scanned using 7.0T MR. We used automated morphometrics, tensor-based morphometry and surface modeling techniques to analyze the data. Spatiotemporal atlases of each week and the overall atlas covering the whole period with high resolution and contrast were created. These atlases were used for the analysis of age-specific shape changes during this period, including development of the cerebral wall, lateral ventricles, Sylvian fissure, and growth direction based on local surface measurements. Our findings indicate that growth of the subplate zone is especially striking and is the main cause for the lamination pattern changes. Changes in the cortex around Sylvian fissure demonstrate that cortical growth may be one of mechanisms for gyration. Surface deformation mapping, revealed by local shape analysis, indicates that there is global anterior-posterior growth pattern, with frontal and temporal lobes developing relatively quickly during this period. Our results are valuable for understanding the normal brain development trajectories and anatomical characteristics. These week-by-week fetal brain atlases can be used as reference in in vivo studies, and may facilitate the quantification of fetal brain development across space and time.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
The objective of our study was to show the feasibility and performance of diffusion-weighted MR neurography (MRN) of extremity nerves with unidirectional motion-probing gradients at 3 T.
Subjects and methods:
Forty-seven healthy volunteers and 10 patients underwent diffusion-weighted MRN of extremity nerves with unidirectional motion-probing gradients (anterior-posterior direction only) on a 3-T unit. Images were displayed using a maximum-intensity-projection technique. Two radiologists blindly and independently evaluated the imaging quality of extremity nerves on diffusion-weighted MRN images using a 4-point grading scale, with 4 indicating excellent quality and 1 indicating poor quality, and evaluated the relation of the lesion to adjacent nerves in patients.
In volunteers, the long trajectories of major extremity nerves, including the radial, median, ulnar, sciatic, tibial, and common peroneal nerves, could be visualized 3D on diffusion-weighted MRN images. The mean imaging quality scores of all nerves for observers 1 and 2 were 3.68 ± 0.70 (SD) and 3.70 ± 0.66, respectively. Interobserver agreement was good (κ = 0.774). In patients, there was no discrepancy in imaging quality scores between observers. Scores of all nerves were 2-4 except in two patients with neurofibromatosis and one patient who underwent imaging soon after surgery. The extent of the lesions and the relationship of the lesions to the adjacent nerves were clearly depicted on diffusion-weighted MRN images of all patients.
This preliminary study shows that 3-T diffusion-weighted MRN with unidirectional motion-probing gradients is feasible for 3D visualization of major extremity nerves. Diffusion-weighted MRN may enable nerve depiction and allow assessment of the anatomic relationship between lesions with diffusion restriction and adjacent nerves.
Preview · Article · May 2013 · American Journal of Roentgenology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aims to obtain the signal intensity changes and quantitative measurements of the subcortical brain structures of 12-22 weeks gestational age (GA).
Sixty-nine fetal specimens were selected and scanned by 7.0-T MR. The signal intensity changes of the subcortical brain structures were analyzed. The three-dimensional visualization models of the germinal matrix, caudate nucleus, lentiform nucleus, and dorsal thalamus were rebuilt with Amira 4.1, and the developmental trends between the measurements and GA were analyzed.
The germinal matrix was delineated on 7.0-T MR images at 12 weeks GA, with high signals on T1-weighted images (WI). While at 16 weeks GA, the caudate nucleus, lentiform nucleus, and internal and external capsules could be distinguished. The caudate nucleus was high signal intensity on T1WI. The signal intensity of the putamen was high on T1WI during 15-17 weeks GA and was delineated as an area with uneven signal intensities. The signal intensity of the peripheral area of the putamen became higher after 18 weeks GA. The signal intensity of the globus pallidus was high on T1WI and low on T2WI after 20 weeks GA. At 18 weeks GA, the claustrum was delineated with low signals on T2WI. Measurements of the germinal matrix, caudate nucleus, lentiform nucleus, and dorsal thalamus linearly increased with the GA.
Development of the subcortical brain structures during 12-22 weeks GA could be displayed with 7.0-T MRI. The measurement provides significant reference beneficial to the clinical evaluation of fetal brain development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Compound diphenoxylate (diphenoxylate-atropine) poisoning can cause toxic encephalopathy in children, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain in this condition has not been reported. This study is to analyze brain MRI findings and to investigate the relations between MRI features and possible pathophysiological changes in children.
