B Salerni

Università degli Studi di Brescia, Brescia, Lombardy, Italy

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Publications (97)252.5 Total impact

  • L Cirillo · C Casella · F D'Adda · C Cappelli · B Salerni
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: Clinical significance, population screening and management of subclinical hyperthyroidism (SHyper) are still debated. Although the diagnosis of subclinical hyperthyroidism is, by definition, purely a biochemical one a conventional gray-scale sonography and, more recently, color-flow Doppler sonography (CFDS) have proven to be useful in obtaining information about thyroid morphology and function in thyroid disease, such as SHyper. The objective of this study was to evaluate, using CFDS, the presence and significance of changes in intrathyroidal blood flow and velocity in patients affected by SHyper and, to evalutate the potential diagnostic role of CFDS in mild thyroid disease in absence of a significant alteration in the serum level of circulating thyroid hormones. Methods: In this study, patients with SHyper (the case group) and euthyroid patients (the control group) were enrolled. All patients from the two groups who were affected by multinodular goiter as preoperative diagnosis, underwent total thyroidectomy. In both groups preoperative examination included a conventional grey-scale sonography, followed by CFDS. Quantitative flow evaluation was performed measuring the maximal peak systolic velocity (PSV) at the level of intrathyroid arteries and inferior thyroid artery. Results: Patients with SHyper showed an increased thyroid vascularization both intranodular and peripheral and the mean PSV values were higher in case patients than in control subjects. Conclusion: We have shown that significant changes in thyroid vascularity and blood flow velocity are already present in patients with SHyper. CFDS is a suitable technique to identify SHyper.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Minerva endocrinologica
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    ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis plays a crucial role in tumor growth and progression. Low expression of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in several malignant tumors correlates with disease recurrence and overall survival. Previous studies have shown that MR expression is decreased in colorectal cancer (CRC). Here we hypothesize that decreased MR expression can contribute to angiogenesis and poor patient survival in colorectal malignancies. In a cohort of CRC patients, we analyzed tumor MR expression, its correlation with tumor microvascular density and its impact on survival. Subsequently, we interrogated the role of MR in angiogenesis in an in vitro model, based on the colon cancer cell line HCT116, ingenierized to re-express a physiologically controlled MR. In CRC, decreased MR expression was associated with increased microvascular density and poor patient survival. In pchMR transfected HCT116, aldosterone or natural serum steroids largely inhibited mRNA expression levels of both VEGFA and its receptor 2/KDR. In CRC, MR activation may significantly decrease angiogenesis by directly inhibiting dysregulated VEGFA and hypoxia-induced VEGFA mRNA expression. In addition, MR activation attenuates the expression of the VEGF receptor 2/KDR, possibly dampening the activation of a VEGFA/KDR dependent signaling pathway important for the survival of tumor cells under hypoxic conditions.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Background Gut mast cells represent an important cell population involved in intestinal homeostasis and inflammatory processes. However, their possible role has not to date been investigated in colonic diverticular disease. Aims This study aims to evaluate colonic mast cells in patients undergoing surgery for diverticular disease. Methods Surgical resection samples from 27 patients undergoing surgery for diverticular disease (12 emergency procedures for severe disease and 15 elective procedures) were evaluated. The number of mast cells was assessed in the various layers by means of a specific antibody (tryptase) and compared with those evaluated in ten controls. In patients with mast cells degranulation, double immunohistochemistry, also assessing nerve fibres, was carried out. In addition, the presence of myenteric plexitis was sought. Results Compared with controls, the number of mast cells in diverticular patients was significantly increased, both as an overall figure and in the various layers of the large bowel. In patients in whom mast cells degranulation was present, these were always closed to nerve fibres. No differences were found between the two subgroups of patients with respect to the number and distribution of mast cells; however, all patients undergoing emergency surgery (but none of those undergoing elective procedures) had myenteric plexitis, represented by lymphocytic infiltration in 67 % and eosinophilic infiltration in 33 % of cases. Conclusions Patients with diverticular disease display an increase of mast cells in the large bowel. The presence of myenteric plexitis in those with complicated, severe disease, suggest that this could represent a histopathologic marker of more aggressive disease.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · International Journal of Colorectal Disease
