Andrea Cara

Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Roma, Latium, Italy

Are you Andrea Cara?

Claim your profile

Publications (75)412.53 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: HIV-1 persists indefinitely in memory CD4 T cells and other long-lived cellular reservoirs despite antiretroviral therapy. Our group had previously demonstrated that HIV-1 can establish a productive infection in renal epithelial cells and that the kidney represents a separate compartment for HIV-1 replication. Here, to better understand the viruses in this unique site, we genetically characterized and compared the viruses in blood and urine specimens from 24 HIV-1 infected patients with detectable viremia. Design and methods: Blood and urine samples were obtained from 35 HIV-1 positive patients. Single-genome amplification was performed on HIV-1 env RNA and DNA isolated from urine supernatants and urine-derived cell pellets, respectively, as well as from plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cell from the same individuals. Neighbor-joining trees were constructed under the Kimura 2-parameter model. Results: We amplified and sequenced the full-length HIV-1 envelope (env) gene from 12 of the 24 individuals, indicating that 50% of the viremic HIV-1-positive patients had viral RNA in their urine. Phylogenetic analysis of the env sequences from four individuals with more than 15 urine-derived env sequences showed that the majority of the sequences from urine formed distinct cluster(s) independent of those peripheral blood mononuclear cell and plasma-derived sequences, consistent with viral compartmentalization in the urine. Conclusion: Our results suggest the presence of a distinct HIV compartment in the genitourinary tract.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · AIDS
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An inverted pH gradient across the cell membranes is a typical feature of malignant cancer cells that are characterized by extracellular acidosis and cytosol alkalization. These dysregulations are able to create a unique milieu that favors tumor progression, metastasis and chemo/immune-resistance traits of solid tumors. A key event mediating tumor cell pH alterations is an aberrant activation of ion channels and proton pumps such as (H+)-vacuolar-ATPase (V-ATPase). TM9SF4 is a poorly characterized transmembrane protein that we have recently shown to be related to cannibal behavior of metastatic melanoma cells. Here, we demonstrate that TM9SF4 represents a novel V-ATPase-associated protein involved in V-ATPase activation. We have observed in HCT116 and SW480 colon cancer cell lines that TM9SF4 interacts with the ATP6V1H subunit of the V-ATPase V1 sector. Suppression of TM9SF4 with small interfering RNAs strongly reduces assembly of V-ATPase V0/V1 sectors, thus reversing tumor pH gradient with a decrease of cytosolic pH, alkalization of intracellular vesicles and a reduction of extracellular acidity. Such effects are associated with a significant inhibition of the invasive behavior of colon cancer cells and with an increased sensitivity to the cytotoxic effects of 5-fluorouracil. Our study shows for the first time the important role of TM9SF4 in the aberrant constitutive activation of the V-ATPase, and the development of a malignant phenotype, supporting the potential use of TM9SF4 as a target for future anticancer therapies.Oncogene advance online publication, 9 February 2015; doi:10.1038/onc.2014.437.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Oncogene
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Macrophages are key targets of HIV-1 infection. We have previously described that the expression of CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) increases during monocyte differentiation to macrophages and it is further up-modulated by HIV-1 exposure. Moreover, CCL2 acts as an autocrine factor that promotes viral replication in infected macrophages. In this study, we dissected the molecular mechanisms by which CCL2 neutralization inhibits HIV-1 replication in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM), and the potential involvement of the innate restriction factors protein sterile alpha motif (SAM) histidine/aspartic acid (HD) domain containing 1 (SAMHD1) and apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing, enzyme-catalytic, polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) family members.ResultsCCL2 neutralization potently reduced the number of p24 Gag+ cells during the course of either productive or single cycle infection with HIV-1. In contrast, CCL2 blocking did not modify entry of HIV-1 based Virus Like Particles, thus demonstrating that the restriction involves post-entry steps of the viral life cycle. Notably, the accumulation of viral DNA, both total, integrated and 2-LTR circles, was strongly impaired by neutralization of CCL2. Looking for correlates of HIV-1 DNA accumulation inhibition, we found that the antiviral effect of CCL2 