[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Professional health care practice should be based on ethical decisions and actions. When there are competing ethical standards or principles, one must choose between two or more competing options. This study explores ethical dilemmas experienced by International Board Certified Lactation Consultants.
The investigator interviewed seven International Board Certified Lactation Consultants and analyzed the interviews using qualitative research methods.
"Staying Mother-Centred" emerged as the overall theme. It encompassed six categories that emerged as steps in managing ethical dilemmas: 1) recognizing the dilemma; 2) identifying context; 3) determining choices; 4) strategies used; 5) results and choices the mother made; and 6) follow-up. The category, "Strategies used", was further analyzed and six sub-themes emerged: building trust; diffusing situations; empowering mothers; finding balance; providing information; and setting priorities.
This study provides a framework for understanding how International Board Certified Lactation Consultants manage ethical dilemmas. Although the details of their stories changed, the essence of the experience remained quite constant with the participants making choices and acting to support the mothers. The framework could be the used for further research or to develop tools to support IBCLCs as they manage ethical dilemmas and to strengthen the profession with a firm ethics foundation.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · BMC Medical Ethics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The importance of leadership to influence nurses’ use of clinical guidelines has been well documented. However, little is known about how to develop and evaluate leadership interventions for guideline use.
The purpose of this study was to pilot a leadership intervention designed to influence nurses’ use of guideline recommendations when caring for patients with diabetic foot ulcers in home care nursing. This paper reports on the feasibility of implementing the study protocol, the trial findings related to nursing process outcomes, and leadership behaviors.
A mixed methods pilot study was conducted with a post-only cluster randomized controlled trial and descriptive qualitative interviews.
Four units were randomized to control or experimental groups. Clinical and management leadership teams participated in a 12-week leadership intervention (workshop, teleconferences). Participants received summarized chart audit data, identified goals for change, and created a team leadership action.
Criteria to assess feasibility of the protocol included: design, intervention, measures, and data collection procedures. For the trial, chart audits compared differences in nursing process outcomes. Primary outcome: 8-item nursing assessments score. Secondary outcome: 5-item score of nursing care based on goals for change identified by intervention participants. Qualitative interviews described leadership behaviors that influenced guideline use.
Conducting this pilot showed some aspects of the study protocol were feasible, while others require further development. Trial findings observed no significant difference in the primary outcome. A significant increase was observed in the 5-item score chosen by intervention participants (p = 0.02). In the experimental group more relations-oriented leadership behaviors, audit and feedback and reminders were described as leadership strategies.
Findings suggest that a leadership intervention has the potential to influence nurses’ use of guideline recommendations, but further work is required to refine the intervention and outcome measures. A taxonomy of leadership behaviors is proposed to inform future research.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Workforce recruitment and retention challenges are being experienced in public health as in other Canadian health sectors. While there are many nurses working in public health, little research has been done about their job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is linked to recruitment, retention and positive client outcomes. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationships between three modifiable work environment factors (autonomy, control-over-practice, and workload) and Canadian public health nurses' (PHNs) job satisfaction.
Data were from the 2005 National Survey of the Work and Health of Nurses (response rate, 79.7%; 18,676 nurses). Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used for this secondary analysis. Findings were discussed with practicing PHNs, policy-makers and researchers from across Canada at a knowledge translation (KT) 'Think-Tank'.
Among the 271 PHNs, 53.5% reported being 'very satisfied' with their jobs. The interaction between autonomy and workload was a significant predictor of PHNs' job satisfaction, (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.96-0.99, p < 0.01) as was the interaction between age and workload (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.01, p < 0.01). Think-Tank participants selected priority areas for application to public health practice, management and research.
Despite being an important practice factor, this is the first study to reveal the negative influence of PHNs' autonomy when in interaction with an excessive workload. Significant workload findings and the presence of generational differences suggest the need for development of workload measurement tools and public health human resource strategies tailored to a multi-generational workforce.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Canadian journal of public health. Revue canadienne de santé publique
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In our original study of newborn weight loss, we determined there were positive correlations among newborn weight loss, neonatal output, and the IV fluids mothers received before their babies' birth. Basically, an increase in maternal IV fluids is correlated to an increase in neonatal output and newborn weight loss. When assessing newborn weight change, our recommendation is to change baseline from birth weight to a weight measured at 24 hours. The purpose of this paper is to provide a protocol for clinicians to collect and analyze data from their own maternity site to determine if the newborns experience such an iatrogenic weight loss and to make decisions about how to assess newborn weight changes.
