O Joe Hines

Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California, United States

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Publications (287)

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Importance: According to the 2012 International Consensus Guidelines, the diagnostic criterion of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) involving the main duct (MD IPMNs) or the main and branch ducts (mixed IPMNs) of the pancreatic system is a main pancreatic duct (MPD) diameter of 5.0 mm or greater on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, surgical resection is recommended for patients with an MPD diameter of 10.0 mm or greater, which is characterized as a high-risk stigma. An MPD diameter of 5.0 to 9.0 mm is not an indication for immediate resection. Objectives: To determine an appropriate cutoff (ie, one with high sensitivity and negative predictive value) of the MPD diameter on CT or MRI as a prognostic factor for malignant disease and to propose a new management algorithm for patients with MD or mixed IPMNs. Design, setting, and participants: This retrospective cohort study included 103 patients who underwent surgical resection for a preoperative diagnosis of MD or mixed IPMN and in whom IPMN was confirmed by surgical pathologic findings at a single institution from July 1, 1996, to December 31, 2015. Main outcomes and measures: Malignant disease was defined as high-grade dysplasia or invasive adenocarcinoma on results of surgical pathologic evaluation. An appropriate MPD diameter on preoperative CT or MRI to predict malignant disease was determined using a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The prognostic value of the new management algorithm that incorporated the new MPD diameter cutoff was evaluated. Results: Among the 103 patients undergoing resection for an MD or mixed IPMN (59 men [57.3%]; 44 women [42.7%]; median [range] age, 71 [48-86] years), 64 (62.1%) had malignant disease. Diagnostic accuracy for malignant neoplasms was highest at an MPD diameter cutoff of 7.2 mm (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.59-0.81). An MPD diameter of 7.2 mm or greater was also an independent prognostic factor for malignant neoplasms (odds ratio, 12.76; 95% CI, 2.43-66.88; P = .003) on logistic regression analysis after controlling for preoperative variables. The new management algorithm, which included an MPD diameter of 7.2 mm or greater as one of the high-risk stigmata, had a higher sensitivity (100%), negative predictive value (100%), and accuracy (66%) for malignant disease than the 2012 version of the International Consensus Guidelines (95%, 57%, and 63%, respectively). Conclusions and relevance: In this single-center, retrospective analysis, an MPD diameter of 7.2 mm was identified as an optimal cutoff for a prognostic factor for malignant disease in MD or mixed IPMN. These data support lowering the accepted criteria for MPD diameter when selecting patients for resection vs surveillance so as not to overlook cancer in IPMN.
    Article · Nov 2016 · JAMA SURGERY
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Importance: Patients with periampullary adenocarcinomas have widely variable survival. These cancers are traditionally categorized by their anatomic location of origin, namely, the duodenum, ampulla, distal common bile duct (CBD), or head of the pancreas. However, they can be alternatively subdivided histopathologically into intestinal or pancreaticobiliary (PB) types, which may more accurately estimate prognosis. Objectives: To identify factors associated with survival in patients with periampullary adenocarcinomas and to compare survival between those having intestinal-type or PB-type cancers originating from the duodenum, ampulla, or distal CBD with those having pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Design, setting, and participants: This study was a retrospective analysis of medical records in a prospectively maintained database. Three pathologists separately evaluated histopathologic phenotypes at a university-based tertiary referral center. Study participants were all patients (N = 510) who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy for adenocarcinoma between January 1995 and December 2014. Main outcome and measure: Overall survival. Results: This study identified 510 patients (mean [SD] age, 66.1 [10.9] years; 245 female [48%]) who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy for adenocarcinomas: 13 duodenal, 110 ampullary, 43 distal CBD, and 344 PDAC. The median overall survival was 61.2 (interquartile range [IQR], 22.0-111.0), 70.4 (IQR, 26.7-147.7), 40.6 (IQR, 15.2-59.6), and 31.4 (IQR, 17.3-86.3) months for patients with cancers of the duodenum, ampulla, distal CBD, or pancreas, respectively (P = .01), indicating a significant difference between the 4 tumor anatomic locations. Most duodenal (61.5% [8 of 13]) and ampullary (51.8% [57 of 110]) cancers were intestinal type, and most distal CBD tumors were PB type (86.0% [37 of 43]). Those with intestinal-type duodenal, ampullary, or distal CBD adenocarcinomas had longer median overall survival than those with PB type (71.7 vs 33.3 months, P = .02) or PDAC (31.4 months, P = .003). There was no survival difference between PB-type cancers and PDAC (33.3 vs 31.4 months, P = .66). On multivariable analysis, histologic grade (hazard ratio [HR], 1.98; 95% CI, 1.56-2.52; P < .001), histopathologic phenotype (HR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.16-2.64; P = .008), and nodal status (HR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.12-1.87; P = .05) were significantly associated with survival, while anatomic location was not. Conclusions and relevance: Histopathologic phenotype is a better prognosticator of survival in patients with periampullary adenocarcinomas than tumor anatomic location. Those with PB-type duodenal, ampullary, or distal CBD adenocarcinomas have survival similar to those with PDAC.
