[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of rectal foreign bodies is increasing by the day, though not as common as that of upper gastrointestinal foreign bodies. Various methods for removal of foreign bodies have been reported. Removal during endoscopy using endoscopic devices is simple and safe, but if the foreign body is too large to be removed by this method, other methods are required. We report two cases of rectal foreign body removal by a relatively simple and inexpensive technique. A 42-year-old man with a vibrator in the rectum was admitted due to inability to remove it by himself and various endoscopic methods failed. Finally, the vibrator was removed successfully by using tenaculum forceps under endoscopic assistance. Similarly, a 59-year-old man with a carrot in the rectum was admitted. The carrot was removed easily by using the same method as that in the previous case. The use of tenaculum forceps under endoscopic guidance may be a useful method for removal of rectal foreign bodies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
Adequate luminal distension is essential for improving adenoma detection during colonoscope withdrawal. A few crossover studies have reported that dynamic position changes maximize luminal distension and increase adenoma detection rates (ADR). We designed a multicenter, randomized, parallel-group trial to verify the effect of dynamic position changes on colonic adenoma detection.
This study was conducted at the six hospitals of the Catholic University of Korea. Patients aged 45-80 years who underwent a colonoscopy for the first time were included. In the position change group, the position changes during colonoscope withdrawal were as follows: cecum, ascending colon, and hepatic flexure: left lateral position; transverse colon: supine position; splenic flexure, descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum: right lateral position. In the control group, the examinations were performed entirely in the left lateral position during colonoscope withdrawal. The primary outcome measure was the ADR, which was defined as the proportion of patients with ≥1 adenoma.
A total of 1,072 patients were randomized into the position change group (536 patients) or the control group (536 patients). The ADR was higher in the position change group than in the control group (42.4 vs. 33.0%, P=0.002). More adenomas were detected per subject in the position change group (0.90 vs. 0.67, P=0.01). Increases in the number of adenomas were observed in examinations of the transverse colon (0.22 vs. 0.13, P=0.016) and the left colon (0.37 vs. 0.27, P=0.045). A significant increase in the ADR was observed for endoscopists with a relatively low detection rate. For endoscopists with a high detection rate, non-significant changes in the ADR were observed.
Dynamic position changes during colonoscope withdrawal increased the ADR.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 3 November 2015; doi:10.1038/ajg.2015.354.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · The American Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastric adenoma with low-grade dysplasia (LGD) can progress to gastric cancer; however, the optimal therapeutic modality for LGD has not been established. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy, safety of and local recurrence following endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) for LGD. Specifically, we compared EMR with circumferential precutting (EMR-P) and EMR using a dual-channel endoscope (EMR-D) for the treatment of LGD ≤2 cm.
A total of 158 lesions from 147 patients with LGD treated by EMR were retrospectively analyzed. The en bloc resection rate, complete resection rate, procedure time, complication rate and local recurrence rate were compared between EMR-P and EMR-D.
The en bloc resection and complete resection rates of EMR were 91.1% and 90.5%, respectively. The bleeding and perforation rates were 1.3% and 1.3%, respectively. The local recurrence rate following EMR was 2.2%. The en bloc resection and complete resection rates did not differ between EMR-P and EMR-D (88.2% vs. 92.5%, p = not significant (NS); and 90.2% vs. 90.7%, p = NS, respectively). The procedure time was significantly longer for EMR-P compared with EMR-D (16 (5-141) vs. 7 (2-48) min, p < 0.001), and the complication rate was significantly higher for EMR-P (7.8% vs. 0.0%, p = 0.010). Local recurrence was not found in EMR-P, whereas the recurrence rate was 3.2% in EMR-D.
EMR is an effective method for the treatment of LGD ≤2 cm. Compared with EMR-P, EMR-D appears to be the more effective, technically simple and safer method.
No preview · Article · May 2015 · Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biliary-enteric communications caused by duodenal ulcers are uncommon, and choledochoduodenal fistula (CDF) is by far the most common type. Usually in this situation, food material does not enter the common bile duct because the duodenal lumen is intact. Here, we report a case in which cholangitis occurred due to food materials impacted through a CDF. Duodenal obstruction secondary to duodenal ulcer prevented food passage into the duodenum in this case. Surgical management was recommended; however, the patient refused surgery because of poor general condition. Consequently, the patient expired with sepsis secondary to ascending cholangitis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection with triple therapy (TT) has declined in many countries prompting the search for alternative regimens. Sequential therapy (ST) and concomitant therapy (CT) has been suggested as first line regimens in areas of high clarithromycin resistance. We performed a meta-analysis to compare the eradication rates of CT with ST for H. pylori.
A comprehensive literature search for studies comparing the efficacy of CT with ST was performed. Dichotomous data were pooled to obtain the odds ratio (OR) of the eradication rate with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The eradication rates were considered both on an intention-to-treat (ITT) and on a per-protocol basis (PP).