Six children accidentally swallowed compound diphenoxylate, 4 males, 2 females, aged 20-46 months, average 33 months. Quantity of ingested diphenoxylate-atropine was from 6 to 30 tablets, each tablet contains diphenoxylate 2.5mg and atropine 0.025 mg. These patients were referred to our hospital within 24h after diphenoxylate-atropine ingestion, and underwent brain MRI scan within 24-72 h after emergency treatment. The characteristics of conventional MRI were analyzed.
These pediatric patients had various symptoms of opioid intoxication and atropine toxicity. Brain MRI showed abnormal low signal intensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI) and abnormal high signal intensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging in bilateral in all cases; abnormal high signal intensity on T1WI, T2WI and FLAIR in 4 cases. Encephalomalacia was observed in 3 cases during follow-up.
In the early stage of compound diphenoxylate poisoning in children, multiple extensive edema-necrosis and hemorrhagic-necrosis focus were observed in basic nucleus, pallium and cerebellum, these resulted in the corresponding brain dysfunction with encephalomalacia. MRI scan in the early stage in this condition may provide evidences of brain impairment, and is beneficial for the early diagnosis, treatment and prognosis assessment.
No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · European journal of radiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cerebellum is one of the most important structures in the posterior cranial fossa, but the characterization of its development by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is incomplete. We scanned 40 fetuses that had no morphological brain disorder at 14-22 weeks of gestation using 7.0 T MRI. Amira 4.1 software was used to determine morphological parameters of the fetal cerebellum, which included the cerebellar volume (CV), transverse cerebellar diameter (TCD), and the length and width of the vermis. The relationship between these measurements and gestational age (GA) was analysed. We found that the primary fissure was visible at week 14 of gestation. From week 16, the prepyramidal fissure, the secondary fissure and the dentate nucleus could be identified. The posterolateral fissure and the fourth ventricle were recognized at week 17, whereas the tentorium of the cerebellum was visible at week 20. The relationships between GA and CV, TCD, and the width and length of the vermis were described adequately by second-order polynomial regression curves. The ratios between TCD and vermis length and between TCD and vermis width decreased with GA. These results show that 7.0 T MRI can show the trajectory of cerebellar development clearly. They increase our understanding of normal cerebellar development in the fetus, and will facilitate the diagnosis of pathological intrauterine changes in the cerebellum.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, scalar values for the fetal brain from 12 to 20 weeks gestational age were obtained. Fifty-two fetal specimens of 12-20 weeks gestational age with an anatomically normal and developmentally appropriate central nervous system (CNS) were scanned using a 7.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. The linear biometric measurements of the brain were then determined. All the measurements (except for the interhemispheric distance) were found to increase linearly with gestational age, although each increased at a different growth rates. The 95% confidence interval for each value was obtained. These data may be considered to be a valuable reference for the assessment of normal fetal brain development in clinical settings and as a supplement to post-mortem MRI or anatomical investigations.
Preview · Article · Jul 2011 · International journal of developmental neuroscience: the official journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 20th week gestational age (GA) is at mid-gestation and corresponds to the age at which the termination of pregnancy in several countries and the first Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can be performed, and at which the premature babies may survive. However, at present, very little is known about the exact anatomical character at this GA.
To delineate the developing fetal brain of 20 weeks GA and obtain the three dimensional visualization model.
20 fetal specimens were scanned by 3.0 T and 7.0 T post-mortem MRI, and the three dimensional visualization model was obtained with Amira 4.1.
Most of the sulci or their anlage, except the postcentral sulcus and intraparietal sulcus, were present. The laminar organization, described as layers with different signal intensities, was most clearly distinguished at the parieto-occipital lobe and peripheral regions of the hippocampus. The basal nuclei could be clearly visualized, and the brain stem and cerebellum had formed their common shape. On the visualization model, the shape and relative relationship of the structures could be appropriately delineated. The ranges of normal values of the brain structures were obtained, but no sexual dimorphisms or cerebral asymmetries were found.