    Article · Oct 2016
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Current diagnosis and staging of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has important limitations and better biomarkers are needed to guide initial therapy. We investigated the performance of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) as an adjunctive biomarker at the time of disease presentation. Methods: Venous blood (VB) was collected prospectively from 100 consecutive, pre-treatment patients with PDAC. Utilising the microfluidic NanoVelcro CTC chip, samples were evaluated for the presence and number of CTCs. KRAS mutation analysis was used to compare the CTCs with primary tumour tissue. CTC enumeration data was then evaluated as a diagnostic and staging biomarker in the setting of PDAC. Results: We found 100% concordance for KRAS mutation subtype between primary tumour and CTCs in all five patients tested. Evaluation of CTCs as a diagnostic revealed the presence of CTCs in 54/72 patients with confirmed PDAC (sensitivity=75.0%, specificity=96.4%, area under the curve (AUROC)=0.867, 95% CI=0.798-0.935, and P<0.001). Furthermore, a cut-off of ⩾3 CTCs in 4 ml VB was able to discriminate between local/regional and metastatic disease (AUROC=0.885; 95% CI=0.800-0.969; and P<0.001). Conclusion: CTCs appear to function well as a biomarker for diagnosis and staging in PDAC.
    Article · Jun 2016 · British Journal of Cancer
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Importance Cystic lesions of the pancreas are common and increasingly detected in the primary care setting. Some patients have a low risk for developing a malignancy and others have a high risk and need further testing and interventions. Observations Pancreatic cysts may be intraductal mucinous neoplasms, mucinous cystic neoplasms, serous cystadenomas, solid pseudopapillary neoplasms, cystic variations of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, or 1 of several types of nonneoplastic cysts. Mucinous (intraductal mucinous neoplasm or mucinous cystic neoplasm) lesions have malignant potential and should be distinguished from serous lesions (serous cystadenomas) that are nearly always benign. Symptomatic patients or those having high-risk features on initial imaging (eg, main pancreatic duct dilatation, a solid component, or mural nodule) require further evaluation with advanced imaging, possibly followed by surgical resection. Advanced imaging includes endoscopic ultrasound with cyst fluid analysis and cytology to confirm the type of cyst and determine the risk of malignancy. Small cysts (size <3 cm) in asymptomatic patients without any suspicious features may be observed with serial imaging because the risk for malignancy is low. Conclusions and Relevance The management of pancreatic cysts requires risk stratification for malignant potential based on the presence or absence of symptoms and high-risk features on cross-sectional imaging. Because pancreatic cysts are becoming more frequently diagnosed, clinicians should have a systematic approach for establishing a diagnosis and determining which patients require treatment.
