Bruno Mougin

CHU de Lyon - Groupement Hospitalier Edouard Herriot, Lyons, Rhône-Alpes, France

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Publications (45)194.57 Total impact


  • No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · European Respiratory Journal
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    ABSTRACT: As early and appropriate care of severe septic patients is associated with better outcome, understanding of the very first events in the disease process is needed. Pan-genomic analyses offer an interesting opportunity to study global genomic response within the very first hours after sepsis. The objective of this study was to investigate the systemic genomic response in severe intensive care unit (ICU) patients and determine whether patterns of gene expression could be associated with clinical severity evaluated by the severity score. Twenty-eight ICU patients were enrolled at the onset of septic shock. Blood samples were collected within 30 min and 24 and 48 h after shock and genomic response was evaluated using microarrays. The genome-wide expression pattern of blood leukocytes was sequentially compared to healthy volunteers and after stratification based on Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPSII) score to identify potential mechanisms of dysregulation. Septic shock induces a global reprogramming of the whole leukocyte transcriptome affecting multiple functions and pathways (>71% of the whole genome was modified). Most altered pathways were not significantly different between SAPSII-high and SAPSII-low groups of patients. However, the magnitude and the duration of these alterations were different between these two groups. Importantly, we observed that the more severe patients did not exhibit the strongest modulation. This indicates that some regulation mechanisms leading to recovery seem to take place at the early stage. In conclusion, both pro- and anti-inflammatory processes, measured at the transcriptomic level, are induced within the very first hours after septic shock. Interestingly, the more severe patients did not exhibit the strongest modulation. This highlights that not only the responses mechanisms by themselves but mainly their early and appropriate regulation are crucial for patient recovery. This reinforces the idea that an immediate and tailored aggressive care of patients, aimed at restoring an appropriately regulated immune response, may have a beneficial impact on the outcome.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is ubiquitous in the environment. Inhalation of LPS has been implicated in the pathogenesis and/or severity of several lung diseases, including pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. Alveolar macrophages are the main resident leukocytes exposed to inhaled antigens. To obtain insight into which innate immune pathways become activated within human alveolar macrophages upon exposure to LPS in vivo, we conducted a study in eight healthy humans, in which we instilled sterile saline into a lung segment by bronchoscope, followed by instillation of LPS into the contralateral lung. Six hours later a bilateral bronchoalveolar lavage was performed and whole-genome transcriptional profiling was done on purified alveolar macrophages, comparing cells exposed to saline or LPS from the same individuals. LPS induced differential expression of 2932 genes in alveolar macrophages; 1520 genes were upregulated, whereas 1440 genes were downregulated. Twenty-six biological functions were overrepresented in LPS exposed macrophages, Forty-four canonical pathways affected by LPS were identified, among which the genes associated with the role of pattern recognition receptors in recognition of bacteria and viruses represented the top pathway. Other pathways included cellular immune response, signaling by tumor necrosis factor (receptor) family members, cytokine signaling and glucocorticoid receptor signaling. These results reveal for the first time a large number of functional pathways influenced by the biologically relevant challenge provided by LPS administered into the airways. These data can assist in identifying novel targets for therapeutic intervention in pulmonary diseases associated with LPS exposure, including pneumonia, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Molecular Medicine
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    Dataset: Table S3
    Qinghua Xu · Shujuan Ni · Fei Wu · Fang Liu · Xun Ye · Bruno Mougin · Xia Meng · Xiang Du
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    ABSTRACT: The overview of variable-associated-gene lists and enriched functional annotation terms. (XLS)
