Brian H Kushner

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, United States

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Publications (164)1363.26 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Methods: Patients with recurrent or refractory stage 4 neuroblastoma (NB) or metastatic paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma (MP) were treated on an IRB-approved protocol (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00107289). Planned treatment was (131)I-MIBG (444 or 666MBq/kg) intravenously (IV) on day 1 plus AT (0.15 or 0.25mg/m2) IV on days 6-10 and 13-17. Toxicities were evaluated using NCI CTCAE version 3.0. Responses were assessed by International NB response criteria (INRC) or (for MP) by changes in (123)I-MIBG or PET scans. Results: Twenty-one patients were treated: 19 with NB and 2 with MP. Fourteen received (131)I-MIBG and AT both at maximal dosages, 2 and 3 patients received 444MBq/kg (131)I-MIBG plus 0.15mg/kg/dose AT; and 666MBq/kg (131)I-MIBG plus 0.15mg/kg/dose AT respectively. One did not receive AT due to transient central line-induced cardiac arrhythmia and another received only 6 of 10 planned doses of AT due to grade 3 diarrhea and vomiting with concurrent grade 3 hypokalemia and hyponatremia. Nineteen patients experienced >grade 2 myelosuppression, most frequently, thrombocytopenia (n = 18), though none required autologous stem cell rescue. 12/13 evaluable patients experienced >grade 2 hyperamylasemia from transient sialoadenitis. By INRC, 12 NB patients had no response while 7 had progressive disease (PD), including 6/8 entering the study with PD. Objective improvements in semi-quantitative MIBG scores were observed in 6 patients. No responses were seen in MP. 17/19 NB patients continued on further chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy. Five-year overall survival for NB was 37±11%. Mean blood absorbed dose was 46 cGy, 0.134 cGy/mCi (131)I-MIBG, well below myeloablative levels in all patients. Conclusion: (131)I-MIBG plus AT was well tolerated with an adverse event profile similar to that of (131)I-MIBG therapy alone. The addition of AT to (131)I-MIBG did not significantly improve response rates when compared to historical data with (131)I-MIBG alone.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Since 2003, high-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NB) patients at our center received anti-GD2 antibody 3F8/GM-CSF + isotretinoin - but not myeloablative therapy with autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT). Post-ASCT patients referred from elsewhere also received 3F8/GM-CSF + isotretinoin. We therefore accrued a study population of two groups treated during the same period and whose consolidative therapy, aside from ASCT, was identical. We analyzed patients enrolled in 1st complete/very good partial remission (CR/VGPR). Their event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated from study entry. Large study size allowed robust statistical analyses of key prognosticators including MYCN amplification, minimal residual disease (MRD), FCGR2A polymorphisms, and killer immunoglobulin-like receptor genotypes of natural killer cells. The 170 study patients included 60 enrolled following ASCT and 110 following conventional chemotherapy. The two cohorts had similar clinical and biological features. Five-year rates for ASCT and non-ASCT patients were, respectively: EFS 65% vs. 51% (p = .128), and OS 76% vs. 75% (p = .975). In multivariate analysis, ASCT was not prognostic and only MRD-negativity after two cycles of 3F8/GM-CSF correlated with significantly improved EFS and OS. Although a trend towards better EFS is seen with ASCT, OS is near identical. Cure rates may be similar, as close surveillance detects localized relapse and effective salvage treatments are applied. ASCT may not be needed to improve outcome when anti-GD2 immunotherapy is used for consolidation after dose-intensive conventional chemotherapy.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Oncotarget
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Treatment of progression in high-risk neuroblastoma remains challenging despite improved survival. We retrospectively evaluated outcomes in children with a first progression that included soft-tissue masses. Methods: We reviewed records of 903 consecutive children with high-risk neuroblastoma diagnosed between 2004 and 2014, and identified 42 whose first progression included soft-tissue masses. Data on demographics, disease characteristics, treatment, and survival were collected. Primary outcome was 5-year overall survival (OS) from time of first progression. Secondary outcomes were local disease-free progression (LDFR) and progression-free survival (PFS) postprogression. We evaluated the prognostic significance of concomitant bone/bone marrow involvement, MYCN status, and multifocality of soft tissue relapse. Results: Median age at diagnosis was 3.0 (range: 1-10.7) years. Median time to first relapse or progression was 1.2 (range: 0.1-4.5) years after complete remission or minimal stable residual disease. Twelve (29%) patients had concomitant bone or marrow involvement at progression/relapse. There were 11 (26%) patients with International Neuroblastoma Staging System stage 3 disease (all with MYCN amplification), and 31 (74%) with stage 4 disease (12 with MYCN amplification). Nine (21%) patients had multifocal soft tissue progression. R1 resection was achieved in 41 children (95%), 38 (95%) of whom also received salvage radiation therapy. Five-year OS postprogression was 35% (95% CI: 19-51%), 5-year LDFS was 52% (95% CI: 32-72%), and 5-year PFS postprogression was 20% (95% CI: 6-34%). Conclusion: Among children with high-risk neuroblastoma who underwent aggressive treatment of a first soft-tissue recurrence, 5-year postprogression overall survival was 34%. Multifocality and MYCN amplification were the predominant prognostic correlates for worse survival.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Pediatric Surgery