    Article · May 2016 · JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Compared to the widely adopted 2-4 months of pre-operative therapy for patients with borderline resectable (BR) or locally advanced (LA) pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), our institution tends to administer a longer duration before considering surgical resection. Using this unique approach, the aim of this study was to determine pre-operative variables associated with survival. Methods: Records from patients with BR/LA PDAC who underwent attempt at surgical resection from 1992-2014 were reviewed. Results: After a median duration of 6 months of pre-operative treatment, 109 patients with BR/LA PDAC (BR 63, LA 46) were explored; 93 (85.3 %) underwent pancreatectomy. Those who received at least 6 months of pre-operative treatment had longer median overall survival (OS) than those who received less (52.8 vs. 32.1 months, P = 0.044). On multivariate analysis, pre-operative treatment duration was the strongest predictor of survival (hazard ratio (HR) 4.79, P = 0.043). However, OS was similar in those whose CA19-9 normalized regardless of whether they received more or less than 6 months of chemotherapy (71.4 vs. 101.8 months, P = 0.930). Conclusions: Pre-operative CA19-9 decline can guide treatment duration in patients with BR/LA PDAC. We endorse 6 months of therapy except in those patients whose values normalize, where surgery can be considered after a shorter course.
    Article · Apr 2016 · Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
  • Mu Xu · Xiaoman Jung · Hui-Hua Chang · [...] · Oscar J. Hines
    Article · Apr 2016 · Gastroenterology
  • Article · Apr 2016 · Gastroenterology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent technological advances have enabled real-time near-infrared fluorescence cholangiography (NIRFC) with indocyanine green (ICG). Whereas several studies have shown its feasibility, dosing and timing for practical use have not been optimized. We undertook a prospective study with systematic variation of dosing and timing from injection of ICG to visualization. Adult patients undergoing laparoscopic biliary and hepatic operations were enrolled. Intravenous ICG (0.02-0.25 mg/kg) was administered at times ranging from 10 to 180 minutes prior to planned visualization. The porta hepatis was examined using a dedicated laparoscopic system equipped to detect NIRFC. Quantitative analysis of intraoperative fluorescence was performed using a scoring system to identify biliary structures. A total of 37 patients were enrolled. Visualization of the extrahepatic biliary tract improved with increasing doses of ICG, with qualitative scores improving from 1.9 ± 1.2 (out of 5) with a 0.02-mg/kg dose to 3.4 ± 1.3 with a 0.25-mg/kg dose (P < .05 for 0.02 vs 0.25 mg/kg). Visualization was also significantly better with increased time after ICG administration (1.1 ± 0.3 for 10 minutes vs 3.4 ± 1.1 for 45 minutes, P < .01). Similarly, quantitative measures also improved with both dose and time. There were no complications from the administration of ICG. These results suggest that a dose of 0.25 mg/kg administered at least 45 minutes prior to visualization facilitates intraoperative anatomical identification. The dosage and timing of administration of ICG prior to intraoperative visualization are within a range where it can be administered in a practical, safe, and effective manner to allow intraoperative identification of extrahepatic biliary anatomy using NIRFC.
    Article · Mar 2016 · Surgical Innovation
  • Alexander P. Stark · Greg D. Sacks · Matthew M. Rochefort · [...] · O. Joe Hines
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Long-term survival (LTS) is uncommon for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We sought to identify factors that predict 10-year, LTS after resection of PDAC. Methods: We identified all patients with PDAC who underwent resection at UCLA after 1990 and included all patients eligible for observed LTS (1/1/1990-12/31/2004). An independent pathologist reconfirmed the diagnosis of PDAC in patients with LTS. Logistic regression was used to predict LTS on the basis of patient and tumor characteristics. Results: Of 173 included patients, 53% were male, median age at diagnosis was 66 years, and median survival was 23 months. The rate of observed LTS was 12.1% (n = 21). Age, sex, number of lymph nodes evaluated, margin status, lymphovascular invasion, and adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation were not associated with LTS. The following were associated with LTS on bivariate analysis: low AJCC stage (Ia, Ib, IIa) (P = .034), negative lymph node status (P = .034), low grade (well-, moderately-differentiated) (P = .001), and absence of perineural invasion (P = .019). Only low grade (odds ratio 7.17, P = .012) and absent perineural invasion (odds ratio 3.28, P = .036) were independently associated with increased odds of LTS. Our multivariate model demonstrated good discriminatory power for LTS, as indicated by a c-statistic of 0.7856. Conclusion: Absence of perineural invasion and low tumor grade were associated with greater likelihood of LTS. Understanding the tumor biology of LTS may provide critical insight into a disease that is typically marked by aggressive behavior and limited survival.