    Preview · Dataset · Oct 2011
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    Dataset: Table S1
    Qinghua Xu · Shujuan Ni · Fei Wu · Fang Liu · Xun Ye · Bruno Mougin · Xia Meng · Xiang Du
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    ABSTRACT: Primers of selected genes for real-time PCR. (DOC)
    Preview · Dataset · Oct 2011
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    Dataset: Table S2
    Qinghua Xu · Shujuan Ni · Fei Wu · Fang Liu · Xun Ye · Bruno Mougin · Xia Meng · Xiang Du
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    ABSTRACT: The proportion of total variation explained by each principle component. (DOC)
    Preview · Dataset · Oct 2011
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    Qinghua Xu · Shujuan Ni · Fei Wu · Fang Liu · Xun Ye · Bruno Mougin · Xia Meng · Xiang Du
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    ABSTRACT: Human peripheral blood is a promising material for biomedical research. However, various kinds of biological and technological factors result in a large degree of variation in blood gene expression profiles. Human peripheral blood samples were drawn from healthy volunteers and analysed using the Human Genome U133Plus2 Microarray. We applied a novel approach using the Principle Component Analysis and Eigen-R(2) methods to dissect the overall variation of blood gene expression profiles with respect to the interested biological and technological factors. The results indicated that the predominating sources of the variation could be traced to the individual heterogeneity of the relative proportions of different blood cell types (leukocyte subsets and erythrocytes). The physiological factors like age, gender and BMI were demonstrated to be associated with 5.3% to 9.2% of the total variation in the blood gene expression profiles. We investigated the gene expression profiles of samples from the same donors but with different levels of RNA quality. Although the proportion of variation associated to the RNA Integrity Number was mild (2.1%), the significant impact of RNA quality on the expression of individual genes was observed. By characterizing the major sources of variation in blood gene expression profiles, such variability can be minimized by modifications to study designs. Increasing sample size, balancing confounding factors between study groups, using rigorous selection criteria for sample quality, and well controlled experimental processes will significantly improve the accuracy and reproducibility of blood transcriptome study.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2011 · PLoS ONE
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    Dataset: Figure S1
    Qinghua Xu · Shujuan Ni · Fei Wu · Fang Liu · Xun Ye · Bruno Mougin · Xia Meng · Xiang Du
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    ABSTRACT: The ectopic expression patterns of XIST and RPS4Y1 in men and women. In x-axis, the samples were arranged in accordance with the array Series 1–3 from the left to the right. Black and red dots represent blood samples collected from men and women, respectively. The y-axis indicates the gene expression signal intensity. (TIF)
    Preview · Dataset · Oct 2011
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    Dataset: Table S1
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    ABSTRACT: Ontological analysis of the 121 biclusters obtained from the 102 RA patients. The TANGO algorithm (Tool for Analysis of GO enrichment) was used to identify the biological significance of 121 biclusters from 9,856 selected probe sets (see material and methods for details). Among them, these results have highlighted the importance of immune regulation across the “immune response” and “response to virus” ontology groups (biclusters 4, 21, 34, 35 and 39. Processes with corrected p value<0.05 were considered significant [36]. (DOC)
    Preview · Dataset · Oct 2011
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    ABSTRACT: The analysis of gene expression data shows that many genes display similarity in their expression profiles suggesting some co-regulation. Here, we investigated the co-expression patterns in gene expression data and proposed a correlation-based research method to stratify individuals. Using blood from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, we investigated the gene expression profiles from whole blood using Affymetrix microarray technology. Co-expressed genes were analyzed by a biclustering method, followed by gene ontology analysis of the relevant biclusters. Taking the type I interferon (IFN) pathway as an example, a classification algorithm was developed from the 