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    ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. More rarely neoplasms with histology and immunohistochemistry similar to GISTs may occur outside the gastrointestinal tract ( omentum, mesentery and retroperitoneum) and are so-called Extra-gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (EGISTs). EGISTs arising in the retroperitoneum are extremely rare: to date, only 58 cases have been reported in the literature. We herein report a case of a primary EGIST of the retroperitoneum surgically treated. The pre-operative radiological evaluation showed a retroperitoneal mass, placed in left paravertebral region. Morphological and immunohistochemical features led to a diagnosis of extra-gastrointestinal stromal tumor (intermediate-low risk form). As a result of the rarity of reports of primary EGISTs of retroperitoneum we need to analyze the data of reported cases in order to gain a better understanding about the pathogenesis, prognosis and optimal treatment of this disease.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Clinical Medicine Insights: Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Hypocalcaemia is a complication of parathyroidectomy. We retrospectively analyzed data on patients who underwent parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) to identify predictive factors for severe postoperative hypocalcaemia. Since 2004 we performed 87 parathyroidectomies for pHPT. We divided the patients into two groups: subjects who presented with postoperative hypocalcaemia (group B) or otherwise (group A). We looked for a correlation between several variables and the incidence of postoperative hypocalcaemia. The median calcemia in group B (19 patients) was 6.9 mg/dL on the first postoperative day and 7.6 mg/dL on the third day. We observed hypocalcemia related clinical symptoms in every patient. In all 19 cases the reduction of intraoperative parathyroid hormone above 85 per cent after parathyroidectomy was related to the development of severe postoperative hypocalcaemia (P = 0.042). We found that the reduction of intraoperative parathyroid hormone over 85 per cent after parathyroidectomy can be considered a reliable predictive factor of postoperative hypocalcaemia after parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · The American surgeon
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    ABSTRACT: Mast cells are involved in visceral hypersensitivity and motor activity of the gastrointestinal tract. However, there is almost no information concerning mast cells in constipated patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate mast cells distribution in all colonic layers in controls and severely constipated patients with obstructed defecation. Full-thickness specimens from colons of patients undergoing surgery for obstructed defecation due to refractoriness to other therapeutic interventions (n = 11), compared to controls, were obtained and the number of mast cells (evaluated by specific monoclonal antibodies) were counted in the whole viscus and in the various colonic segments (cecum, ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid). Compared to controls, constipated patients had significantly higher numbers of mast cells, both as an overall number and in single colonic segments. This increase was especially evident in the mucosa and submucosa. Mast cells were homogeneously represented in the various segment of the large bowel, in both controls and patients. Degranulated mast cells were found to be close to enteric glial cells and glial filaments. Colonic mast cells are increased in obstructed defecation patients. This might represent a vicariating mechanism to the impaired colonic propulsive activity of these patients.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Digestive Diseases and Sciences

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Aug 2011

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Aug 2011
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic constipation requiring surgical ablation for intractability is often a frustrating condition from the pathologist's point of view. In fact, limiting the histological examination to only hematoxylin-eosin staining usually yields only the information that there are no abnormalities. By employing some simple and widely available immunohistochemical methods, discussed in this review, it is possible to gather data that may help in explaining the pathophysiological basis of constipation in these patients.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Techniques in Coloproctology
