[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Sonic hedgehog (SHH), an activating ligand of smoothened (SMO), is overexpressed in > 70% of pancreatic cancers (PCs). We investigated the impact of vismodegib, an SHH antagonist, plus gemcitabine (GV) or gemcitabine plus placebo (GP) in a multicenter phase Ib/randomized phase II trial and preclinical PC models.
Patients and methods:
Patients with PC not amenable to curative therapy who had received no prior therapy for metastatic disease and had Karnofsky performance score ≥ 80 were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned in a one-to-one ratio to GV or GP. The primary end point was progression-free-survival (PFS). Exploratory correlative studies included serial SHH serum levels and contrast perfusion computed tomography imaging. To further investigate putative biologic mechanisms of SMO inhibition, two autochthonous pancreatic cancer models (Kras(G12D); p16/p19(fl/fl); Pdx1-Cre and Kras(G12D); p53(R270H/wt); Pdx1-Cre) were studied.
No safety issues were identified in the phase Ib portion (n = 7), and the phase II study enrolled 106 evaluable patients (n = 53 in each arm). Median PFS was 4.0 and 2.5 months for GV and GP arms, respectively (95% CI, 2.5 to 5.3 and 1.9 to 3.8, respectively; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.54 to 1.21; P = .30). Median overall survival (OS) was 6.9 and 6.1 months for GV and GP arms, respectively (95% CI, 5.8 to 8.0 and 5.0 to 8.0, respectively; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.69 to 1.58; P = .84). Response rates were not significantly different. There were no significant associations between correlative markers and overall response rate, PFS, or OS. Preclinical trials revealed no significant differences with vismodegib in drug delivery, tumor growth rate, or OS in either model.
The addition of vismodegib to gemcitabine in an unselected cohort did not improve overall response rate, PFS, or OS in patients with metastatic PC. Our preclinical and clinical results revealed no statistically significant differences with respect to drug delivery or treatment efficacy using vismodegib.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study assessed the cardiovascular safety of cabazitaxel, based on thorough evaluation of QT and non-QT variables, and the relationship between pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic electrocardiographic (ECG) profiles and the occurrence of Grade ≥3 cardiovascular adverse events.
Patients with advanced solid tumors were treated with cabazitaxel 25 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks. Digital ECG recordings were obtained during Cycle 1 over 24 h after dosing. The primary end point was effect of cabazitaxel on QT interval corrected by the Fridericia formula (QTcF). Secondary end points were additional ECG parameters (QT, PR and QRS intervals, and heart rate), plasma pharmacokinetics of cabazitaxel and overall clinical safety.
The pharmacodynamic (ECG) population included 94 patients. In 63 patients with a full 24-h ECG evaluation, the maximum upper bound of 90 % confidence interval (CI) for mean QTcF change from baseline was 7.46 ms (mean 4.8 ms), occurring at 1 h 30 min post-infusion. The slope of QTcF change from baseline versus cabazitaxel concentration was slightly negative (-0.012 [95 % CI -0.017; -0.008], equivalent to a 1.2 ms decrease per 100 ng/mL increase in cabazitaxel concentration). For non-QT variables, no effect was noted. No Grade ≥3 cardiac adverse events were observed; Grade ≥3 hypotension and lymphocele occurred in two patients and one patient, respectively.
These results suggest that cabazitaxel has no clinically significant cardiovascular adverse effects in patients with advanced solid tumors.
No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSETo update the 2009 American Society of Clinical Oncology guideline on pharmacologic interventions for breast cancer (BC) risk reduction. METHODSA systematic review of randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses published from June 2007 through June 2012 was completed using MEDLINE and Cochrane Collaboration Library. Primary outcome of interest was BC incidence (invasive and noninvasive). Secondary outcomes included BC mortality, adverse events, and net health benefits. Guideline recommendations were revised based on an Update Committee's review of the literature.