A total of 7 studies provided data on 2412 adult patients. Pooled estimates of the studies revealed no significant differences between CT and ST. The pooled OR was 1.116 (95% CI 0.795-1.567, P=0.526) for ITT analysis and 1.153 (95% CI 0.793-1.677, P=0.455) for PP analysis. There was no difference in the rate of adverse events (OR: 1.229; 95% CI 0.971-1.556, P=0.086) and compliance (OR: 0.945; 95% CI 0.722-1.237, P=0.681) between the two regimens. Subgroup analysis was performed to compare CT of 10 days and 5 days with ST of 10 days. The pooled OR was 1.518 for CT of 10days and 0.636 for CT of 5 days.
CT regimens did not achieve higher eradication rates compared to the ST regimen. The adverse events and adherence to medications were not different between the two regimens.
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No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives. Sessile nonampullary duodenal tumors (SNADTs) are relatively rare and endoscopic resection of these lesions is considered more challenging than in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of endoscopic resection for SNADT. Methods. Medical records including endoscopic resection for SNADT from July 2002 to July 2013 from 5 centers affiliated to The Catholic University of Korea were reviewed retrospectively. Demographic features and clinical outcomes such as complete resection and complications were analyzed. Results. A total of 56 lesions from 54 patients were enrolled in this study. Forty-five lesions were resected by endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), 6 lesions by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), and 5 lesions by simple polypectomy. Histologic examination after endoscopic resection revealed adenocarcinoma in 2, low grade adenoma in 25, high grade adenoma in 11, and carcinoid tumor in 18 lesions. En bloc resection rates and histological complete resection rates were 78.6% (44/56) and 80.0% (28/35), respectively. Bleeding which required additional endoscopic intervention occurred in 1.8% (1/56) and perforation in 7.1% (4/56). There was no procedure-related mortality. Conclusions. Endoscopic resection techniques including ESD might be safe and effective modalities for the management of SNADT.
Preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Gastroenterology Research and Practice
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a common medical emergency around the world and the major cause is peptic ulcer bleeding. Endoscopic treatment is fundamental for the management of peptic ulcer bleeding. Despite recent advances in endoscopic treatment, mortality from peptic ulcer bleeding has still remained high. This is because the disease often occurs in elderly patients with frequent comorbidities and are taking ulcerogenic medications. Therefore, the management of peptic ulcer bleeding is still a challenge for clinicians. This article reviews the various endoscopic methods available for management of peptic ulcer bleeding and the techniques in using these methods.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication rate of clarithromycin-based triple therapy, metronidazole-based triple therapy, sequential therapy and concomitant therapy.
A total of 680 patients infected with H. pylori were divided into 4 groups and each group was treated with a different eradication therapy. Clarithromycin-based triple therapy was applied to the first group [rabeprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin (PAC) group: proton pump inhibitor (PPI), amoxicillin, clarithromycin], whereas the second group was treated with metronidazole-based triple therapy [rabeprazole, amoxicillin and metronidazole (PAM) group: PPI, amoxicillin, metronidazole]. The third group was treated with rabeprazole and amoxicillin, followed by rabeprazole, clarithromycin and metronidazole (sequential group). The final group was simultaneously treated with rabeprazole, amoxicillin clarithromycin and metronidazole (concomitant therapy group). In the case of a failure to eradicate H. pylori, second-line quadruple and third-line eradication therapies were administered.
The per protocol (PP) analysis was performed on 143, 139, 141 and 143 patients in the PAC, PAM, sequential and concomitant groups, respectively. We excluded patients who did not receive a C(13)-urea breath test (22, 20, 23 and 22 patients, respectively) and patients with less than an 80% compliance level (5, 11, 6 and 5 patients, respectively). The eradication rates were 76.2% (109/143) in the PAC group, 84.2% (117/139) in the PAM group, 84.4% (119/141) in the sequential group and 94.4% (135/143) in the concomitant group (P = 0.0002). All 14 patients who failed second-line therapy were treated with third-line eradication therapy. Among these 14 patients, 6 infections were successfully eradicated with the third-line therapy. Both PP and intention-to-treat analysis showed an eradication rate of 42.9% (6/14). In the PAC group, 3 of 4 patients were successfully cured (3/4, 75%); 2 of 2 patients in the PAM group (2/2, 100%) and 1 of 5 patients in the sequential group (1/5, 20%) were also cured. In the concomitant group, all 3 patients failed (0/3, 0%).
The eradication rate for the concomitant therapy was much higher than those of the standard triple therapy or sequential therapy (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01922765).