neutralization was independent of the modulation of SAMHD1 expression or function. Conversely, a strong and selective induction of APOBEC3A expression, to levels comparable to those of freshly isolated monocytes, was associated with the inhibition of HIV-1 replication mediated by CCL2 blocking. Interestingly, the CCL2 neutralization mediated increase of APOBEC3A expression was type I IFN independent. Moreover, the transcriptome analysis of the effect of CCL2 blocking on global gene expression revealed that the neutralization of this chemokine resulted in the upmodulation of additional genes involved in the defence response to viruses.Conclusions Neutralization of endogenous CCL2 determines a profound restriction of HIV-1 replication in primary MDM affecting post-entry steps of the viral life cycle with a mechanism independent of SAMHD1. In addition, CCL2 blocking is associated with induction of APOBEC3A expression, thus unravelling a novel mechanism which might contribute to regulate the expression of innate intracellular viral antagonists in vivo. Thus, our study may potentially lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies for enhancing innate cellular defences against HIV-1 and protecting macrophages from infection.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Retrovirology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract As a prelude to immunization studies in nonhuman primates, we compared in mice the immunogenicity of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-based integrase (IN)-defective lentiviral vector (IDLV) encoding the model antigen-enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP) in the presence or absence of the murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mGM-CSF) expressed from an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) sequence. BALB/c mice were immunized once intramuscularly with IDLV expressing eGFP alone or eGFP and mGM-CSF and immune responses were evaluated up to 90 days from the single intramuscular immunization. Results indicated that the mGM-CSF was unable to improve the magnitude and quality of the immune response against the eGFP transgene in the context of the SIV-based IDLV, as evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assays for interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and by intracellular cytokine staining for IFN-γ, interleukin-2 (IL-2), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). These findings suggest that for vaccination purposes, the presence of mGM-CSF expressed after the IRES in a SIV-based IDLV system does not favor the improvement of the immunological response against the transgene of interest. Further studies should investigate whether the selection of a different cytokine gene might improve the immune response against the transgene.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Viral Immunology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Many infectious agents infiltrate the host at the mucosal surfaces and then spread systemically. This implies that an ideal vaccine should induce protective immune responses both at systemic and mucosal sites to counteract invasive mucosal pathogens. We evaluated the in vivo systemic and mucosal antigen-specific immune response induced in mice by intramuscular administration of an integrase defective lentiviral vector (IDLV) carrying the ovalbumin (OVA) transgene as a model antigen (IDLV-OVA), either alone or in combination with sublingual adjuvanted OVA protein. Mice immunized intramuscularly with OVA and adjuvant were compared with IDLV-OVA immunization. Mice sublingually immunized only with OVA and adjuvant were used as a positive control of mucosal responses. A single intramuscular dose of IDLV-OVA induced functional antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses in spleen, draining and distal lymph nodes and, importantly, in the lamina propria of the large intestine. These results were similar to those obtained in a prime-boost regimen including one IDLV immunization and two mucosal boosts with adjuvanted OVA or vice versa. Remarkably, only in groups vaccinated with IDLV-OVA, either alone or in prime-boost regimens, the mucosal CD8+ T cell response persisted up to several months from immunization. Importantly, following IDLV-OVA immunization, the mucosal boost with protein greatly increased the plasma IgG response and induced mucosal antigen-specific IgA in saliva and vaginal washes. Overall, intramuscular administration of IDLV followed by protein boosts using the sublingual route induced strong, persistent and complementary systemic and mucosal immune responses, and represents an appealing prime-boost strategy for immunization including IDLV as a delivery system.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · PLoS ONE