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    ABSTRACT: There is recent evidence that mast cells may play important roles in the gut, especially concerning visceral hypersensitivity and motor activity. However, most data are only available for clinical conditions characterised by diarrhoea, where MC have chiefly investigated in the mucosal layer of the colon and there is almost no information concerning constipation. To investigate mast cells distribution in all colonic layers in controls and severely constipated patients. Full-thickness specimens from colons of patients undergoing surgery for slow transit constipation (n=29), compared with controls, were obtained and the number of mast cells (evaluated by specific monoclonal antibodies) counted as a whole and in single colonic segments (caecum, ascending, transverse, descending and sigmoid). Compared with controls, constipated patients revealed significantly higher number of mast cells, both as overall number and in single colonic segments. The distribution of mast cells resulted fairly homogeneous in the various segment of the large bowel, in both controls and patients, and no significant difference in the percentage of degranulated cells was found between groups. Colonic mast cells display a homogeneous distribution within the viscus. This cell population is shown to increase in severely constipated patients, which might represent a mechanism trying to compensate for the impaired propulsive activity of these patients.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2011 · Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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    ABSTRACT: (99m)Technetium-sestamibi hybrid SPECT/CT has been favored over conventional SPECT in preoperative evaluation of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) patients. However, the financial implications of CT-image acquisition have never before been published. This prompted us to perform a cost analysis of the aforementioned nuclear procedures. A total of 55 PHPT patients operated on between 2004 and 2009 were studied. Overall, 27 patients underwent SPECT and 28 SPECT/CT. Localization results, as well as diagnostic and clinical cost variations between SPECT and SPECT/CT patients, were compared. SPECT/CT revealed higher sensitivity than SPECT (96.7 vs 79.3%; P = .011), as well as higher specificity (96.4 vs 82.4%; P = .037) and positive predictive value (PPV) (96.7 vs 83%; P = .038) for correctly identifying the neck-side affected by PHPT. Likewise, SPECT/CT disclosed higher sensitivity (86.7 vs 61.1%; P < .0001), specificity (97.4 vs 90%; P = .022), and PPV (86.7 vs 65.7%; P = .0001) for correct neck-quadrant identification. The mean operative time decreased from 62 min following SPECT to 36 min following SPECT/CT (P < .0001), yielding a mean surgical expense saving of 109.9 /patient (updated at 2009/2010 billing database). SPECT/CT actually ensures a mean expenditure reduction of 98.7 /patient (95% CI: 47.96 -149.42 ), diagnostic costs variation amounting to 11.2 /procedure. SPECT/CT ensures better focus for the surgical exploration, shortens surgical times, and eventually cuts costs when used for localization of parathyroid adenomas.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Annals of Surgical Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed to evaluate the impact of loupe magnification (LM) on incidental parathyroid gland removal (from pathology reports), hypocalcemia, and recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury after total thyroidectomy and answer the question of whether this tool should be always recommended for patient's safety. Between January 2005 and December 2008, 126 patients underwent total thyroidectomy with routine use of 2.5 x galilean loupes; their charts were compared with data on 118 patients operated on between January 1997 and December 2000 without LM (two different equally skilled surgical teams operating in the two periods). LM decreased the rate of inadvertent parathyroid glands removal (3.8 vs 7.8% of total parathyroid glands; P = 0.01), as well as of biochemical (20.6 vs 33.9%; P = 0.028) and clinical (12.7 vs 33%; P = 0.0003) hypocalcemia after thyroidectomy. All cases (16 of 16) of symptomatic hypocalcaemia in the LM group proved to be associated with parathyroidectomy vs 76.9 per cent (30 of 39) without LM (P = 0.046). A trend toward decreased RLN injury rate, although statistically insignificant, was reported, being unilateral transient, unilateral permanent, and bilateral transient palsy rates 6.8, 2.5, and 1.7 per cent, respectively, without LM vs 4.8, 2.4, and 0.8 per cent, respectively, with LM (P = 0.69; P = 1, and P = 0.61, respectively). Our results do support the routine use of LM during total thyroidectomy.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2010 · The American surgeon
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    ABSTRACT: The risk of cancer or severe polyposis of the rectal stump after total colectomy for MutYH-associated polyposis is scarcely defined. To evaluate this risk, we describe the findings of endoscopic surveillance of the rectal stump in a series of patients with biallelic MutYH mutations and polyposis. This is a retrospective, observational, multicenter case series derived from 2 familial cancer registries. Biallelic, germ-line MutYH mutations were found in 14 patients with no adenomatous polyposis coli gene mutations. Eleven of them underwent total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis and yearly proctoscopic surveillance thereafter. Phenotype and histology of rectal polyps were recorded at diagnosis and during follow-up. Development of adenomas and carcinomas during endoscopic surveillance of the rectal stump was observed. At diagnosis, 6 patients had attenuated polyposis (10-100 adenomas), 5 patients had classical polyposis, 8 patients had colon carcinoma, and no patient had rectal carcinoma. The mean number of rectal polyps at diagnosis was 2.64 ± 2.11 (range, 0-6). No patients had rectal cancer. The most frequent MutYH mutations were Y165C/Y165C and G382D/G382D in 6 and 2 patients, respectively. During surveillance of the rectal stump after surgery (median duration, 5 y; range, 2-23 y), no patient developed rectal cancer. The mean number of adenomas per proctoscopy was 1.23 ± 2.19 (range, 0-10 adenomas per proctoscopy). This study was limited by the small size and retrospective nature of the case series. Total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis may be appropriate for patients with MutYH-associated polyposis, provided that they have no rectal cancer or severe rectal polyposis at presentation and that they undergo yearly endoscopic surveillance thereafter.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · Diseases of the Colon & Rectum