Preview · Article · Jan 2015 · World Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Failure of Helicobacter pylori eradication has increased over the past decade and is related to increased antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to estimate the eradication rates of H. pylori infection over the past 9 years in a single center.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Esophagopericardial fistula (EPF) is a rare and serious medical condition induced by benign and malignant causes. Surgery is the main stay of treatment for benign EPF. However, there have been few reports of benign EPF treated by endoscopic stent insertion. We performed a laparoscopic total gastrectomy for treatment of a gastric cancer located at the cardia in a 62-year-old patient. A benign EPF occurred as a postoperative complication 14 days after surgery. We successfully managed the EPF through emergent laparoscopic pericardial window formation and insertion of a fully covered self-expendable metal stent during operation. The patient is being followed up without complications in the outpatient department after stent removal.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives. This study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of education for trainees on the gross findings identified by conventional white-light endoscopy (CWE), the microvascular patterns identified by magnifying narrow-band imaging endoscopy (MNE), and the pit patterns identified by magnifying chromoendoscopy (MCE) in estimation of the invasion depth of colorectal tumors. Methods. A total of 420 endoscopic images of 35 colorectal tumors were used. Five trainees estimated the invasion depth of the tumors by reviewing the CWE images before education. Afterwards, the trainees estimated the invasion depth of the same tumors after brief education on CWE, MNE and MCE images, respectively. Results. The initial diagnostic accuracy for deep submucosal invasion before education and after education on CWE, MNE, and MCE findings was 54.3%, 55.4%, 67.4%, and 76.6%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy increased significantly after MNE education (P = 0.028). The specificity for deep submucosal invasion before education and after education on CWE, MNE, and MCE findings was 47.9%, 45.7%, 65.0%, and 80.7%, respectively. The specificity increased significantly after MNE (P = 0.002) and MCE (P = 0.005) education. Conclusion. Brief education on microvascular pattern identification by MNE and pit pattern identification by MCE significantly improves trainees' estimations of the invasion depth of colorectal tumors.
Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Gastroenterology Research and Practice
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has grown popular in resecting lesions in the stomach, the application of ESD to the esophagus has been limited by greater technical difficulty. An increasing number of series have recently reported the application of ESD to esophageal lesions. The aim of the present systemic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ESD for esophageal lesions.
Comprehensive literature searches (1999-2012) were performed on studies that reported ESD for the removal of esophageal neoplasia. Primary outcome measures were pooled estimates of complete resection rate and en bloc resection rate. Secondary outcome measures were pooled estimates of complication rates.
A total of 15 studies provided data on 776 ESD-treated lesions. The pooled estimate of complete resection rate was 89.4 % (95 % CI 86.2-91.9 %). The pooled estimate of en bloc resection was 95.1 % (95 % CI 92.6-96.8 %). The pooled estimates of complications of ESD such as bleeding, perforation, and stenosis were 2.1, 5.0, and 11.6 %, respectively.
ESD appeared to be an extremely effective technique to achieve complete resection of esophageal neoplasia. The very low rate of complications also shows the potential safety of this approach.
No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Digestive Diseases and Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atrophic gastritis (AG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) are commonly encountered pathologic conditions during gastroscopy in Korea. These conditions were considered as pre-neoplastic lesions in many previous studies. Management and follow-up of these lesions have been performed arbitrarily since there are no standard guidelines. The aim of this study was to investigate the endoscopists' opinions on these conditions using web-based survey.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although there have been reports showing a decreasing trend in the global prevalence of peptic ulcer diseases (PUD), PUD is still one of the most common upper gastrointestinal diseases. Helicobacter pylori is a major cause of PUD and the prevalence of H. pylori infection has been reported to be declining in Korea. However the use of ulcerogenic drugs such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and aspirin has been reported to be increasing in Korea. The purpose of this review was to investigate how these changing trends affect the prevalence of PUD in Korea. In this review, we identified the risk factors for PUD and assessed the prevalence of PUD in Korea according to different time trends.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical presentation and patterns of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) have changed because surival of people in Korea have increased. Other factors such as declining Helicobacter pylori infection rate and increased consumption of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) including aspirin also affect the clinical patterns of PUD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current clinical characteristics of PUD in Korea.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of grasper type scissors (GTS) for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of gastric epithelial neoplasia.
The study was performed by 4 endoscopists in 4 institutions affiliated to The Catholic University of Korea. ESD was performed in 76 consecutive patients with gastric epithelial neoplasia by using the GTS (37 patients) or the hook knife plus coagrasper (HKC) (39 patients). The complete resection rate, complication rate, total time elapsed and elapsed time per square centimeter of the dissected specimen were analyzed between the GTS and HKC group.
The mean age of the GTS group was 62.3 ± 11.4 years and mean age of the HKC group was 65.6 ± 10.1 years. Differentiated adenocarcinoma was found in 32.4% in the GTS group and 33.3% in the HKC group. The procedures were performed without interruption in every case in both groups. The en bloc resection rates of both groups were 100%. The total time elapsed during the procedure was 44.54 ± 21.72 min in the GTS group and 43.77 ± 21.84 min in the HKC group (P = 0.88) and the time elapsed per square centimeter of the resected lesion was 7.53 ± 6.35 min/cm(2) in the GTS group and 6.92 ± 5.93 min/cm(2) in the HKC group (P = 0.66). The overall complication rate was not significantly different between the two groups.
GTS is a safe and effective device for ESD compared with HKC. ESD can be performed with GTS alone, which can reduce the costs for ESD.
Preview · Article · Oct 2013 · World Journal of Gastroenterology