    Article · Feb 2016 · Surgery
  • O. Joe Hines · Alexander P. Stark
    Article · Jan 2016 · Pancreas
  • H. Chang · A. Moro · K. Hertzer · [...] · G. Eibl
    Article · Nov 2015 · Pancreas
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: Obesity increases the incidence of multiple types of cancer. Our previous work has shown that a high-fat, high-calorie diet (HFCD) leads to visceral obesity, pancreatic inflammation, and accelerated pancreatic neoplasia in KrasG12D (KC) mice. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of an HFCD on visceral adipose inflammation with emphasis on potential differences between distinct visceral adipose depots. Methods: We examined the weight and visceral obesity in both wild-type and KC mice on either control diet (CD) or HFCD. After 3 months, mice were killed for histological examination. Multiplex assays were also performed to obtain cytokine profiles between different adipose depots. Results: Both wild-type and KC mice on an HFCD exhibited significantly increased inflammation in the visceral adipose tissue, particularly in the peripancreatic fat (PPF), compared with animals on a CD. This was associated with significantly increased inflammation in the pancreas. Cytokine profiles were different between visceral adipose depots and between mice on the HFCD and CD. Conclusions: Our results clearly demonstrate that an HFCD leads to obesity and inflammation in the visceral adipose tissue, particularly the PPF. These data suggest that obesity-associated inflammation in PPF may accelerate pancreatic neoplasia in KC mice.
    Article · Oct 2015 · Pancreas
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    Alexander P. Stark · Robert C. Maciel · William Sheppard · [...] · O. Joe Hines
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest can contribute significantly to publicly reported mortality rates. Systems to improve mortality are being implemented across all specialties. A review was conducted for all surgical patients >18 years of age who experienced a “Code Blue” event between January 1, 2013 and March 9, 2014 at a university hospital. A previously validated Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) using routine vital signs and neurologic status was calculated at regular intervals preceding the event. In 62 patients, the most common causes of arrest included respiratory failure, arrhythmia, sepsis, hemorrhage, and airway obstruction, but remained unknown in 27 per cent of cases. A total of 56.5 per cent of patients died before hospital discharge. In-hospital death was associated with American Society of Anesthesiologists status (P = 0.039) and acute versus elective admission (P = 0.003). Increasing MEWS on admission, 24 hours before the event, the event-day, and a maximum MEWS score on the day of the event increased the odds of death. Max MEWS remained associated with death after multivariate analysis (odds ratio 1.39, P = 0.025). Simple and easy to implement warning scores such as MEWS can identify surgical patients at risk of death after arrest. Such recognition may provide an opportunity for clinical intervention resulting in improved patient outcomes and hospital mortality rates.
    Full-text available · Article · Oct 2015 · The American surgeon
  • Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity, a known risk factor for pancreatic cancer, is associated with inflammation and insulin resistance. Pro-inflammatory PGE2, and elevated IGF-1 related to insulin resistance, are both shown to play critical roles in pancreatic cancer progression. We aimed at exploring a potential crosstalk between the PGE2 signaling and IGF-1/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway in pancreatic cancer, which may be a key to unraveling the obesity-cancer link. In PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells, we showed that PGE2 stimulated mTORC1 activity independently of Akt, as evaluated by downstream signaling events. Subsequently using pharmacological and genetic approaches, we demonstrated that PGE2-induced mTORC1 activation is mediated by EP4/cAMP/PKA, as well as an EP1/Ca(2+)-dependent pathway. The cooperative roles of the two pathways were supported by the maximal inhibition achieved with the combined pharmacological blockade, and the co-existence of highly expressed EP1 (mediating Ca(2+) response) and EP2 or 4 (mediating cAMP/PKA pathway) in PANC-1 and a prostate cancer line PC-3, which also robustly exhibited PGE2-induced mTORC1 activation, as identified from a screen in various cancer cell lines. Importantly, we showed a reinforcing interaction between PGE2 and IGF-1 on mTORC1 signaling, with an increased IL-23 production as a cellular outcome. Together, our data reveal a previously unrecognized mechanism of PGE2-stimulated mTORC1 activation mediated by EP4/cAMP/PKA and EP1/Ca(2+) signaling, which may be of great importance in elucidating the promoting effects of obesity in pancreatic cancer. Ultimately, a precise understanding of these molecular links may provide novel targets for efficacious interventions devoid of adverse effects. Copyright © 2015, American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology.
