[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate whether a secular trend in growth occurred during the last century in Pygmies from Cameroon (West Pygmies) and in Bantu rural farmers, the latter being studied to serve as controls.
The evolution in height of West Pygmies and Bantu farmers from 1911 to 2006 was evaluated using data from the literature as well as data gathered by our research team during an expedition to Cameroon in 2006.
During the last century, no secular trend in west Pygmies is apparent, as height changed from 151 cm to 155 cm in males and from 143 cm to 146 cm in females. A small though significant (p=0.026), increment (about 2 cm) was observed only in female subjects during the last ten years. By contrast, Bantu heights show a significant change from 1943 to 2006 for both males (from 159 cm to 172 cm; p=0.025) and females (from 148 cm to 160 cm; p=0.029).
Over the last century, the Bantu population exhibited a significant secular trend for height, whereas West Pygmies did not increase their linear growth. The lack of secular trend in Pygmies possibly suggests that their stature reflects adaptation to the forest lifestyle. We may hypothesize that not only environmental but epigenetic factors have also contributed to their growth potential.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyzed the ability of the BaF3 cell line bioassay to select patients with biologically inactive GH. We first evaluated the biological response of the Ba/F3-hGHR cells to rhGH additional doses from 10 to 5000 pg/ml. The concentration points corresponding to the linear part of the curve were selected. We then analyzed a group of sera, diluted like the standard, including the entire range of GH concentrations that can be analyzed by bioassay. The serum/standard area below the curve ratio was calculated. Serum GH immunoactivity determined by IMMULITE/GH bioactivity ratios was calculated. Our experimental data showed that GH-bioactivity/GH-immunoactivity ratios below 0.303 are indicative of a bioinactive GH molecule. This bioassay would recognize only extreme cases of GH bioinactivity, and it would not be a useful tool in the search for patients with altered forms of GH.
No preview · Article · Aug 2010 · Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism: JPEM
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The control of growth and nutritional status in the foetus and neonate is a complex mechanism, in which also hormones produced by adipose tissue, such as adiponectin and leptin are involved. The aim of this study was to evaluate levels of adiponectin, leptin and insulin in appropriate (AGA) and small for gestational age (SGA) children during the 1st year of life and to correlate these with auxological parameters.
In 33 AGA and 29 SGA infants, weight, length, head circumference, glucose, insulin, adiponectin and leptin levels were evaluated at the second day of life, and at one, six and twelve months, during which a portion of SGA could show catch-up growth (rapid growth in infants born small for their gestational age).
Both total and isoform adiponectin levels were comparable between AGA and SGA infants at birth and until age one year. These levels significantly increased from birth to the first month of life and then decreased to lower values at 1 year of age in all subjects. Circulating leptin concentrations were higher in AGA (2.1 +/- 4.1 ng/ml) than in SGA neonates (0.88 +/- 1.03 ng/ml, p < 0.05) at birth, then similar at the 1st and the 6th month of age, but they increased in SGA from six months to one year, when they showed catch-up growth. Circulating insulin levels were not statistically different in AGA and SGA neonates at any study time point. Insulin levels in both AGA and SGA infants increased over the study period, and were significantly lower at birth compared to one, six and 12 months of age.