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    ABSTRACT: Mediastinal goiter (MG) removal occasionally needs sternotomy, mainly in case of subaortic extension. We aimed to test the hypothesis that sternal-split may safely replace full sternotomy for MG removal (through total thyroidectomy) when thoracic access is required. We conducted a prospective observational cohort study comparing 15 subaortic MGs receiving sternal-split with 87 MGs undergoing cervicotomy alone between January 1997 and June 2009. Among 15 cases requiring sternal incision, sternal-split was extended to the angle of Louis in nine patients (60%), to the third intercostal space (IS) in one of five (20%) cases of MGs with anterior mediastinum involvement, and in five of 10 (50%) cases with posterior involvement (P = 0.6). Full sternotomy was never necessary. The median hospitalization was 5 days (range, 4-8 days) after sternal access as compared with 3 days (range, 2-4 days) after cervicotomy (P = 0.04). Complications were similar in these two study groups: one postoperative bleeding in each group and three recurrent laryngeal nerve palsies after cervicotomy (P = 0.5). There was no operative mortality, blood transfusion, tracheotomy requirement, wound infection, or persistent hypoparathyroidism. Proper extension of sternal-split to the second or third IS allows an adequate approach to both the anterior and to the posterior mediastinum, thus permitting safe management of MGs requiring thoracic access.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · The American surgeon
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    ABSTRACT: Although 99m Technetium-sestamibi scintigraphy with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and, recently, hybrid SPECT/computed tomography (CT) have been claimed to be the preoperative methods of choice for parathyroid localization in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and concomitant nodular goiter (NG), they have never been compared in this setting. We aimed at testing the hypothesis that SPECT/CT may be superior to SPECT for parathyroid localization in patients with PHPT and NG. Thirty-three patients with PHPT and NG (one or more nodular lesions based on cervical ultrasound) who underwent open parathyroidectomy during 2004-2009 were reviewed. All patients had preoperative 99m Tc-sestamibi planar scintigraphy and SPECT (18 patients) or SPECT/CT (15 patients) after cervical ultrasound. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) (for both correct neck side and quadrant identification) were calculated for the two procedures through comparison with intraoperative findings. In addition, operative times were assessed if the surgery was only for PHPT and not for the six patients who also had thyroidectomy. The sensitivity of SPECT/CT for correctly identifying the neck side containing an abnormal parathyroid was 93.7% versus 80% for SPECT (p = 0.21, not significant [ns]). The specificity and PPV for this attribute were 92.9% and 93.7%, respectively, for SPECT/CT versus 87.5% and 88.9%, respectively, for SPECT (p = 0.75 and 0.8, ns). SPECT/CT showed higher sensitivity than SPECT (87.5% vs. 55.6%; p = 0.0001) and higher PPV (87.5% vs. 62.5%; p = 0.0022) for correctly identifying the neck quadrant affected by PHPT. The specificity for this was 95.5% for SPECT/CT versus 88.5% for SPECT (p = 0.26, ns). Mean operative time was shorter after SPECT/CT than after SPECT (38 vs. 56 minutes; p = 0.034). One of the patients having SPECT/CT had double adenomas, and two had ectopic parathyroid glands, all of which were recognized preoperatively by this technique. Two of the patients having SPECT had double adenomas, and two had ectopic glands, none of which were recognized preoperatively. No patient had persistent or recurrent PHPT. SPECT/CT is superior to SPECT for preoperative imaging of patients with PHPT and NG. We recommend the routine use of SPECT/CT for work-up of all such patients, particularly if minimally invasive parathyroid surgery is planned.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Thyroid: official journal of the American Thyroid Association