tamoxifen, raloxifene, arzoxifene, lasofoxifene, exemestane, and anastrozole.RecommendationsIn women at increased risk of BC age ≥ 35 years, tamoxifen (20 mg per day for 5 years) should be discussed as an option to reduce the risk of estrogen receptor (ER) -positive BC. In postmenopausal women, raloxifene (60 mg per day for 5 years) and exemestane (25 mg per day for 5 years) should also be discussed as options for BC risk reduction. Those at increased BC risk are defined as individuals with a 5-year projected absolute risk of BC ≥ 1.66% (based on the National Cancer Institute BC Risk Assessment Tool or an equivalent measure) or women diagnosed with lobular carcinoma in situ. Use of other selective ER modulators or other aromatase inhibitors to lower BC risk is not recommended outside of a clinical trial. Health care providers are encouraged to discuss the option of chemoprevention among women at increased BC risk. The discussion should include the specific risks and benefits associated with each chemopreventive agent.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSEChemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is common and leads to suboptimal treatment. Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) is a natural compound involved in neuronal protection. Studies have suggested ALC may be effective for the prevention and treatment of CIPN. PATIENTS AND METHODSA 24-week randomized double-blind trial comparing ALC (3,000 mg per day) with placebo in women undergoing adjuvant taxane-based chemotherapy was conducted. The primary objective was to determine if ALC prevents CIPN as measured by the 11-item neurotoxicity (NTX) component of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT)-Taxane scale at 12 weeks. Secondary objectives included changes in 24-week end points, functional status (FACT-Trial Outcome Index [TOI]), fatigue (Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy [FACIT]-Fatigue), and NTX grade.ResultsA total of 409 patients were evaluable (208 received ALC; 201, placebo). In a multivariate linear regression, week-12 scores were 0.9 points lower (more CIPN) with ALC than placebo (95% CI, -2.2 to 0.4; P = .17), whereas week-24 scores were 1.8 points lower with ALC (95% CI, -3.2 to -0.4; P = .01). Patients receiving ALC were more likely to have a > 5-point decrease in FACT-NTX scores (38% v 28%; P = .05), and FACT-TOI scores were 3.5 points lower with ALC (P = .03). Grade 3 to 4 neurotoxicity was more frequent in the ALC arm (eight v one). No differences between arms were observed for FACIT-Fatigue or other toxicities. Serum carnitine level increased with ALC but remained stable with placebo. CONCLUSION
There was no evidence that ALC affected CIPN at 12 weeks; however, ALC significantly increased CIPN by 24 weeks. This is the first study to our knowledge showing that a nutritional supplement increased CIPN. Patients should be discouraged from using supplements without proven efficacy.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The management of relapsed aggressive lymphomas remains problematic. Ixabepilone (BMS-247550, epothilone B analog), a potent inhibitor of tubulin disassembly, has promising preclinical and early-phase clinical activity in drug-resistant malignancies.
This multicenter phase 2 clinical trial tested the activity and safety of ixabepilone in relapsed/refractory aggressive lymphoma patients with either chemosensitive (at least a partial response [PR] to most recent chemotherapy) or chemoresistant (less than PR to most recent chemotherapy) disease at 20 mg/m(2) given intravenously weekly on days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day cycle.
Fifty-one enrolled patients with a median age of 66 years received at least 1 dose of ixabepilone. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (n = 25; 49%), mantle cell lymphoma (n = 16; 31%), and transformed follicular lymphoma (n = 5; 10%) were the most frequent histologies. Patients were heavily pretreated, with more than one-quarter having received 4 or more prior therapies. The overall response rate was 27% (14 of 51 patients) with 12% (6 patients) experiencing complete responses and 16% (8 patients) with PRs. All responses were in patients with chemosensitive disease. The median time to response was 2 cycles with a median duration of response of 9.7 months.
Ixabepilone was well-tolerated, with neutropenia, peripheral sensory neuropathy, fatigue, and nausea as the major toxicities. Ixabepilone has modest single-agent activity in patients with recurrent chemosensitive aggressive lymphomas.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
We conducted a double-blind randomized clinical trial of the following four regimens for controlling delayed nausea (DN): group 1: palonosetron + dexamethasone on day 1 with prochlorperazine on days 2 and 3; group 2: granisetron + dexamethasone on day 1 with prochlorperazine on days 2 and 3; group 3: aprepitant + palonosetron + dexamethasone on day 1 with aprepitant + dexamethasone on days 2 and 3; and group 4: palonosetron + dexamethasone on day 1 with prochlorperazine + dexamethasone on days 2 and 3.
Patients and methods:
Chemotherapy-naive patients received doxorubicin, epirubicin, cisplatin, carboplatin, or oxaliplatin. The primary end point was average nausea assessed four times daily on days 2 and 3. Primary analyses were whether nausea control would be improved by using palonosetron versus granisetron on day 1 (group 1 v group 2); by adding dexamethasone on days 2 and 3 (group 1 v group 4); and by using aprepitant versus prochlorperazine (group 3 v group 4). Statistical significance was set at P = .017.
Two hundred thirty-four, 234, 241, and 235 evaluable patients were accrued to groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Adjusted mean differences for the three planned analyses were as follows: palonosetron versus granisetron: -0.01 (95% CI, -0.23 to 0.20; P = .72); adding dexamethasone on days 2 and 3: 0.20 (95% CI, -0.02 to 0.41; P = .01); and using aprepitant versus prochlorperazine: -0.03 (95% CI, -0.24 to 0.19; P = .56).