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: New reliable and cost-effective anti-malarial drug screening assays are urgently needed to identify drugs acting on different stages of the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, and particularly those responsible for human-to-mosquito transmission, i.e. the P. falciparum gametocytes. Low Z' factors, narrow dynamic ranges and/or extended assay times are commonly reported in current gametocyte assays measuring gametocyte-expressed fluorescent or luciferase reporters, endogenous ATP levels, activity of gametocyte enzymes or redox dependent dye fluorescence. We hereby report on a dual-luciferase gametocyte assay with immature and mature P. falciparum gametocyte stages expressing red and green-emitting luciferases from Pyrophorus plagiophthalamus under the control of the parasite sexual stage specific pfs16 gene promoter. The assay was validated with reference antimalarial drugs and allowed to quantitatively and simultaneously measure stage-specific drug effects on parasites at different developmental stages. The optimized assay, requiring only 48h incubation with drugs and using a cost-effective luminogenic substrate, significantly reduces assay cost and time in comparison to state-of-the-art analogous assays. The assay had a Z' factor of 0.71±0.03 and it is suitable for implementation in 96- and 384-well microplate formats.. Moreover, the use of a non-lysing D-luciferin substrate significantly improved the reliability of the assay and allowed to perform, for the first time, P. falciparum bioluminescence imaging at single-cell level.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Analytical Chemistry
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Increasing evidence supports the role of the kidney as a reservoir for HIV-1. In-vitro co-cultivation of HIV-infected T cells with renal tubule epithelial (RTE) cells results in virus transfer to the latter, whereas cell-free virus infection is inefficient. We further characterized the fate of HIV-1 after it is internalized in renal epithelial cells. Methods: Primary or immortalized CD4 cells were infected with a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing replication competent HIV-1. HIV-1 transfer from T cells to RTE cells was carried out in a co-culture system and evaluated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. HIV-1 integration in renal cells was evaluated by Alu-PCR and the production of infectious particles was assessed by p24-ELISA and TZM-bl assay. HIV-infected renal cells were used as donor cells in a co-culture system to evaluate their ability to transfer the virus back to T cells. Results: Renal cells become productively infected by HIV-1 and multiple copies of HIV-1 can be transferred from infected T cells to renal cells. Two separate cell populations were identified among infected renal cells based on reporter gene GFP expression level (low vs. high), only the high showing sensitivity to azidothymidine and ritonavir. Co-cultivation of HIV-1-infected renal cells with noninfected T cells resulted in HIV-1 transmission to T cells, supporting bidirectional exchange of virus between T cells and kidney-derived cells. Persistent expression and generation of infectious virus in renal cells required HIV integration. Conclusion: These results support the kidney as a potential reservoir where virus is exchanged between interstitial T cells and RTE cells.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · AIDS (London, England)
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent reports highlight the potential for integrase-defective lentiviral vectors (IDLV) to be developed as vaccines due to their ability to elicit cell-mediated and humoral immune responses after intramuscular administration. Differently from their integrase-competent counterpart, whose utility for vaccine development is limited by the potential for insertional mutagenesis, IDLV possess a mutation in their integrase gene that prevents genomic integration. Instead, they are maintained as episomal DNA circles that retain the ability to stably express functional proteins. Despite their favorable profile, it is unknown whether IDLV elicit immune responses after intranasal administration, a route that could be advantageous in the case of infection with a respiratory agent. Using influenza as a model, we constructed IDLV expressing the influenza virus nucleoprotein (IDLV-NP), and tested their ability to generate NP-specific immune responses and protect from challenge in vivo. We found that administration of IDLV-NP elicited NP-specific T cell and antibody responses in BALB/c mice. Importantly, IDLV-NP was protective against homologous and heterosubtypic influenza virus challenge only when given by the intranasal route. This is the first report demonstrating that IDLV can induce protective immunity after intranasal administration, and suggests that IDLV may represent a promising vaccine platform against infectious agents.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · PLoS ONE

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Nov 2013