During the first year of life, in both AGA and SGA infants a progressive decrease in adiponectin levels was observed, while a difference in leptin values was correlated with the nutritional status.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · Italian Journal of Pediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stature is a highly heritable trait controlled by only partially known genetic and environmental factors. Candidate mediators are growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), their respective receptors and binding proteins, and intracellular factors mediating signal transduction of these receptors. Pygmies exhibit an extreme form of non-disease related short stature, showing an endocrine profile similar to Caucasian individuals with idiopathic short stature (ISS). Since their growth has attracted the attention of the Western world, explorers and scientists have measured literally thousands of pygmies living throughout the tropical forests of central Africa. The study of these subjects may significantly improve the knowledge of the mechanisms regulating normal growth in humans. This review analyzes the existing knowledge on the GH/IGF-I axis and short stature of the Pygmy population. We illustrate in depth our recent genetic studies on the ethnic group of Pygmies called Babinga, living in the forest of Cameroon. First, we have excluded that the Pygmies' growth could be affected by chronic inflammatory diseases, since they show a normal functioning immune system with a hyper-production of immunoglobulins from birth. Furthermore, our studies suggest that the size of Pygmy subjects is reduced from birth, compared to a neighbouring population, and that it is associated with reduced GH and GH receptor gene expression. These results provide a research target for future epistatic as well as epigenetic investigations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pygmies, a population characterized by short stature, have high immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations. In this study, we evaluated Ig levels in Cameroons Babinga Pygmies from infancy to adulthood and the effects of a national health program on these Ig levels. We found that IgG and IgM levels were outside the normal range for Italians of the same age and were comparable to those measured in Babinga Pygmies living in the same region by Siccardi in 1975. In conclusion, the hypergammaglobulinaemia of Babinga Pygmies is already present in infants and is not affected by sanitation improvements, suggesting that it could be partly genetically-determined.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several reports suggest a role of growth hormone (GH) in the regulation of the haematopoietic system, as regards the normal differentiation and function of blood cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of rhGH therapy on erythropoietin (Epo) and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) levels in 18 prepubertal short children with idiopathic GH deficiency (GHD) (n = 8) or without GHD (n = 10), during the first year of treatment. In non-GHD children Epo levels significantly decreased and G-CSF levels increased from basal to 12 months of therapy, whereas in GHD children they did not change significantly. Circulating levels of G-CSF are significantly lower in GHD than in non-GHD children. In non-GHD children the number of red blood cells, haemoglobin and haematocrit values significantly increased after 1 year of rhGH treatment. rhGH therapy influences Epo and G-CSF levels in short non-GHD children, while it shows no effects in GHD children.
No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism: JPEM
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The stature is a highly heritable trait controlled by genetic and environmental factors. The African Pygmies represent a paradigmatic example of non-disease-related idiopathic short stature (ISS), showing a similar endocrine profile of Caucasian individuals with ISS. Pygmy children show normal anthropometric and endocrine parameters until puberty, while adult Pygmies show normal baseline and post-stimulation serum growth hormone (GH) levels but low values of baseline serum GH-binding protein (GHBP) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). This discrepancy suggests a defective response to GH occurring in adulthood since Pygmies lack both the pubertal serum IGF-I surge and the growth spurt. However, sequencing of the key genes of the GH-IGF-I axis failed to identify Pygmy specific variants or haplotypes. We therefore aimed at assessing whether the quantitative gene expression profile of two key genes of the GH-IGF-I axis, GH and GHR, was also similar in low-stature and normal stature populations. We showed that the GH gene expression is 1.8-fold reduced and the GH receptor (GHR) gene expression is 8-fold reduced in adult Pygmies in comparison with sympatric adult Bantu, and that this reduction is not associated with sequence variants of the GHR gene. The marked decrease of the GHR expression in Pygmies is associated with reduced serum levels of the IGF-I and GHBP. Our results, documenting a markedly reduced GHR gene expression in adult Pygmies, could contribute to elucidate the mechanisms involved in ISS in Caucasoid subjects.