We recommend a prospective observational study with data collected about maternal fluids, neonatal output, and newborn weight measurements. The methods we suggest include specifics about recruitment, data collection, and data analysis.
Quality assurance and research ethics considerations are described. We also share practical information that we learned from our original study. Ultimately, to encourage knowledge translation and research uptake, we provide a protocol and sound advice to do a research study in your maternity setting.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · International Breastfeeding Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Newborn weight measurements are used as a key indicator of breastfeeding adequacy. The purpose of this study was to explore non-feeding factors that might be related to newborn weight loss. The relationship between the intravenous fluids women receive during parturition (the act of giving birth, including time in labour or prior to a caesarean section) and their newborn's weight loss during the first 72 hours postpartum was the primary interest.
In this observational cohort study, we collected data about maternal oral and IV fluids during labour or before a caesarean section. Participants (n = 109) weighed their newborns every 12 hours for the first three days then daily to Day 14, and they weighed neonatal output (voids and stools) for three days.
At 60 hours (nadir), mean newborn weight loss was 6.57% (SD 2.51; n = 96, range 1.83-13.06%). When groups, based on maternal fluids, were compared (≤1200 mls [n = 21] versus > 1200 [n = 53]), newborns lost 5.51% versus 6.93% (p = 0.03), respectively. For the first 24 hours, bivariate analyses show positive relationships between a) neonatal output and percentage of newborn weight lost (r(96) = 0.493, p < 0.001); and b) maternal IV fluids (final 2 hours) and neonatal output (r(42) = 0.383, p = 0.012). At 72 hours, there was a positive correlation between grams of weight lost and all maternal fluids (r(75) = 0.309, p = 0.007).
Timing and amounts of maternal IV fluids appear correlated to neonatal output and newborn weight loss. Neonates appear to experience diuresis and correct their fluid status in the first 24 hours. We recommend a measurement at 24 hours, instead of birth weight, for baseline when assessing weight change. Because practices can differ between maternity settings, we further suggest that clinicians should collect and analyze data from dyads in their care to determine an optimal baseline measurement.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · International Breastfeeding Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Research ethics guidelines do not provide sufficient direction for breastfeeding and human lactation studies. This article presents the principles of consent for research studies and discusses rationales for who should consent for infants in lactation and breastfeeding research studies.
No preview · Article · May 2010 · Journal of Human Lactation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Healthy, full-term, exclusively breastfed infants are expected to lose weight in the first days following birth. There are conflicting opinions about what constitutes a normal neonatal weight loss, and about when interventions such as supplemental feedings should be considered.
To establish the reference weight loss for the first 2 weeks following birth by conducting a systematic review of studies reporting birth weights of exclusively breastfed neonates.
We searched 5 electronic databases from June 2006 to June 2007: the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; MEDLINE (from 1950); CINAHL (from 1982); EMBASE (from 1980); and Ovid HealthSTAR (from 1999). We included primary research studies with weight loss data for healthy, full-term, exclusively breastfed neonates in the first 2 weeks following birth.
Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. Definitions, types of measurements, and reporting styles varied among studies. In most studies, daily weights were not measured and measurements did not continue for 2 weeks. Mean weight loss ranged from 5.7% to 6.6%, with standard deviations around 2%. Median percentage weight loss ranged from 3.2 to 8.3, with the majority around 6%. The majority of infants in these 11 studies regained their birth weight within the first 2 weeks postpartum. The second and third days following birth appear to be the days of maximum weight loss.
Methods used to report weight loss were inconsistent, using either an average of single lowest weights or a combination of weight losses. The 7% maximum allowable weight loss recommended in 4 clinical practice guidelines appears to be based on mean weight loss and does not account for standard deviation. Further research is needed to understand the causes of neonatal weight loss and its implications for morbidity and mortality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with chronic conditions are heavy users of the health care system. There are opportunities for significant savings and improvements to patient care if patients can be maintained in their homes. A randomized control trial tested the impact of 3 months of telehome monitoring on hospital readmission, quality of life, and functional status in patients with heart failure or angina. The intervention consisted of video conferencing and phone line transmission of weight, blood pressure, and electrocardiograms. Telehome monitoring significantly reduced the number of hospital readmissions and days spent in the hospital for patients with angina and improved quality of life and functional status in patients with heart failure or angina. Patients found the technology easy to use and expressed high levels of satisfaction. Telehealth technologies are a viable means of providing home monitoring to patients with heart disease at high risk of hospital readmission to improve their self-care abilities.