    Article · Aug 2015 · AJP Cell Physiology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is critical in the development of invasive epithelial malignancies. EMT is accelerated by inflammation and results in decreased E-cadherin expression. Diet-induced obesity is an inflammatory state that accelerates pancreatic carcinogenesis; its effect on EMT and E-cadherin expression in the development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is unclear. Conditional Kras(G12D) mice were fed a control diet or a high-fat, high-calorie diet for 3 or 9 months (n = 10 each). Immunohistochemistry with anti-E-cadherin antibody was performed. E-cadherin expression was characterized by staining intensity, location, and proportion of positive cells. In vitro expression of E-cadherin and Slug in primary pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and cancer cells was determined by Western blot. The HFCD led to increased weight gain in both 3- (15.8 vs 5.6 g, P < .001) and 9-month (19.8 vs 12.9 g, P = .007) mice. No differences in E-cadherin expression among various stages of preinvasive PanIN lesions were found-regardless of age or diet. In invasive cancer, E-cadherin expression was aberrant, with loss of membranous staining and prominent cytoplasmic staining, associated with strong, cytoplasmic expression of β-catenin. In vitro expression of E-cadherin was greatest in primary PanIN cells, accompanied by absent Slug expression. Cancer cell lines demonstrated significantly decreased E-cadherin expression in the presence of upregulated Slug. Despite increased pancreatic inflammation and accelerated carcinogenesis, the high-fat, high-calorie diet did not induce changes in E-cadherin expression in PanIN lesions of all stages. Invasive lesions demonstrated aberrant cytoplasmic E-cadherin staining. Loss of normal membranous localization may reflect a functional loss of E-cadherin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Article · Aug 2015 · Surgery
  • Article · Aug 2015 · Annals of surgery
  • File available · Data · Jun 2015
  • Mu Xu · O Joe Hines
    Article · Jun 2015 · JAMA SURGERY
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is estimated to become the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States by 2020. Early detection is the key to improving survival in PC. Addressing this urgent need, the Kenner Family Research Fund conducted the inaugural Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference in 2014 in conjunction with the 45th Anniversary Meeting of the American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society. This seminal convening of international representatives from science, practice, and clinical research was designed to facilitate challenging interdisciplinary conversations to generate innovative ideas leading to the creation of a defined collaborative strategic pathway for the future of the field. An in-depth summary of current efforts in the field, analysis of gaps in specific areas of expertise, and challenges that exist in early detection is presented within distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. In addition, an overview of efforts in familial PC is presented in an addendum to this article. It is clear from the summit deliberations that only strategically designed collaboration among investigators, institutions, and funders will lead to significant progress in early detection of sporadic PC.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.
    Full-text available · Article · Apr 2015 · Pancreas

Publication Stats

6k Citations


  • 2010
    • Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
      • Department of Medicine
      Torrance, California, United States
  • 1995-2006
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Surgery
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 2003
    • Universität Heidelberg
      • Department of Spine Surgery
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
      • Department of Surgery
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
    • University of Miami Miller School of Medicine
      Miami, Florida, United States
  • 2000
    • Albert Einstein College of Medicine
      • Department of Surgery
      New York, New York, United States