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although 2-LTR circle are only a fraction of total viral DNA in the infected cells, sequence analysis of 2-LTR circle contains critical information regarding viral DNA synthesis and the nature of actively replicating virus. It was observed that a large proportion of the 2-LTR circular molecules in the PBMC DNA of infected individuals are mutated at the circle junction. The integrase inhibitor Raltegravir (RAL) blocks the strand transfer step of the integration of HIV-1; as a consequence of abortive integration a significant increase of episomal 2-LTR circles is observed. Moreover, it was demonstrated that in HAART treated patients changes in 2-LTR concentration did not affect junction sequences and flanking regions of 2-LTR. Here we evaluated if RAL therapy could differentially impact on the 2-LTR circles junctional sequences in patients with different virological profiles at time of starting RAL therapy. Sequence analysis indicate that RAL acts differently in the two populations.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · AIDS research and human retroviruses
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Persistent infection with high risk genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV) is the cause of cervical cancer, one of most common cancer among woman worldwide, and represents an important risk factor associated with other anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers in men and women. Here, we designed a therapeutic vaccine based on integrase defective lentiviral vector (IDLV) to deliver a mutated nononcogenic form of HPV16 E7 protein, considered as a tumor specific antigen for immunotherapy of HPV-associated cervical cancer, fused to calreticulin (CRT), a protein able to enhance major histocompatibility complex class I antigen presentation (IDLV-CRT/E7). Vaccination with IDLV-CRT/E7 induced a potent and persistent E7-specific T cell response up to 1 year after a single immunization. Importantly, a single immunization with IDLV-CRT/E7 was able to prevent growth of E7-expressing TC-1 tumor cells and to eradicate established tumors in mice. The strong therapeutic effect induced by the IDLV-based vaccine in this preclinical model suggests that this strategy may be further exploited as a safe and attractive anticancer immunotherapeutic vaccine in humans.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · International Journal of Cancer
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: The HIV integrase inhibitor raltegravir (RAL) can exacerbate autoimmune diseases in genetically predisposed mice. To evaluate whether this may occur in clinical practice, we clinically monitored HIV-positive patients treated with RAL and measured a panel of autoantibodies (auto-Abs) during the first year of RAL treatment. Methods: This was a longitudinal study in 109 antiretroviral-experienced patients who started a RAL-based regimen and were followed up for more than 2 years. A total of 45 patients were tested at baseline (before starting RAL) and after 12 months for the presence of the following auto-Abs: anti-nuclear antibodies, anti-double-stranded DNA, anti-smooth-muscle antibodies, anti-thyreoglobulin and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies, anti-cardiolipin immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M and anti-nuclear extractable antigens, including anti-SM ribonucleoprotein antigen, anti-Ro antigen and anti-La antigen. Results: A low rate of clinically relevant autoimmune diseases was observed at study entry (3/109; 2.8%; 95% CI 0.004, 0.059). No exacerbations were observed during follow-up. During the second year of RAL-based therapy a previously healthy patient developed psoriasis. At baseline, 17/45 (37.8%) patients tested for the presence of auto-Abs were positive. Most patients (n=13) were positive for anti-cardiolipin. After 12 months of RAL exposure, 9/45 patients were positive (20%; P=0.063). A positive correlation was found between HIV-1 RNA and anti-cardiolipin antibody concentration (P=0.010). Conclusions: According to these results, RAL does not promote antibody-mediated immune disorders, at least not in the mid-term. A prolonged follow-up and an extension of the panel of auto-Abs are recommended to support these results.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Antiviral therapy
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Retrovirology | Full text | Simian immunodeficiency virus-Vpx as an adjuvant for integrase defective lentiviral vector-based vaccines
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Sep 2012