No preview · Article · Jan 2008 · Heart & lung: the journal of critical care
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Guidelines for critiquing systematic reviews and meta-syntheses are presented in Polit and Beck's (2008) most recent research text. These have been loosely used to review the two study examples. Although the study by Lefler and Bondy (2004) is titled a meta-synthesis, it is clearly an integrative review and, thus, helps to illustrate the similarities and differences between these two approaches. The Paterson study (2001) suffers, as many qualitative reports do, from a restriction on length, making it difficult to completely assess all aspects of the study. Having said this, the purpose of Paterson's study could have been stated more clearly and the search strategy and inclusion/exclusion criteria could have been more explicit. In both reviews, issues of quality appraisal should have been dealt with in more detail, or reasons for not undertaking a quality appraisal discussed. While Paterson discusses at length the "state of the knowledge" in meta-synthesis, her description of the actual analysis done was very brief. Neither of the studies specifically addressed issues of rigour and Lefler and Bondy only briefly discussed study limitations. No limitations were discussed in the Paterson paper (2001). There are limitations to all research studies and it is important to interpret a study's findings while acknowledging how the limitations affect their interpretation. Lefler and Bondy identify three types of factors that may delay treatment-seeking in women who have had a myocardial infarction and have suggested further research that should be undertaken. Paterson (2001) has proposed a model of chronic illness that can assist nurses in supporting patients with chronic illness. Two studies of potential interest to cardiovascular nurses have been used to illustrate a relatively new research method -- meta-synthesis. Although there are still many methodological questions, the body of knowledge about meta-synthesis is sufficiently developed and documented to permit both novice and experienced researchers to undertake one. Meta-synthesis is an important way of making the large body of qualitative nursing research available to practising nurses and policymakers, as well as generating higher levels of understanding about phenomena of interest to nursing science.
No preview · Article · Feb 2007 · Canadian journal of cardiovascular nursing = Journal canadien en soins infirmiers cardio-vasculaires
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the effects of a prenatal breastfeeding workshop on maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy and breastfeeding duration.
Randomized controlled trial.
Large tertiary hospital in Ontario, Canada.
110 primiparous women expecting a single child, an uncomplicated birth, and planning to breastfeed. Intervention: 2.5-hour prenatal breastfeeding workshop based on adult learning principles and self-efficacy theory.
Maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy and the numbers of days and amount of breastfeeding were measured at four and eight weeks postpartum. RESULTS/DATA ANALYSIS: Over time, maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy scores increased in both groups. Women who attended the workshop had higher self-efficacy scores and a higher proportion were exclusively breastfeeding compared to women who did not attend the workshop. There was little difference in the average number of days of breastfeeding, but the intervention group had less weaning.
The workshop increased maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy and exclusive breastfeeding.
No preview · Article · Sep 2006 · Journal of Obstetric Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Women experience higher levels of distress than men (depression, anxiety, poor quality of life) after a first myocardial infarction. Sex differences in distress are not present in predominantly female diseases such as arthritis. This study explored the possibility that the predominantly male treatment environment for heart disease accounted for some of the sex differences in distress.
Men and women who had experienced a first-MI were asked to complete the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI), a modified version of the Moos Ward Atmosphere Scale (WAS) and measures of illness intrusiveness, depression, anxiety and quality of life. Gender syntony was defined as a match between patient gender (BSRI) and the perceived gender of the treatment environment (WAS).
Women experienced higher levels of distress than men and were more likely to experience discordance between their gender and the perceived gender of the care environment (73% of women versus 32% of men). The presence of gender dystony (a mismatch between gender and treatment environment) was related to higher levels of illness intrusiveness and overall distress.
Modification of the heart disease treatment environment so that it better meets the needs of women may reduce sex differences in distress.