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2009 · Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ten healthy subjects used to performing regular physical activity and eight subjects affected by idiopathic isolated GH deficiency (GHD) were enrolled; 22- and 20-kDa GH secretion and its biological activity were evaluated in response to pharmacological stimuli such as arginine, L-dopa or glucagon in GHD children, while the hormonal response to exercise was studied according to Bruce protocol in healthy subjects. We found a significant increase in 22- and 20-kDa GH level in healthy subjects after monitored physical exercise (MPE; basal 0.28+/-0.12 vs 7.37+/-2.08 ng/ml and basal 0.076+/-0.04 vs 0.18+/-0.05 ng/ml, respectively). Furthermore, the 22-kDa/20-kDa ratio significantly increased in children who had undergone MPE and the GH bioactivity basal mean value also increased significantly after exercise (basal 2.86+/-0.76 vs 7.64+/-1.9 ng/ml). The mean value of 22-kDa GH in GHD patients increased significantly following GH pharmacological stimulation (2.78+/-0.63 ng/ml) when compared with mean basal (0.20+/-0.11 ng/ml) value. In the GHD group the basal concentration of 20-kDa GH significantly increased following GH pharmacological stimulation (0.34+/-0.11 vs 0.72+/-0.2 ng/ml); the 22-kDa/20-kDa ratio significantly increased too. Likewise, GH bioactivity in children with GHD increased significantly after pharmacological stimulation test (basal 2.53+/-0.56 vs 7.33+/-1.26 ng/ml). Both GH isoform concentrations and their biological activity are significantly increased in healthy subjects after submaximal exercise protocol and in GHD children after pharmacological stimuli.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study we investigated 9 prepubertal children with blunted GH response to classic pharmacological stimuli in contrast with normal auxological evaluation. The children were followed to evaluate their growth velocity for a longer period before starting replacement GH therapy. To evaluate the pituitary reserve a supraphysiologic stimulus such as GHRH plus arginine was used. Serum GH levels were measured by a time-resolved immunofluorimetric assay before and after 1 microg/kg body weight iv injection of GHRH, while serum PRL, IGF-I, and insulin were evaluated only in basal conditions using an automatic immunometric assay. Out of 9 studied subjects, 7 underwent GHRH plus arginine administration and showed a normal GH response; the parents of the remaining 2 children refused the test. Normal serum levels of PRL, IGF-I, insulin, and a normal insulin sensitivity were observed in all children. After 1 yr, the growth rate in each patient was further improved and reached almost normal values. Our results further confirm that the decision to start replacement GH therapy should be based on both auxological parameters and laboratory findings. The GHRH plus arginine test appears to be useful to identify false GH deficiency in children showing a blunted GH response to classic stimuli in contrast with normal growth rate.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2008 · Journal of endocrinological investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adiponectin, leptin and insulin play an important role in the control of growth and glyco-metabolic homeostasis both during pre- and post-natal life. In order to find out markers indicative of post-natal growth, we evaluated circulating levels of these growth factors in full term small for gestational age (SGA) children, during the first 2 years of life, correlating them with the auxological parameters.
Fourteen SGA (8 males and 6 females) and 16 AGA (appropriate for gestional age) infants (7 males and 9 females) have been included in this study, recording length, weight, body mass index (BMI), adiponectin, leptin and insulin levels at birth. In SGA subjects, these biochemical and clinical parameters have also been evaluated at the first and at the second year of age.
AGA and SGA adiponectin and insulin levels at birth did not show statistically significant differences, while leptin concentrations were significantly (P=0.011) lower in SGA children (median 418.49, range 157.68-903.67 pg/mL) in comparison with AGA ones (median 811.71, range 312.50-3085.95 pg/mL).
In conclusion, at birth adiponectin and insulin levels do not differ between AGA and SGA subjects while leptin concentrations are significantly lower in SGA infants and positively correlated to the birthweight.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2008 · Minerva pediatrica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relationship among circulating values of growth hormone (GH), thymulin, and zinc in 19 healthy human neonates at birth and at the 4th month of age, and in their respective mothers, was investigated. Cytofluorimetric analysis on some CD antigen markers was conducted on cord blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Active thymulin and zinc plasma levels increased in newborns in comparison with their mothers. In neonates serum GH levels increased with a significant decline later. The expression of CD molecules from newborns at birth and from infants at the 4th month of age was inversely correlated with active thymulin, zinc, and GH levels, whereas CD4 antigen marker was positively correlated with the same parameters at the 4th month of life. A novel interrelationship among active thymulin, zinc, and GH exists from the early up to the late phase of newborn life, in which maternal zinc, via lactation, may be involved.