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Integrase defective lentiviral vectors (IDLV) represent a promising delivery system for immunization purposes. Human dendritic cells (DC) are the main cell types mediating the immune response and are readily transduced by IDLV, allowing effective triggering of in vitro expansion of antigen-specific primed CD8+ T cells. However, IDLV expression in transduced DC is at lower levels than those of the integrase (IN) competent counterpart, thus requiring further improvement of IDLV for future use in the clinic. In this paper we show that the addition of simian immunodeficiency (SIV)-Vpx protein in the vector preparation greatly improves transduction of human and simian DC, but not of murine DC, thus increasing the ability of transduced DC to act as functional antigen presenting cells, in the absence of integrated vector sequences. Importantly, the presence of SIV-Vpx allows for using lower dose of input IDLV during in vitro transduction, thus further improving the IDLV safety profile. These results have significant implications for the development of IDLV-based vaccines.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Retrovirology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The development of new strategies for the induction of potent and broad immune responses is of high priority in the vaccine field. In this setting, integrase-defective lentiviral vectors (IDLV) represent a new and promising delivery system for immunization purposes. AREAS COVERED: In this review we describe the development and application of IDLV for vaccination. IDLV are turning out to be a new class of vectors endowed with peculiar characteristics, setting them apart from the parental integration-competent lentiviral vectors. Recent data suggest that IDLV are able to induce strong antigen-specific immune responses in terms of quantity, persistence and quality of CD8(+) T cell response following a single immunization in mice. EXPERT OPINION: IDLV are a recent acquisition in the field of genetic immunization, thus allowing for the opportunity of further upgrading, including increasing antigen expression and potency of immune response. Based on recent reports showing the potential of IDLV for immunization in mouse models, further development and validation of IDLV, including comparison with other vaccine protocols and use in non-human primate models, are warranted.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Expert opinion on biological therapy
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Virus-like particles (VLPs) are excellent tools for vaccines against pathogens and tumors. They can accommodate foreign polypeptides whose incorporation efficiency and immunogenicity however decrease strongly with the increase of their size. We recently described the CD8(+) T cell immune response against a small foreign antigen (i.e., the 98 amino acid long human papilloma virus E7 protein) incorporated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 based VLPs as product of fusion with an HIV-1 Nef mutant (Nef(mut)). Here, we extended our previous investigations by testing the antigenic/immunogenic properties of Nef(mut)-based VLPs incorporating much larger heterologous products, i.e., human hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 and influenza virus NP proteins, which are composed of 630 and 498 amino acids, respectively. We observed a remarkable cross-presentation of HCV NS3 in dendritic cells challenged with Nef(mut)-NS3 VLPs, as detected using a NS3 specific CD8(+) T cell clone as well as PBMCs from HCV infected patients. On the other hand, when injected in mice, Nef(mut)-NP VLPs elicited strong anti-NP CD8(+) T cell and CTL immune responses. In addition, we revealed the ability of Nef(mut) incorporated in VLPs to activate and mature primary human immature dendritic cells (iDCs). This phenomenon correlated with the activation of Src tyrosine kinase-related intracellular signaling, and can be transmitted from VLP-challenged to bystander iDCs. Overall, these results prove that Nef(mut)-based VLPs represent a rather flexible platform for the design of innovative CD8(+) T cell vaccines.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Vaccine
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Macrophages represent an important site for productive infection of HIV-1 and the evaluation of integrase (IN) inhibitors on this cell subset is of fundamental importance. In this report, preclinical evaluation of IN inhibitors on primary human macrophages was attempted successfully using a 96-well microtiter phenotypic assay developed recently for the evaluation of IN inhibitors in a cell-based system by taking advantage of HIV-derived lentiviral vectors expressing luciferase. IN inhibitors were also tested using a lentiviral vector containing an IN with introduced T66I/S153Y mutations, known to affect the activity of azido-group-containing diketo acid (DKA) IN inhibitors. Utilizing different classes of HIV integrase inhibitors against the wild-type IN and the mutant mentioned above, some of the IN inhibitors used were also active on this particular mutant, suggesting that should HIV-1 develop additional or different mutations to become resistant to such anti-IN drugs, new drugs can be developed with a better resistance profile. This assay provides a standardized method for the preclinical evaluation of the efficacy of IN inhibitors on wild-type and mutated IN that can be adapted easily for the evaluation of anti-IN activity on IN sequences derived from patients.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2010 · Journal of virological methods