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to identify the preoperative risk factors for patients in need of a sternotomy in the management of mediastinal goiters in order to provide better preoperative planning and patient consent. We analyzed 98 patients who underwent surgery for mediastinal goiters (goiters extending below the thoracic inlet > or =3 cm with the neck in hyperextension) between 1995 and 2008. Twelve (12.2%) of the patients required a sternotomy. The patients' features were analyzed by the surgical approach performed. Logistic regression analysis was used to study which variables were influencing the surgical strategy. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were designed when appropriate. The analysis disclosed the following risk factors: radiologic extension of mediastinal goiters below the aortic arch (odds ratio [OR] = 32.87; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.04-267.12; p < .0001); posterior mediastinum involvement for mediastinal goiters with subaortic extension (OR = 7.2; 95% CI = 1.52-34.14; p = .0244); history of mediastinal goiters before surgery (for mediastinal goiters aged >160 months: OR = 22.8; 95% CI = 5.28-98.53; p < .0001). Sternotomy need for mediastinal goiter removal can be predicted; in such cases surgeons should not hesitate to perform it for minimizing complications.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2010 · Head & Neck
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    ABSTRACT: Enteric nervous system abnormalities have been described in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. However, the mechanisms responsible for these abnormalities remain to date largely unknown. We investigated the potential role of apoptotic phenomena in enteric neurons and enteroglial cells in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. Full-thickness surgical specimens of 19 patients undergoing surgery for medically refractory disease (9 from the ileum of patients with Crohn's disease, 10 from the colon of patients with ulcerative colitis) were assessed for the presence of enteric neurons and enteroglial cells and for their apoptosis by two immunohistochemical methods, one also able to distinguish apoptosis from necrosis. The results were compared with those obtained in control specimens. Concerning Crohn's disease, the ileal segments displayed a significant increase of apoptotic enteric neurons and enteroglial cells in both the submucous and the myenteric plexus compared to controls. In patients with ulcerative colitis, compared to controls, apoptotic phenomena were significantly reduced in enteric neurons, whereas they were increased in the enteroglial cell population (submucous and myenteric plexus). In patients with inflammatory bowel disease apoptotic phenomena involve both enteric neurons and enteroglial cells, and may play a role in the abnormalities of the enteric nervous system. The importance of these findings in the pathophysiology of these conditions remains to be determined.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Journal of Crohn s and Colitis

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Nov 2009
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    ABSTRACT: A case of obstructing colon cancer is described in a 31-year-old patient affected by hereditary multiple exostoses. The association of these two rare conditions, which has never been described previously, and their early onset prompt us to discuss the clinical and genetic elements of a potential common pathogenic scenario.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Journal of Surgical Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Extraintestinal manifestations significantly affect the quality of life of patients with Crohn's disease. The aim of the present study is to define the risk factors for extraintestinal manifestations and the relative influence of intestinal surgery. In a cohort of 223 patients with Crohn's disease we analyzed the association between demographic/clinico-pathological factors and extraintestinal manifestations. In addition, we evaluated their association with the timing of appearance of the extraintestinal manifestations with respect to the intestinal surgery. Fifty-seven patients (25.6%) developed 91 extraintestinal manifestations. Demographic and clinico-pathological variables significantly associated with extraintestinal manifestations were: female gender (OR 2.84, 95% CI: 1.37-5.90) and colonic involvement (OR 2.68, 95% CI: 1.06-6.76). In patients not undergoing surgery and in patients with extraintestinal manifestations present only before surgery, the latency period between the onset of Crohn'S disease and extraintestinal manifestations were 3.7 +/-8.2 and 2.1 +/- 6.3 years, respectively. In patients developed extraintestinal manifestations only after surgery, the latency between surgery and extraintestinal manifestations was 12.0 +/-10.0 years. In 5 patients with early onset of extraintestinal manifestations, these did not regress or recur after surgery. Female gender and colonic involvement are confirmed as risk factors for the development of extraintestinal manifestations in Crohn's disease. Surgical treatment of the intestinal disease represents a therapeutic option for patients with extraintestinal manifestations, as it seems to prevent or delay these manifestations in most cases.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Annali italiani di chirurgia

Publication Stats

1k Citations
252.50 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1998-2014
    • Università degli Studi di Brescia
      • • Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine
      • • Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences
      Brescia, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2007-2008
    • Spedali Civili di Brescia
      Brescia, Lombardy, Italy
    • Università degli Studi di Perugia
      • Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
      Perugia, Umbria, Italy