102 RA patients and extended to 10 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and 100 healthy volunteers to further characterize individuals. We developed a correlation-based algorithm referred to as Classification Algorithm Based on a Biological Signature (CABS), an alternative to other approaches focused specifically on the expression levels. This algorithm applied to the expression of 35 IFN-related genes showed that the IFN signature presented a heterogeneous expression between RA, SLE and healthy controls which could reflect the level of global IFN signature activation. Moreover, the monitoring of the IFN-related genes during the anti-TNF treatment identified changes in type I IFN gene activity induced in RA patients. In conclusion, we have proposed an original method to analyze genes sharing an expression pattern and a biological function showing that the activation levels of a biological signature could be characterized by its overall state of correlation.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2011 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Septic shock remains a serious disease with high mortality and increased risk of hospital-acquired infection. The prediction of outcome is of the utmost importance for selecting patients for therapeutic strategies aiming to modify the immune response. The aim of this study was to assess the capability of S100A9 messenger RNA in whole blood from patients with septic shock to predict survival and the occurrence of hospital-acquired infection. Cohort study. Two intensive care units in a university hospital. The study included patients with septic shock (n = 166) and healthy volunteers (n = 44). None. For the patients with septic shock patients, overall mortality was 38% and the mean Simplified Acute Physiologic Scale II on shock onset was 52. Using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions, we found that median S100A9 messenger RNA was significantly lower in healthy volunteers than in patients with septic shock (p < .0001) between days 1 and 3 after onset of the septic shock and not significantly different between nonsurvivor and survivor patients (p = .1278). However, median S100A9 messenger RNA measured on days 7-10 was significantly higher in patients who were about to contract hospital-acquired infections compared with those who were not (p = .009). In the multivariate analysis, the S100A9 marker increased the probability of contracting hospital-acquired infections with an odds ratio of 1.12 per unit (p = .0054). S100A9 messenger RNA is increased in septic shock and its delayed overexpression is associated with the occurrence of secondary hospital-acquired infection. This biomarker may be of major interest in identifying patients with increased risk of hospital-acquired infection who could benefit from targeted therapy aimed at restoring their immune functions.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Critical care medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical data suggest that the estrogen receptor (ER) contributes to chemotherapeutic responsiveness. However, ER status alone is not consistently predictive. In this study, we used a microarray approach to find novel ER-related genes that predicted chemotherapy responses, with the hope of providing a robust multi-variable prediction method. One hundred and ten patients with stages II and III breast cancer were included. They received four preoperative cycles of a weekly PCb (paclitaxel plus carboplatin) regimen. A total of 55 training cases were used for marker discovery and for identification of any ER-related genes that may have been associated with a chemotherapeutic response ("training cases"). The other 55 patients were available as an independent validation set ("validation cases") to test, using immunohistochemistry (IHC). In the training set, 20 significantly differentially expressed genes were identified. Among these 20 genes, TFF1, ESR1, GATA3 and TFF3 were found to be ER-related. Among 55 independent validation cases, univariate analysis indicated that clinical variables and ER-related genes were all significantly associated with pCR. It was shown that the pCR rate was as high as 80% when these five factors were all negative. In contrast, these five factors were all positive in seven of nine chemo-resistant patients. In conjunction with levels of ER-related genes, expression of ER protein may provide important predictive outcomes for responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and may allow for the identification of a subgroup of patients who could significantly benefit from chemotherapy (or who may be resistant to it).