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Pediatric Blood & Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: Relapse of high-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NB) is deemed invariably fatal. Yet increasing numbers of HR-NB patients achieve 2nd complete/very good partial remission (CR/VGPR) - hence, the urgency of finding successful consolidative therapy. Identifying efficacy in patients without assessable disease, however, is problematic. We now report the first study to provide outcome data for this poor-prognosis group of patients. To prevent another relapse, HR-NB patients in >2nd CR/VGPR received anti-GD2 murine antibody 3F8+granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor+isotretinoin. Upon meeting the phase II trial's target aim for progression-free survival (PFS) in the initial cohort of 33 patients, the trial was amended to allow patients who developed human anti-mouse antibody (HAMA) to receive rituximab to ablate HAMA + low-dose maintenance chemotherapy until immunotherapy could resume. For the total of 101 study patients, 5-year PFS and overall survival (OS) rates were 33%+5% and 48%+5%, respectively. Among the 33 long-term progression-free survivors, 19 had MYCN amplification, 19 had previously received anti-GD2 immunotherapy+isotretinoin (as first-line therapy), and 15 never received maintenance chemotherapy. In a multivariate analysis of prognostic factors, only absence of minimal residual disease in bone marrow after two cycles of immunotherapy, before initiation of isotretinoin or anti-HAMA therapy, was significantly favorable for both PFS and OS. Long-term PFS is possible for HR-NB patients who achieve >2nd CR/VGPR and receive consolidation that includes anti-GD2 immunotherapy+isotretinoin, even if patients received those biological treatments before relapse. Results from this prospective study will aid in the development of future phase II studies in this growing ultra-high-risk patient population.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · OncoImmunology
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    ABSTRACT: Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT), a rare, aggressive neoplasm, has a poor prognosis. In this prospective study, we evaluated the role of myeloablative chemotherapy, followed by autologous stem cell transplant in improving survival in DSRCT. After high-dose induction chemotherapy and surgery, 19 patients with chemoresponsive DSRCT underwent autologous stem cell transplant. Myeloablative chemotherapy consisted of carboplatin (400-700 mg/m2/day for 3 days) + thiotepa (300 mg/m2/day for 3 days) ± topotecan (2 mg/m2/day for 5 days). All patients were engrafted and there was no treatment-related mortality. Seventeen patients received radiotherapy to sites of prior or residual disease at a median of 12 weeks after transplant. Five-year event-free and overall survival were 11 ± 7% and 16 ± 8%, respectively. Two patients survive disease-free 16 and 19 years after transplant (both in complete remission before transplant). 14 patients had progression and died of disease at a median of 18 months following autologous transplant. These data do not justify the use of myeloablative chemotherapy with carboplatin plus thiotepa in patients with DSRCT. Alternative therapies should be considered for this aggressive neoplasm.
    Preview · Article · May 2015 · Sarcoma
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) was proposed as a distinct disease entity by William L Gerald and Juan Rosai in 1991. Over 850 patients have been reported in the medical literature. A specific translocation, t(11;22)(p13;q12), is seen in almost all cases, juxtaposing the EWS gene to the WT1 tumor suppressor gene. DSRCT is composed of nests of small round cells with polyphenotypic differentiation, typically a mixture of epithelial, mesenchymal and neural features, surrounded by a prominent desmoplastic stroma. DSRCT has a predilection for adolescent and young adult males, and primarily involves the abdominal cavity and pelvis. Survival is low despite their initial response to multimodal treatment. Most patients relapse with disseminated disease that is unresponsive to further therapy.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Future Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Osteochondromas are benign bony protrusions that can be spontaneous or associated with radiotherapy (RT). Current treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma includes dose-intensive chemotherapy, local RT, an anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody (MoAb), and isotretinoin. Late effects are emerging.METHODS The authors examined osteochondromas in 362 patients who were aged <10 years when diagnosed with neuroblastoma, had received a MoAb plus isotretinoin since 2000, and had survived >24 months from the time of the first dose of the MoAb. The incidence rate of osteochondroma was determined using the competing risks approach, in which the primary event was osteochondroma calculated from the date of neuroblastoma diagnosis and the competing event was death without osteochondroma.RESULTSA total of 21 osteochondroma cases were found among 14 patients who were aged 5.7 to 15.3 years (median, 10.4 years) and 3.1 to 11.2 years (median, 8.2 years) from the time of