No preview · Article · Feb 2005 · Canadian journal of cardiovascular nursing = Journal canadien en soins infirmiers cardio-vasculaires
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: There has been growing concern about possible drug shortages in Canada, yet we know little about the frequency and impact of shortages in community pharmacies. Objective: The objective of this survey was to determine the extent of any drug shortages in Canadian community pharmacies and the implications of these shortages for community pharmacists. Methods: Surveys and log sheets were faxed to a random sample of 1000 Canadian community pharmacists. Results: More than half of the pharmacists experienced a shortage during one shift, and 80% experienced drug shortages over a one-week period. The three main reasons given for shortages were manufacturing problems, cross-border drug trade, and raw material shortages. The drug products that were most frequently in short supply were Chronovera, Loestrin, Sodium Sulamyd eye drops, and Minestrin. Pharmacists estimated that they spent an average of 17.5 minutes each shift dealing with drug shortages. Conclusion: Most pharmacists are experiencing shortages and feel that these shortages have become more frequent over the past year. There are a variety of factors that contribute to drug shortages and, while the amount of time spent dealing with them is manageable at the present time, increases in shortages will further stress the system.
Preview · Article · Feb 2005 · Canadian Pharmacists Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The Multistakeholder Framework of Rurality project was funded by Health Canada's Rural and Remote Health Innovations Initiative. The aim of this project was to develop a tool to assist rural communities with health human resource planning and to help governments and communities in recruiting and retaining health care providers in rural and remote communities. Methods: A national survey was sent to nurses, physicians, and pharmacists living in rural or remote communities to determine, among other factors, satisfaction with their personal and professional lives in those communities. One of the questions asked in the survey was "Do you plan to be in practice in the community in two years?" Results: Completed surveys were returned by 1019 pharmacists. Pharmacists who were married, had children living at home, were between the ages of 35 and 54 years, and had between 6 and 24 years in practice were more likely to say they would remain in the community. Communities where there were better working hours, better availability of coverage and backup, higher earning potential, and greater opportunities were more likely to retain pharmacists, as were communities where there were better opportunities for family members. Pharmacists were also more likely to state an intention to remain in communities where they had a sense of belonging and a sense of being appreciated. Multivariate predictors of pharmacists' intent to remain were children living at home, professional factors, and personal factors. Conclusions/Implications: Despite some study limitations, the results presented here could be used to help communities select pharmacists who are most likely to remain in practice in the communities for longer periods. Community attributes such as distance to large population centres cannot be changed, but attributes that contribute to personal and professional satisfaction could be altered.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The Multistakeholder Framework of Rurality project was funded by Health Canada's Rural and Remote Health Innovations Initiative. The aim of this project was to develop a tool to assist rural communities with health human resource planning and to help governments and com- munities in recruiting and retaining health care providers in rural and remote communities. Methods: A national survey was sent to nurses, physicians, and pharma- cists living in rural or remote communities to determine, among other fac- tors, satisfaction with their personal and professional lives in those communities. One of the questions asked in the survey was "Do you plan to be in practice in the community in two years?" Results: Completed surveys were returned by 1019 pharmacists. Pharmacists who were married, had children living at home, were between the ages of 35 and 54 years, and had between 6 and 24 years in practice were more likely to say they would remain in the community. Communities where there were better working hours, better availability of coverage and backup, higher earning potential, and greater opportunities were more likely to retain pharmacists, as were communities where there were better opportunities for family members. Pharmacists were also more likely to state an intention to remain in communities where they had a sense of belonging and a sense of being appreciated. Multivariate predictors of pharmacists' intent to remain were children living at home, professional fac- tors, and personal factors. Conclusions/Implications: Despite some study limitations, the results presented here could be used to help communities select pharmacists who are most likely to remain in practice in the communities for longer periods. Community attributes such as distance to large population centres cannot be changed, but attributes that contribute to personal and professional sat- isfaction could be altered.
Preview · Article · Dec 2004 · Canadian Pharmacists Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: "Burden of care" is a term that describes the effects of the multifaceted stressors associated with providing care to an ill family member. Descriptions of burden of care in acute care populations, such as families of patients who have had coronary artery bypass grafting, are very limited. The three purposes of this study were to describe the burden of care in families of coronary artery bypass grafting surgery patients, to compare the burden of care in families grouped by length of stay, and to provide evidence for the validity of the Caregiving Burden Scale in acute care populations. A survey was done using a longitudinal design over the first six weeks following coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. The 124 spouses of coronary artery bypass grafting surgery patients who participated reported a moderate degree of burden in caring for post cardiac surgery family members. Providing emotional support, taking over household tasks, and monitoring patients' conditions created the greatest burden for the participants. Length of stay in hospital did not have an impact on burden of care. The analysis of the data supports the validity of the Care-giving Burden Scale when used in the cardiac surgery population. (Prog Cardiovasc).
No preview · Article · Feb 2000 · Progress in Cardiovascular Nursing