Full-text · Article · May 2007 · American Journal of Perinatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It was postulated that a high growth hormone (GH) bioactivity might explain the rapid growth rate of neonates. The aim of this study is to verify changes in serum GH biological potency (Bio-/Immuno-GH ratio) and their effects on serum growth factors during the first month of life in term and preterm babies.
Blood samples were collected from 10 small-for-gestational-age preterm (SGAPT), 17 appropriate for gestational age preterm (AGAPT) and 26 AGA term (T) neonates on days 4, 15 and 30 of life to evaluate serum GH values measured by IFMA (IFMA-GH) and bioassay (Bio-GH), serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3).
High serum Bio-GH values on the first few days of life correspond to high IFMA-GH values, suggesting full biological potency of circulating GH. Furthermore, IGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratio values in preterm babies were higher than in full-term infants.
These data confirmed the hypothesis that the higher growth velocity in the first month of life of preterm neonates is due to an increased bioavailability of IGF-I. A progressive maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-IGF-I axis without any alteration in the GH biological potency seems to underpin the increase of the growth factors early in life.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The serum GH cut-off value for pharmacological tests of GH secretion (PhT GH) depends on the type of test and also on the method used for determining serum GH. Cut-off serum GH values as different as 5-10 ng/ml, have been reported, and have been validated biochemically. We have used the growth velocity (GV)-standard deviation score (SDS) during the first year of treatment with rhGH to validate these cut-offs on a biological basis.
Fifty pre-pubertal patients with short stature (height < or =-2 SDS and GV < or =-1.2 SDS) were studied. GH deficiency (GHD) was diagnosed in 39 patients, on the basis of clinical and auxological parameters and on the serum concentration of IGF-1, and non-GHD in the other 11 patients. Two PhT GH (arginine and clonidine) were carried out in the 50 patients. Serum GH was determined by two different methods: one detecting most of serum GH isoforms, named Total GH (HGH Bio-Tech, MAIA Clone), and another one, only detecting the 22 kDa GH, named 22K GH (GH-22K IFMA, Wallac).
Basal data: all patients with GHD and with non-GHD had maximal serum GH response (MaxR) values below and above the cut-off, respectively, for the serum Total GH and 22K GH. The mean 22K GH/Total GH ratio was similar to previous publications. Post-rhGH treatment data: the two groups improved their height SDS during the first year of treatment, particularly patients with GHD. A receiver-operator curve was used to define the best threshold for post-treatment GV-SDS that separates GHD from non-GHD patients. This value was 1.91 GV-SDS. A negative correlation between first year treatment GV-SDS and pre-treatment serum GH MaxR was found for the two assays (p < 0.001). Then, the best cut-off GV-SDS, previously calculated with the receiver-operator curve (1.91 SDS) was used to interpolate the corresponding serum GH values, as determined by the two methods. For Total GH, the value was 10.8 ng/ml, and for 22K GH, it was 5.4 ng/ml.
The cut-off values calculated by biological means to separate GHD from non-GHD were remarkably similar to those calculated biochemically (10.0 and 4.8 ng/ml, respectively) for Total and 22K GH. This is a biological validation for using different cut-off values, appropriate for each assay, to diagnose GHD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether short children with normal growth hormone (GH) immunoreactivity, but reduced bioactivity (bioinactive GH) could benefit from rhGH treatment as GH deficient (GHD) patients.
We evaluated 12 pre-pubertal children (8 M, 4 F), with GH deficiency-like phenotype showing normal serum GH peak levels (>10 ng/ml), measured by immunofluorimetric assay (IFMA-GH), in contrast with a reduced GH bioactivity (bio-GH), evaluated using the Nb(2) cells. We also evaluated 15 age-matched GHD pre-pubertal children (11 M, 4 F) with serum GH peak <5 ng/ml. Both groups were treated with rhGH therapy at the dose of 0.23 mg/kg/week s.c.
