[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and heart plays a major role in the development of type 2 diabetes and diabetic heart failure and may be causally associated with altered lipid metabolism. Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is a rate-determining enzyme in the hydrolysis of triglyceride in adipocytes, and HSL-deficient mice have reduced circulating fatty acids and are resistant to diet-induced obesity. To determine the metabolic role of HSL, we examined the changes in tissue-specific insulin action and glucose metabolism in vivo during hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps after 3 wk of high-fat or normal chow diet in awake, HSL-deficient (HSL-KO) mice. On normal diet, HSL-KO mice showed a twofold increase in hepatic insulin action but a 40% decrease in insulin-stimulated cardiac glucose uptake compared with wild-type littermates. High-fat feeding caused a similar increase in whole body fat mass in both groups of mice. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was reduced by 50-80% in skeletal muscle and heart of wild-type mice after high-fat feeding. In contrast, HSL-KO mice were protected from diet-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and heart, and these effects were associated with reduced intramuscular triglyceride and fatty acyl-CoA levels in the fat-fed HSL-KO mice. Overall, these findings demonstrate the important role of HSL on skeletal muscle, heart, and liver glucose metabolism.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2005 · AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The circulating level of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 is elevated in various insulin-resistant states including type 2 diabetes, obesity, cancer, and HIV-associated lipodystrophy. To determine the role of IL-6 in the development of insulin resistance, we examined the effects of IL-6 treatment on whole-body insulin action and glucose metabolism in vivo during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps in awake mice. Pretreatment of IL-6 blunted insulin's ability to suppress hepatic glucose production and insulin-stimulated insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-2-associated phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase activity in liver. Acute IL-6 treatment also reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, and this was associated with defects in insulin-stimulated IRS-1-associated PI 3-kinase activity and increases in fatty acyl-CoA levels in skeletal muscle. In contrast, we found that co-treatment of IL-10, a predominantly anti-inflammatory cytokine, prevented IL-6-induced defects in hepatic insulin action and signaling activity. Additionally, IL-10 co-treatment protected skeletal muscle from IL-6 and lipid-induced defects in insulin action and signaling activity, and these effects were associated with decreases in intramuscular fatty acyl-CoA levels. This is the first study to demonstrate that inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-10 alter hepatic and skeletal muscle insulin action in vivo, and the mechanism may involve cytokine-induced alteration in intracellular fat contents. These findings implicate an important role of inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the liver, insulin controls both lipid and glucose metabolism through its cell surface receptor and intracellular mediators such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and serine-threonine kinase AKT. The insulin signaling pathway is further modulated by protein tyrosine phosphatase or lipid phosphatase. Here, we investigated the function of phosphatase and tension homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), a negative regulator of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway, by targeted deletion of Pten in murine liver. Deletion of Pten in the liver resulted in increased fatty acid synthesis, accompanied by hepatomegaly and fatty liver phenotype. Interestingly, Pten liver-specific deletion causes enhanced liver insulin action with improved systemic glucose tolerance. Thus, deletion of Pten in the liver may provide a valuable model that permits the study of the metabolic actions of insulin signaling in the liver, and PTEN may be a promising target for therapeutic intervention for type 2 diabetes.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2004 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the physiological effects of modulating the abundance of Munc18c or syntaxin 4 (Syn4) proteins on the regulation of glucose homeostasis in vivo, we generated tetracycline-repressible transgenic mice that overexpress either Munc18c or Syn4 proteins in skeletal muscle, pancreas and adipose tissue seven-, five-, and threefold over endogenous protein, respectively. Munc18c transgenic mice displayed whole-body insulin resistance during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp resulting from >41% reductions in skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue glucose uptake, but without alteration of hepatic insulin action. Munc18c transgenic mice exhibited approximately 40% decreases in whole-body glycogen/lipid synthesis, skeletal muscle glycogen synthesis, and glycolysis. Glucose intolerance in Munc18c transgenic mice was reversed by repression of transgene expression using tetracycline or by simultaneous overexpression of Syn4 protein. In addition, Munc18c transgenic mice had depressed serum insulin levels, reflecting a threefold reduction in insulin secretion from islets isolated therefrom, thus uncovering roles for Munc18c and/or Syn4 in insulin granule exocytosis. Taken together, these results indicate that balance, more than absolute abundance, of Munc18c and Syn4 proteins directly affects whole-body glucose homeostasis through alterations in insulin secretion and insulin action.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low or absent expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1) serves as an excellent malignant marker for prostate and other human cancers. The level of p27(Kip1) is regulated primarily by the ubiquitin E3 ligase SCF(SKP2) through ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. Expression of the F-box protein SKP2 is inversely correlated with p27 in many cancers. To determine the role of SCF(SKP2) in proliferation and tumorigenesis, we established transgenic mouse lines that specifically expressed SKP2 in the prostate gland. Unscheduled expression of SKP2 promoted marked overproliferation, resulting in hyperplasia, dysplasia, and low-grade carcinoma in the prostate gland. Consistent with its critical role in p27 proteolysis, SKP2 expression caused significant down-regulation of p27 in prostate glands from transgenic animals. Immunohistological staining indicated that SKP2 expression is restricted to the hyperplastic/dysplastic regions and that there is an inverse relationship between SKP2 and p27 expression in the ductal epithelium in transgenic animals. The prostate glands from transgenic mice also exhibited high levels of proliferative and mitotic markers such as Ki67 and cyclin B1. Our data suggest that SKP2 acts as an oncoprotein in the mouse prostate gland, probably through its function as a limiting factor for ubiquitin-dependent degradation of p27.