The addition of dexamethasone on days 2 and 3 reduced DN. Palonosetron and granisetron have similar effects on DN. The beneficial effect of adding aprepitant for control of DN was the same as adding prochlorperazine.
Preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interest in oral agents for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) has increased because many patients prefer oral to i.v. regimens. We evaluated a simple oral combination of capecitabine with cyclophosphamide (CPA) for MBC.
The trial was designed to determine whether or not combination therapy would achieve a 42% response rate (RR) using the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) in MBC. Patients with two or fewer prior chemotherapy regimens for MBC were eligible. Those with estrogen receptor-positive MBC had to have progressed on endocrine therapy. Patients had measurable disease or elevated mucin (MUC)-1 antigen and received CPA, 100 mg daily on days 1-14, and capecitabine, 1,500 mg twice daily on days 8-21, in 21-day cycles.
In 96 eligible patients, the median progression-free survival (PFS) interval was 5.9 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.7-8.0 months) and median overall survival (OS) time was 18.8 months (95% CI, 13.1-22.0 months). The RR was 36% (95% CI, 26%-48%) in 80 patients with measurable disease. The MUC-1 antigen RR was 33% (95% CI, 20%-48%), occurring in 15 of 46 patients with elevated MUC-1 antigen. Toxicity was mild, with no treatment-related deaths.
PFS, OS, and RR outcomes with capecitabine plus CPA compare favorably with those of capecitabine monotherapy and combination therapy with bevacizumab, sorafenib, or ixabepilone. The addition of these other agents to capecitabine does not improve OS time in MBC patients, and this single-arm study does not suggest that the addition of CPA to capecitabine has this potential in an unselected MBC population. When OS prolongation is the goal, clinicians should choose single-agent capecitabine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We performed a phase II trial to evaluate a docetaxel-based regimen in locoregionally advanced esophageal cancer. Untreated stage II-IVa esophageal cancer patients with performance status 0-2 were included. Tumor resectability was determined prior to initiation of study. Induction docetaxel (75 mg/m(2)) and cisplatin (75 mg/m(2)) day 1 with prophylactic filgrastim was delivered every 21 days for 3 cycles. Subsequent concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) utilized weekly docetaxel (20 mg/m(2)) and concurrent radiotherapy (2 Gy/day) in resectable/resected patients (50 Gy) and in unresectable patients (66 Gy). A total of 78 patients (15 squamous cell carcinoma, 60 adenocarcinoma, 3 mixed/undifferentiated; 68 men, 10 women; median age 61 years) were accrued. The regimen was administered to 59 (76%) potentially resectable patients and 13 (17%) unresectable patients; 6 patients (8%) received the regimen post-operatively. Response rate in 66 evaluable patients following induction chemotherapy was 30%. Sixty-nine patients underwent CRT. Ten patients had disease progression during CRT. Forty-five out of 59 potentially resectable patients underwent esophagectomy after CRT, and 42 patients had complete tumor resection with negative margins. Eighteen out of 59 patients who were potentially resectable patients had pathologic complete response (pCR-31%). Grade 3/4 toxicity during induction chemotherapy included leucopenia, neutropenia, vomiting, and neuropathy. Esophagitis was the predominant toxicity during CRT. Median overall survival was 11.4 months for unresectable patients, 14.3 months for resectable patients and 10.4 months for patients who received the regimen post-operatively (log-rank P = 0.2492). Docetaxel-based CRT regimen is active and tolerable in esophageal cancer. The observed pCR in the potentially resectable group indicates good local control.