Serum bio-GH/IFMA-GH ratio at peak time for each patient during the provocative test was significantly lower in bioinactive GH than in GHD children (0.29 vs. 2.05, p = 0.00001). Recombinant human GH therapy induced a significant (p < 0.001) increase in growth rate in both groups during the first 2 years. In the third year of treatment, while growth rate in GHD children is maintained, in bioinactive GH patients it decreases remaining, however higher compared to the pre-treatment one.
Short rhGH therapy given to selected bioinactive GH children improve growth rate and might result in greater final adult height.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dissociation between GH bioactivity (bio-GH) and GH immunoactivity (immuno-GH) is due to the heterogeneity of the molecule: the measurements do not always provide reliable information on the bio-GH. We studied the ratio of bio-GH and immuno-GH during pharmacological secretion tests in 211 sera to study the concentration-response curve of the assay (C1), 16 samples of normally growing subjects with idiopathic short stature (C2), 13 samples from patients with GH deficiency (GHD1) and 6 samples of 3 patients with GHD and normal provocative tests (GHD2). GH bioactivity was determined by the Nb2 cell proliferation assay (bio-GH) and immuno-GH by a time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (IFMA) (immuno-GH). A non-linear negative relationship between the serum bio-GH/immuno-GH ratio and serum immuno-GH was observed in C1. In log-log plotting representation, two cut-off lines were drawn: a vertical cut-off line separating above-below cut-off serum peak immuno-GH values in provocative tests, and a diagonal cut-off line separating normal-abnormal serum bio-GH/immunoGH ratio; four areas were defined. GHD1 had normal ratios, but below cut-off peak immuno-GH responses. P2 and P3 of Group GHD2 had abnormal ratios in samples with low serum immuno-GH but only P2 had autosomal dominant mutation. P1 had the same autosomal dominant isolated GHD as P2 but a low normal ratio. Our data underline the importance of relatively low serum GH concentrations in mediating GH biological actions. An abnormal serum bio-GH/immuno-GH ratio might explain certain cases of GHD and might be useful in detecting abnormal circulating isoforms of GH in patients with growth failure.
No preview · Article · Mar 2006 · Journal of endocrinological investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of exogenously administered human GH (hGH) on serum levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-12 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in GH-deficient (GHD) children.
We evaluated 13 short prepubertal GHD children, aged between 2 and 13 years, and 13 age-matched healthy subjects as controls. Circulating cytokine values were evaluated in basal conditions in all children, and 6 and 24 h following the 1st hGH injection (0.23 mg/kg per week), and then after 3 months of hGH treatment in GHD patients. Serum levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-alpha were measured by commercially available ELISAs.
No significant differences were found between controls and GHD children in basal values of serum IL-4, IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-alpha (P > 0.05 by Mann-Whitney U test). Analysis of cytokine levels during hGH treatment showed significant changes over time in TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels (P = 0.0014 and P = 0.00 024 respectively), with the more pronounced effect observed at 6 h following the first administration of hGH (i.e. increase in IL-6 (Wilcoxon matched pairs test, P = 0.0015) and TNF-alpha levels (P = 0.0015)). No significant changes over time were observed in IL-4 and IL-12 serum levels.