    No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Cancer letters
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    ABSTRACT: Early detection and stratification of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) are major challenges, particularly in the context of the development of new therapies. Several screening strategies are already in place in various countries, but compliance remains a major issue, mainly due to logistics or discomfort for the patients. In this study, we hypothesized that transcriptional signatures associated with leukocytes in peripheral blood can be informative to the identification of CRC patients. Gene expression was studied using RNA extracted from whole blood samples collected in PAXgene tubes and DNA microarrays. Analyzing 119 CRC patients and 101 colonoscopy-negative control (CNC) samples, we observed 327 differentially expressed genes (DEG), mostly associated with immune cell activation and trafficking. Natural Killer (NK) cell signaling and cytotoxicity associated genes appeared to undergo major changes in CRC peripheral blood samples. These changes were more pronounced in the advanced stages of the disease. A summarizing score of the expression of 10 genes related to NK cells interestingly revealed a marked heterogeneity within the CRC Stage IV group, suggesting possible further stratification of the patients. This study shows the potential of transcriptomics in peripheral blood to discover biomarkers and provides new insight on the immune response in colorectal cancer. In addition to preparing a possible alternative to current screening modalities, these results also show that the expression analysis of genes like those related to NK cells should allow the stratification of patients with colorectal cancer, opening the door to personalized medicine.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · Cancer biology & therapy
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    ABSTRACT: Due to the small volume and high density of breast tissue in Asian women, particularly younger women, mammographic diagnosis is sometimes non-conclusive, with a Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) result of 0. No alternative based on blood biomarkers has yet succeeded in discriminating between patients with breast cancer (BC) and those with benign breast disease (BBD) among BI-RADS 0 patients. In our study, 84 BC and 94 BBD patients with mammographic results and confirmed pathologic information were enrolled and categorized into two groups, namely, 79 BC and 73 BBD patients with BI-RADS 1-5 and 5 BC and 21 BBD patients with BI-RADS 0. RNA extracted from peripheral blood samples collected in PAXgene (TM) tubes was analyzed after NuGEN WT-Ovation (TM) RNA amplification using Affymetrix GeneChip.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · Cancer biology & therapy
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    ABSTRACT: Lymphocyte apoptosis has been suggested to play a central role in sepsis pathophysiology, and studies in animal models demonstrated that blocking this pathway improves outcome. However, no routine biomarkers of apoptosis are so far available in patients. Thus, the aim of our study was to assess the different biomarkers of apoptosis putatively usable on a routine basis in septic shock. Thirteen septic shock patients (sampled twice between days 1 to 2 and days 3 to 5 after diagnosis of shock) and 15 sex-matched and age-matched healthy controls were prospectively enrolled. Apoptosis was measured in lymphocyte subpopulations using flow cytometry (Annexin-V binding, activated caspase-3 and Bcl-2 expressions). Representative pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic gene expressions were assessed by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. Monocyte HLA-DR expression and lymphocyte subpopulation cell counts were measured as markers of sepsis-induced immune dysfunctions. To test for statistical significance, the Mann-Whitney U test was used with correction by the number of tests performed. Flow cytometric measurements of apoptosis in septic shock patients showed an increased Annexin-V binding on CD4+ T cells and an increased active caspase-3 expression on B cells only at days 3 to 5 (sixfold change and twofold change, respectively). Gene expression analysis showed an increased BCL-XL mRNA and an upregulation of the pro-apoptotic genes BID and FAS in septic shock patients (10-fold change and fivefold change, respectively) compared with healthy controls. The present study highlights the difficulties encountered in monitoring apoptosis on a routine basis in septic patients, whereas in the same sampling conditions and on the same patients, HLA-DR expression and lymphocyte subpopulation cell counts showed characteristics described in the literature. However, pro-apoptotic genes BID and FAS appear to constitute promising apoptosis markers in our hands.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2010 · Critical care (London, England)
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding the pathogenesis of type-I diabetes (T1D) is hindered in humans by the long autoimmune process occurring before clinical onset and by the difficulty to study the pancreas directly. Alternatively, exploring body fluids and particularly peripheral blood can provide some insights. Indeed, circulating cells can function as 'sentinels', with subtle changes in gene expression occurring in association with disease. Therefore, we investigated the gene expression profiles of circulating blood cells using Affymetrix microarrays. Whole-blood samples from 20 first-degree relatives of T1D children with autoimmune diabetes-related antibodies, 19 children immediately after the onset of clinical T1D and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were collected in PAXgene tubes. A global gene expression analysis with MDS approach allowed the discrimination of pre-diabetic subjects, diabetic patients and healthy controls. Univariate statistical analysis highlighted 107 distinct genes differently expressed between these three groups. Two major gene expression profiles were characterized, including type-I IFN-regulated genes and genes associated with biosynthesis and oxidative phosphorylation. Our results showed the presence of early functional modifications associated with T1D, which could help to understand the disease and suggest possible avenues for therapeutic interventions.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Genes and immunity