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: CD8+ T cells are an essential component of an effective host immune response to tumors and viral infections. Genetic immunization is particularly suitable for inducing CTL responses, because the encoded proteins enter the MHC class I processing pathway through either transgene expression or cross-presentation. In order to compare the efficiency and persistence of immune response induced by genetic vaccines, BALB/c mice were immunized either twice intramuscularly with DNA plasmid expressing a codon-optimized HIV-1 gp120 Envelope sequence together with murine GM-CSF sequence or with a single immunization using an integrase defective lentiviral vector (IDLV) expressing the same proteins. Results strongly indicated that the schedule based on IDLV vaccine was more efficient in inducing specific immune response, as evaluated three months after the last immunization by IFNgamma ELISPOT in both splenocytes and bone marrow- (BM-) derived cells, chromium release assay in splenocytes, and antibody detection in sera. In addition, IDLV immunization induced high frequency of polyfunctional CD8+ T cells able to simultaneously produce IFNgamma, TNFalpha, and IL2.
    Full-text · Article · May 2010 · BioMed Research International
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nonintegrating lentiviral vectors are being developed as a efficient and safe delivery system for both gene therapy and vaccine purposes. Several reports have demonstrated that a single immunization with integration-defective lentiviral vectors (IDLVs) delivering viral or tumor model antigens in mice was able to elicit broad and long-lasting specific immune responses in the absence of vector integration. At present, no evidence has been reported showing that IDLVs are able to expand preexisting immune responses in the human context. In the present study, we demonstrate that infection of human antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages with IDLVs expressing influenza matrix M1 protein resulted in effective induction of in vitro expansion of M1-primed CD8(+) T cells, as evaluated by both pentamer staining and cytokine production. This is the first demonstration that IDLVs represent an efficient delivery system for gene transfer and expression in human APCs, useful for immunotherapeutic applications.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · Human gene therapy
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Genetic immunization with lentiviral vectors is under evaluation as a means for induction of sustained immune response. Lentiviral vectors showed reduced antivector immune responses and efficiently transduce post-mitotic cells in vivo, including antigen presenting cells, such as dendritic cells and macrophages, thus providing a significant benefit over other vector-based antigen delivery platforms. Several evidences indicate that a single immunization with lentiviral vectors induces strong and sustained effector and memory T-cell immune responses, as well as antibody production. New generation of lentiviral vectors with improved biosafety profile are also under development. In particular, integration defective lentiviral vectors have been generated and used as an efficient and safe delivery system for both gene therapy and immunization purposes. Taken together, these evidences support the ongoing development of lentiviral vector-based genetic immunization strategies for safe applications in the clinic.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Current HIV research

Publication Stats

3k Citations
412.53 Total Impact Points


  • 2002-2015
    • Istituto Superiore di Sanità
      • • Department of Therapeutic Research and Medicines Evaluation
      • • Laboratory of Virology
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2014
    • Duke University
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 2008
    • University of Antwerp
      • Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences
      Antwerpen, Flanders, Belgium
  • 2000-2005
    • Mount Sinai School of Medicine
      • • Division of Infectious Diseases
      • • Department of Medicine
      Manhattan, New York, United States
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2001
    • Albert Einstein College of Medicine
      • Nephrology
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1998
    • NCI-Frederick
      Фредерик, Maryland, United States
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • Basic Research Laboratory
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 1993-1997
    • National Institutes of Health
      • • Basic Research Laboratory
      • • Laboratory of Cell Biology
      • • Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology
      베서스다, Maryland, United States