In vivo release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-alpha can be affected by hGH treatment in GHD children, suggesting a direct effect of GH on the immune function.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2005 · European Journal of Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to establish whether growth hormone (GH) treatment in vivo affects pro-inflammatory cytokine production by resting or in vitro, activated, cultured, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from children with complete growth hormone deficiency (GHD). We evaluated 11, pre-pubertal children (6 males and 5 females) with GHD, aged between 6 and 14 years, and 9, age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were studied as controls (CTRLs). Freshly isolated PBMC were cultured for 4 or 24 h in X-VIVO medium in the presence or absence of 0.01 microg/mL lipopolysaccharide for the determination of TNF-alpha and IL-6 production; alternatively, cells were incubated 24 h in X-VIVO medium with or without 25 microg/mL Concanavalin A for IFN-gamma production. Cytokines were measured in the cell supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The results of the present study provide evidence that spontaneous and/or mitogen-induced, in vitro PBMC production of pro-inflammatory cytokines is lower in GHD children than in healthy, age-matched individuals (p<0.05 by the Mann-Whitney U-test). After 3 months of GH therapy, cytokine production was significantly (p<0.05 by the Wilcoxon test) increased, but was still lower than in healthy controls. It is reasonable to speculate that severe GH deficiency can cause alterations in the pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced immune response in humans, and that GH treatment can ameliorate this important immunological function.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2005 · European cytokine network
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A growing body of evidence indicates a bi-directional relationship between the neuroendocrine system and immune functions. It is well known that lymphoid organs such the thymus, the spleen and peripheral blood produce growth hormone (GH) and GH receptor is expressed on different subpopulations of lymphocytes. Many in vitro and in animal studies demonstrate an important role of GH in immunoregulation. GH stimulates T and B cells proliferation and immunoglobulin synthesis, enhances the maturation of myeloid progenitor cells and is also able to modulate cytokine response. However, in humans GH deficiency (GHD) is not usually associated with immunodeficiency and only minor abnormalities of immune function have been reported, as compared to those observed in GHD animals. It is possible that in humans the GH produced locally in the immune system compensates for the lack of endocrine GH. In this review the main actions of GH on the immune system in vitro, in animal models and in humans are summarized.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of exogenously administered GH on serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-2, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interferon (IFN)-gamma and their relation with IGF-I levels in normal short stature children.
23 short prepubertal non GH-deficient children (10 females and 13 males) whose mean+/-s.d. chronological age was 11.95+/-1.85 Years (from 8.80 to 14.89 Years), and mean+/-s.d. bone age was 10.48+/-2.44 Years, were evaluated during a somatomedin generation test (human GH 0.1 IU/kg per day for 4 days) to exclude a partial GH resistance as the cause of short stature; 34 sex- and age-matched healthy subjects were studied as controls. Circulating cytokine values were measured in basal conditions in all children, and 12 h following the 4th GH subcutaneous injection in the 23 short children only.
No significant differences were found between short children and controls in basal values of serum IGF-I (192.1+/-18.3 and 198.2+/-28.2 ng/ml respectively). In short subjects there was a significant increase in serum IGF-I levels after the 4th GH injection (from 192.1+/-18.3 ng/ml, i.e. -1.16+/-0.16 standard deviation score (SDS) to 338.2+/-27.1 ng/ml, i.e. 0.14+/-0.17; P<0.00001). No significant differences were found between short children and controls in basal concentrations of serum INF-gamma (19+/-4 and 26+/-5 mIU/ml respectively), IL-1alpha (24.950+/-3.613 and 20.896+/-2.778 pg/ml respectively), IL-2 (3.945+/-1.209 and 4.794+/-0.562 pg/ml respectively), IL-12 (1.093+/-0.269 and 1.976+/-0.596 pg/ml respectively), and TNF-alpha (1.794+/-0.559 and 2.188+/-0.346 pg/ml respectively). Likewise, a significant increase was found in serum INF-gamma (before 19+/-4 and after four GH injections 185+/-57 mIU/ml respectively; P<0.008), IL-1beta (24.950+/-3.613 to 43.339+/-5.431 pg/ml respectively; P<0.0001), IL-2 (3.945+/-1.209 to 9.165+/-2.331 pg/ml respectively; P<0.003), IL-12 (1.093+/-0.269 to 3.724+/-0.637 pg/ml respectively; P<0.0007) and TNF-alpha (1.794+/-0.559 to 9.266+/-3.066 pg/ml respectively; P<0.01).
Cytokine release can be affected by short-term GH administration in normal children indicating a direct influence of GH on the immune system.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2003 · European Journal of Endocrinology