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    ABSTRACT: A dramatic decrease in circulating lymphocyte number is regularly described after septic shock. However, it is unknown how early this alteration develops after diagnosis of shock and if it remains stable over time. Twenty-one septic shock patients with no comorbidities were included within 2 h after the beginning of vasopressive treatment. Flow cytometry phenotyping of circulating leukocyte subpopulations and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction of T-bet, GATA-3, FOXP3, and RORγ mRNA were performed in patients from the diagnosis of shock and every 6 h during the subsequent 48 h. From their admission in the intensive care unit, patients present with major alterations of circulating leukocyte count (leukocytosis, neutrophilia, and major lymphopenia). The numbers of every lymphocyte subpopulations (T, B, and natural killer cells) were diminished. Gene expression analysis of transcription factors specific for TH1, TH2, CD4CD25 regulatory, and TH17 lymphocytes showed a severe decrease in comparison with healthy individuals' values. These alterations remain stable during the first 48 h after inclusion in the protocol despite early and aggressive resuscitation and antibiotherapy administered in patients. At the time of diagnosis of shock and admission in the intensive care unit, septic patients already present with severe lymphopenia involving every lymphocyte subsets including CD4 T-cell subpopulations. No significant variation could be detected within the first 48 h. This should be taken into account in the forthcoming clinical trials testing immunomodulating therapies in septic shock patients.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Shock (Augusta, Ga.)
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    Full-text · Article · Nov 2009 · Critical Care
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    ABSTRACT: To study the viral loads of human endogenous retrovirus HERV-K (HML-2) type 1 and type 2 in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we measured the viral loads of HERV-K (HML-2) type 1 and type 2 using nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) technology. We analyzed plasma samples from RA patients (n = 79) and healthy volunteers (HV, n = 46) and synovial fluid samples from RA (n = 10) and osteoarthritis (OA, n = 10) patients. HERV-K type 1 and type 2 viruses were detected and quantified for the majority of plasma and synovial fluid samples from RA patients. HERV-K type 1 and type 2 viral loads were significantly elevated in RA patients compared with HV in plasma (P < 0.0001) and from RA patients compared with OA patients in synovial fluid (type 1: P = 0.0007; type 2: P = 0.023). Moreover, an association was observed between the HERV-K type 1 viral load in plasma and the disease activity in RA patients (RA patients with low activity versus high activity P = 0.0129; RA patients with intermediate activity versus high activity P = 0.037). Our findings showed that HERV-K (HML-2) viral load can be detected in plasma samples from RA patients, with higher levels observed for those with active disease. There was an association of HERV-K type 1 levels with the disease activity.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: The severity of Staphylococcus aureus sepsis is positively associated with staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) and negatively associated with the enterotoxin gene cluster (egc), which encodes five staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE). It was recently demonstrated that SE can induce human leukocytes to release inflammatory mediators. Contrary to SEG (one of the five egc superantigens), SEA induces a strong proinflammatory/Th1 response, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha production. Here, we investigated the very early transcriptional response of human PBMC to these two SEs. We confirm that SEA is more potent than SEG. Importantly, our data also suggest that the early response to SE is likely induced more by T cells than by monocytes. In addition, negative feedback control is triggered at the same time as proinflammatory processes (inflammation and apoptosis). It confirms at the molecular level new models of sepsis pathophysiology as concomitant and opposite sides of a given mechanism participating to response to bacterial compound are both necessary. This preliminary study highlights the potential of transcriptional studies for unraveling the very early mechanisms of leukocyte responses to SE. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms underlying the putative synergy between SE and other bacterial components.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2009 · Microbial Pathogenesis

Publication Stats

831 Citations
194.57 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006-2012
    • CHU de Lyon - Groupement Hospitalier Edouard Herriot
      Lyons, Rhône-Alpes, France
    • HCL
      Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • 2006-2011
    • Hospices Civils de Lyon
      Lyons, Rhône-Alpes, France
  • 2004-2010
    • BioMérieux
      Lyons, Rhône-Alpes, France
  • 2009
    • University of Lyon
      Lyons, Rhône-Alpes, France