No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Medical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The selective estrogen-receptor modulator (SERM) tamoxifen became the first U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved agent for reducing breast cancer risk but did not gain wide acceptance for prevention, largely because it increased endometrial cancer and thromboembolic events. The FDA approved the SERM raloxifene for breast cancer risk reduction following its demonstrated effectiveness in preventing invasive breast cancer in the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR). Raloxifene caused less toxicity (versus tamoxifen), including reduced thromboembolic events and endometrial cancer. In this report, we present an updated analysis with an 81-month median follow-up. STAR women were randomly assigned to receive either tamoxifen (20 mg/d) or raloxifene (60 mg/d) for 5 years. The risk ratio (RR; raloxifene:tamoxifen) for invasive breast cancer was 1.24 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.47) and for noninvasive disease, 1.22 (95% CI, 0.95-1.59). Compared with initial results, the RRs widened for invasive and narrowed for noninvasive breast cancer. Toxicity RRs (raloxifene:tamoxifen) were 0.55 (95% CI, 0.36-0.83; P = 0.003) for endometrial cancer (this difference was not significant in the initial results), 0.19 (95% CI, 0.12-0.29) for uterine hyperplasia, and 0.75 (95% CI, 0.60-0.93) for thromboembolic events. There were no significant mortality differences. Long-term raloxifene retained 76% of the effectiveness of tamoxifen in preventing invasive disease and grew closer over time to tamoxifen in preventing noninvasive disease, with far less toxicity (e.g., highly significantly less endometrial cancer). These results have important public health implications and clarify that both raloxifene and tamoxifen are good preventive choices for postmenopausal women with elevated risk for breast cancer.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2010 · Cancer Prevention Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the efficacy and safety of single agent sorafenib, an oral multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in patients with advanced uterine carcinoma and carcinosarcoma.
This multi-institutional non-randomized phase II trial enrolled two cohorts: patients with uterine carcinoma (cohort A) and uterine carcinosarcoma (cohort B). Eligibility criteria included measurable disease, 0-1 prior chemotherapy regimens, and ECOG performance status <or=2. Sorafenib at a dose of 400 mg was administered orally twice daily. A cycle was defined as 28 days. Objective tumor response was the primary endpoint and was assessed following every two cycles.
Fifty-six patients (40 with carcinoma, 16 with carcinosarcoma) were enrolled between March 2005 and August 2007. Two (5%) patients with uterine carcinoma had a partial response (PR) and 17 (42.5%) achieved stable disease (SD). Five had SD lasting at least 4 months. The 6-month progression-free survival rate for patients with carcinoma was 29%, and the median overall survival was 11.4 months. No patients with carcinosarcoma had an objective response. Four (25%) had SD, and one had SD lasting 18 months. The 6-month progression-free survival rate was 13%, and the median overall survival was 5.0 months. Grade 3/4 drug related toxicities included: hypertension (13%), hand-foot syndrome (13%), hypophosphatemia (7%), anemia (5%), rash (5%), diarrhea (5%), thrombosis (5%), fatigue (5%) and bleeding (5%).
Sorafenib had minimal activity in patients with uterine carcinoma. Predictive factors for potential benefit are needed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sunitinib is an orally administered multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor of RET, VEGFR, PDGFR, and c-KIT. We conducted a phase II trial to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of sunitinib in metastatic and/or recurrent SCCHN patients.
Patients who had received no more than two prior chemotherapy regimens were eligible and, depending on ECOG performance status (PS), were entered into either Cohort A (PS 0-1) or Cohort B (PS 2). Sunitinib was administered in 6-week cycles at 50 mg daily for 4 weeks followed by 2 weeks off. Primary endpoint for Cohort A was objective tumor response. A Simon two-stage design required twelve patients to be enrolled in the first stage and if 1 or fewer responses were observed, further study of this cohort would be terminated due to lack of treatment efficacy. Primary endpoint of Cohort B was to determine the feasibility of sunitinib in patients with ECOG performance status 2.
Twenty-two patients were accrued (Cohort A - 15 patients, Cohort B - 7 patients). Median age in cohort A and B was 56 and 61 years, respectively. Grade 3 hematologic toxicities encountered were lymphopenia (18%), neutropenia (14%) and thrombocytopenia (5%). There was only one incidence of grade 4 hematologic toxicity which was thrombocytopenia. Fatigue and anorexia were the most common non-hematologic toxicities. Grade 3 fatigue occurred in 23% of patients. The only grade 4 non-hematologic toxicity was one incidence of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Non-fatal hemorrhagic complications occurred in 8 patients: epistaxis (3 patients), pulmonary hemorrhage (2 patients), gastrointestinal hemorrhage (2 patients) and tumor hemorrhage (1 patient). Four patients were not evaluable for tumor response (Cohort A - 3patients, Cohort B - 1 pt). One partial response was observed in the entire study. Dose reduction was required in 5 patients (Cohort A - 3 patients for grd 3 fatigue, grd 3 mucositis and recurrent grd 3 neutropenia; Cohort B - 2 patients for grd 3 fatigue and grd 3 nausea). Median time to progression for cohort A and B were 8.4 and 10.5 weeks, respectively. Median overall survival for cohort A and B was 21 and 19 weeks, respectively.
Sunitinib had low single agent activity in SCCHN necessitating early closure of cohort A at interim analysis. Sunitinib was well tolerated in PS 2 patients. Further evaluation of single agent sunitinib in head and neck is not supported by the results of this trial.