The developing fetal brain of 20 weeks GA can be clearly delineated on 3.0 T and 7.0 T post-mortem MRIs, and the three dimensional visualization model supplies great help in precise cognition of the immature brain. These results may have positive influences on the evaluation of the fetal brain in the uterus.
Preview · Article · Dec 2010 · European journal of radiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to show the condition of laminar organization on 3.0T and 7.0T postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and analyze developmental changes.
Heads of 131 fetal specimens of 14-40 weeks gestational age (GA) were scanned by 3.0T MRI. Eleven fetal specimens of 14-27 weeks GA were scanned by 7.0T MRI. Clear images were chosen for analysis.
On T₁-weighted 3.0T MRI, layers could be visualized at 14 weeks GA and appeared clearer after 18 weeks GA. On 7.0T MRI, four zones could be recognized at 14 weeks GA. During 15-22 weeks GA, when laminar organization appeared typical, seven layers including the periventricular zone and external capsule fibers could be differentiated, which corresponded to seven zones in histological stained sections. At 23-28 weeks GA, laminar organization appeared less typical, and borderlines among them appeared obscured. After 30 weeks GA, it disappeared and turned into mature-like structures. The developing lamination appeared the most distinguishable at the parieto-occipital part of brain and peripheral regions of the hippocampus. The migrating thalamocortical afferents were probably delineated as a high signal layer located at the lower, middle, and upper part of the subplate zone at 16-28 weeks GA on T₁-weighted 3.0T MRI.
T₁-weighted 3.0T MRI and T₂-weighted 7.0T MRI can well demonstrate the laminar organization. Development of the lamination follows a specific spatio-temporal regularity, and postmortem MRI of the parieto-occipital part of brain obtained with 3.0T or 7.0T is an effective way to show developmental changes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Structural sexual dimorphism and asymmetry in human cerebellum have been described in previous research, but results remain inconclusive or even conflicting. In this study, gender differences and hemispheric asymmetries in global and regional human cerebellum gray matter (GM) were estimated in an age-matched sample (n=112) of young Chinese adults. An optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in spatial unbiased infratentorial template (SUIT) space together with an automated atlas-based volumetric approach were performed for mapping regional gray matter (GM) gender-related differences across the entire cerebellum. The two methods provided consistent findings on gender differences. The cerebellar GM volume was significantly larger in the anterior and middle posterior lobes of male group. In addition, a trend of greater GM volume in lateral posterior lobe of female group was observed. With the created symmetric cerebellar template, the asymmetric properties of cerebellar hemisphere were also assessed by VBM analysis, showing rightward asymmetry distributed in most cerebellar lobules and leftwards asymmetry distributed in the lobules around the medial posterior lobe. Gender differences in males showed higher leftward asymmetry sparsely within a few lobules and lower rightward asymmetry mainly within lobule Crus II, as compared with females. The acquired detailed morphologic knowledge of normal human cerebellum could establish a baseline for comparison with pathologic changes in the cerebellum. Moreover, our results might help to address controversies in thestudy of sexual dimorphisms and asymmetric patterns in human cerebellum.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Quantitative data of fetal cortical folding and its developmental changes supply important information in the estimation of fetal age and assessment of brain maturation, so the increasing tendencies of cortical growth and its folding conditions at the beginning of the second and third trimesters with post-mortem Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) were analyzed. 131 fetal specimens of 14-40 weeks gestational age (GA) were selected and scanned with 3.0 T MR. Then the length of folded cortical margin (LFCM) and length of unfolded cortical margin (LUCM) were measured by Photoshop and ZoomMagic software. Degrees of cortical folding (DCF) were calculated by means of (LFCM-LUCM)/LFCM. Growth curves were obtained between the 3 above values and GA, and significant differences in age stages, hemispheres and genders were analyzed. The relationship between LFCM in centimeters, DCF and GA in weeks was described by two exponential growth curves [LFCM=5.325 exp(0.079GA); DCF=11.890 exp(0.043GA)]. The curves increased rapidly after 26 weeks GA, which could be recognized as a cut-off point of fetal cortical and sulcal development. LUCM and GA were described by a logarithmic growth curve which slowed down after 26 weeks GA [LUCM=30.580 Ln(GA)-72.490]. Significant differences of the 3 values before and after 26 weeks GA (p<0.01), but not any in hemispheres and genders were noticed. These results, which may be valuable in assessing normal brain development and can serve as a model in clinical settings, indicate that the cerebral volume first increases and is then followed by increases of the surface area.