No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Investigational New Drugs
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE To update the 2002 American Society of Clinical Oncology guideline on pharmacologic interventions for breast cancer (BC) risk reduction. METHODS A literature search identified relevant randomized trials published since 2002. Primary outcome of interest was BC incidence (invasive and noninvasive). Secondary outcomes included BC mortality, adverse events, and net health benefits. An expert panel reviewed the literature and developed updated consensus guidelines. Results Seventeen articles met inclusion criteria. In premenopausal women, tamoxifen for 5 years reduces the risk of BC for at least 10 years, particularly estrogen receptor (ER) -positive invasive tumors. Women < or = 50 years of age experience fewer serious side effects. Vascular and vasomotor events do not persist post-treatment across all ages. In postmenopausal women, raloxifene and tamoxifen reduce the risk of ER-positive invasive BC with equal efficacy. Raloxifene is associated with a lower risk of thromboembolic disease, benign uterine conditions, and cataracts than tamoxifen in postmenopausal women. No evidence exists establishing whether a reduction in BC risk from either agent translates into reduced BC mortality. Recommendations In women at increased risk for BC, tamoxifen (20 mg/d for 5 years) may be offered to reduce the risk of invasive ER-positive BC, with benefits for at least 10 years. In postmenopausal women, raloxifene (60 mg/d for 5 years) may also be considered. Use of aromatase inhibitors, fenretinide, or other selective estrogen receptor modulators to lower BC risk is not recommended outside of a clinical trial. Discussion of risks and benefits of preventive agents by health providers is critical to patient decision making.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2009 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ixabepilone (BMS-247550) is a semi-synthetic analog of epothilone B that has been characterized as a microtubule stabilizing agent with a mechanism of action distinct from taxanes. Suggestion of activity in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been seen in early clinical studies.
Eligible patients had metastatic RCC as well as ECOG performance status 0-2 and normal organ function. Patients received ixabepilone at a dose of 40 mg/m2 intravenously over three hours every 21 days. There was no restriction on RCC histology or prior treatment type, but prior treatment with tubule inhibitors was not allowed. The primary endpoint was RECIST defined response and radiographic evaluations were performed every three cycles. Toxicity evaluations utilized CTCAE v3.0 and were performed every cycle. Using a Simon two-stage optimal design with alpha = 0.1, beta = 0.1, a null hypothesized response rate of 0.05 and an alternative response rate of 0.2, an initial 12 patients were to be accrued with full accrual of 37 patients if at least one response were observed.
A median of five cycles were administered. No objective responses were observed in the first 12 evaluable patients, and six patients showed stable disease for more than 18 weeks on therapy. Median time to progression among those with objective progression was nine weeks. One patient experienced grade 4 anemia and lymphopenia. Grade 3 adverse events included lymphopenia, neutropenia, leukopenia, diarrhea, and infection. Common grade 2 toxicities included alopecia, fatigue and anemia.
Ixabepilone administered at a dose of 40 mg/m2 every 21 days should not be advanced for further study in metastatic RCC. Given previous results, however, other dosing schedules may be worthy of further investigation.
Full-text · Article · May 2007 · Cancer biology & therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer eventually develop resistance to endocrine therapy, resulting in disease progression and the need for further treatment. Fulvestrant's distinct mode of action offers the potential to overcome tumor resistance to previous endocrine treatments.
This observational, postmarketing, Web-based surveillance study collected "real-world" information on the use of, and the outcomes associated with, fulvestrant 250-mg-per month treatment of patients with advanced breast cancer in clinical practice.
A total of 213 postmenopausal patients with advanced breast cancer were enrolled from 34 practices throughout the United States. Of these, 200 patients (93.9%) had received previous endocrine therapy. Overall, 85.4% of patients had received previous aromatase inhibitor treatment for early breast cancer, advanced breast cancer, or both. In clinical practice, fulvestrant was most frequently administered as a second-line (46% of patients) or a third-line endocrine treatment (27.7% of patients) for advanced disease. Most patients who discontinued fulvestrant (55.1%) subsequently received cytotoxic chemotherapy. Fulvestrant treatment resulted in clinical benefit for 47.9% of patients; 58 patients (27.2%) exhibited an objective response, of whom 3 exhibited a complete response. The median time to response was 2.1 months, and the median duration of response was 7.6 months. At the time of analysis, 74.6% of patients had experienced disease progression; median time to progression was 4.7 months.
These findings are similar to those reported in the clinical trial setting and confirm that fulvestrant has clinical activity after progression on previous endocrine therapy, including aromatase inhibitors.
No preview · Article · May 2007 · Clinical Breast Cancer