Preview · Article · May 2010 · International journal of developmental neuroscience: the official journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent years, investigations of the pathologic mechanism of Parkinson's disease (PD) have mainly concentrated on the basal ganglia. However, recent studies have confirmed that pathological changes in PD are accompanied by functional motor changes of the cerebral cortex. Rats were injected with 6-hydroxydopamine and ascorbic acid in the right substantia nigra. In this rat model of PD, magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed the ratio of N-acetyl-aspartic acid to creatine in a lesion in the right frontal cortex was significantly lower than the same ratio in a control group of rats. The ratio of choline to creatine in a lesion in the right frontal cortex was not significantly different between the PD-model rats and control rats. In addition, the optical densities of neurofilament protein and synaptophysin positive sites decreased significantly on the side of the brain with the injury compared with the side without the injury, and with both sides in the control rats. The density of synapses in the frontal cortex on the lesioned side was decreased compared with the unlesioned side. There were abnormal changes in the presynaptic membrane, postsynaptic membrane and synaptic vesicles, and the typical synaptic structure was no longer apparent on the lesioned side. We hypothesized loss of neurons and synapses, abnormal synaptic structure and neuron and synaptic dysfunction of the frontal cortex with a lesion in the injury side of the frontal cortex in PD-model rats. These changes might have an important role in the pathologic mechanism of PD.
No preview · Article · May 2010 · Journal of Clinical Neuroscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) imaging studies focus on structural brain changes. Stereotactic neuroimaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) are helpful in the diagnosis of ICH, monitoring the subsequent recovery and investigating its functional mechanisms.
To explore the influence of the changes in cerebral glucose metabolism on perihematomal edema formation in an experimental cat model of ICH.
Forty-eight cats were divided into 1 sham operation group (6 cats) and 7 ICH model groups (42 cats)". The ICH model groups were injected with 1.0 ml autologous nonheparinized blood into their thalami using accurate stereotactic guidance apparatus. MRI and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT scans were acquired at 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 120 h following the intervention. Pearson's correlation test was used to evaluate the association between T2-weighted signal intensity and the edema volume. Student's t test and q test were used to identify the times of significant temporal changes.
The volume of perilesional edema did not significantly increase from 2 h to 12 h after ICH, but then increased by 229.4% at 24 h, peaked (by 273.5%), and steadily decreased by 72 h. The FDG intensity in perihematomal edema tissues was markedly reduced 2 h after ICH on PET images, reached its lowest level at 12 h, and then steadily increased at 24 h and 48 h. The changes of standard absorption value (SUV) in perihematomal edema were consistent with those of FDG intensity.
Perihematomal glucose metabolism abnormalities have a close relationship with the formation of vasogenic edema. Furthermore, abnormal glucose metabolism may impair capillary integrity and increase blood-brain barrier permeability.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We developed a novel brain atlas template to facilitate computational brain studies of Chinese subjects and populations using high quality magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and well-validated image analysis techniques. To explore the ethnicity-based structural brain differences, we used the MRI scans of 35 Chinese male subjects (24.03+/-2.06 years) and compared them to an age-matched cohort of 35 Caucasian males (24.03+/-2.06 years). Global volumetric measures were used to identify significant group differences in the brain length, width, height and AC-PC line distance. Using the LONI BrainParser, 56 brain structures were automatically labeled and analyzed for all subjects. We identified significant ethnicity differences in brain structure volumes, suggesting that a population-specific brain atlas may be more appropriate for studies involving Chinese populations. To address this, we constructed a 3D Chinese brain atlas based on high resolution 3.0T MRI scans of 56 right-handed male Chinese volunteers (24.46+/-1.81 years). All Chinese brains were spatially normalized by using linear and nonlinear transformation via the "AIR Make Atlas" pipeline workflow within the LONI pipeline environment. This high-resolution Chinese brain atlas was compared to the ICBM152 template, which was constructed using Caucasian brains.