neuroblastoma diagnosis. The cumulative incidence rate was 0.6% at 5 years and 4.9% at 10 years from the neuroblastoma diagnosis. Nine osteochondromas were revealed incidentally during assessments of neuroblastoma disease status or bone age. Thirteen osteochondromas were detected outside RT portals and had characteristics of spontaneous forms. Complications were limited to pain necessitating surgical resection in 3 patients, but follow-up was short at 0.3 to 7.7 years (median, 3.5 years).CONCLUSIONS Osteochondromas in long-term survivors of neuroblastoma should be expected because these benign growths can be related to RT and these patients undergo radiologic studies over years, are monitored for late toxicities through and beyond adolescence, and receive special attention (because of concerns about disease recurrence) if they develop a bony protuberance. A pathogenic role for chemotherapy, anti-GD2 MoAbs, or isotretinoin remains speculative. Cancer 2015. © 2015 American Cancer Society.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Cancer
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    Preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Anti-GD2 murine antibody 3F8 plus subcutaneously-administered (sc) granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was used against primary refractory neuroblastoma in metastatic osteomedullary sites. Large study size and long follow-up allowed assessment of prognostic factors in a multivariate analysis not reported with other anti-GD2 antibodies. In a phase II trial, 79 patients without prior progressive disease were treated for persistent osteomedullary neuroblastoma documented by histology and/or metaiodobenzyl-guanidine (MIBG) scan. In the absence of human anti-mouse antibody, 3F8+scGM-CSF cycles were repeated up to 24 months. Minimal residual disease (MRD) in bone marrow was measured by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction pre-enrollment and post-cycle #2, before initiation of 13-cis-retinoic acid. Study endpoints were: 1) progression-free survival (PFS) compared with the predecessor trial of 3F8 plus intravenously-administered (iv) GM-CSF (26 patients), and 2) impact of MRD on PFS. Using all 105 patients from the two consecutive 3F8+GM-CSF trials, prognostic factors were analyzed by multivariate Cox regression model. Complete response rates to 3F8+scGM-CSF were 87% by histology and 38% by MIBG. Five-year PFS was 24%±6% which was significantly superior to 11%±7% with 3F8+ivGM-CSF (p=0.002). In the multivariate analysis, significantly better PFS was associated with R/R or H/R FCGR2A polymorphism, sc route of GM-CSF, and early MRD response. MYCN amplification was not prognostic. Complement consumption was similar with either route of GM-CSF. Toxicities were manageable, allowing outpatient treatment. 3F8+scGM-CSF is highly active against chemoresistant osteomedullary neuroblastoma. MRD response may be an indicator of tumor sensitivity to anti-GD2 immunotherapy. Correlative studies highlight the anti-neoplastic potency of myeloid effectors. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · International Journal of Cancer

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
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    ABSTRACT: The authors exploited a large database to investigate the outcomes of patients with high-risk neuroblastoma in the contemporary era. All patients with high-risk neuroblastoma aged <12 years who were treated during induction at the authors' institution from 2000 through 2011 were studied, including 118 patients with MYCN-amplified [MYCN(+)] disease and 127 patients aged >18 months with MYCN-nonamplified [MYCN(-)] stage 4 disease. A complete response/very good partial response (CR/VGPR) to induction was correlated with significantly superior event-free survival (EFS) (P < .001) and overall survival (OS) (P < .001) compared with a partial response or less. Patients with MYCN(+) and MYCN(-) disease had similar rates of CR/VGPR to induction (P = .366), and those with MYCN(+) and MYCN(-) disease who attained a CR/VGPR had similar EFS (P = .346) and OS (P = .542). In contrast, only MYCN(+) patients had progressive disease as a response to induction (P < .001), and early death from progressive disease (<366 days after diagnosis) was significantly more common (P < .001) among those with MYCN(+) disease. Overall, among patients who had a partial response or less, MYCN(+) patients had significantly inferior EFS (P < .001) and OS (P < .001) compared with MYCN(-) patients, which accounted for the significantly worse EFS (P = .008) and OS (P = .002) for the entire MYCN(+) cohort versus the MYCN(-) cohort. Patients with MYCN(-), high-risk neuroblastoma display a broad, continuous spectrum with regard to response and outcome, whereas MYCN(+) patients either have an excellent response to induction associated with good long-term outcome or develop early progressive disease with a poor outcome. This extreme dichotomy in the clinical course of MYCN(+) patients points to underlying biologic differences with MYCN(+) neuroblastoma, the elucidation of which may have far-reaching implications, including improved risk classification at diagnosis and the identification of targets for treatment. Cancer 2014. © 2014 American Cancer Society.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To report on a phase I trial designed to find the maximally tolerated dose in children of the immunologic adjuvant OPT-821 in a vaccine containing neuroblastoma-associated antigens (GD2 and GD3; Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00911560). Secondary objectives were to obtain preliminary data on immune response and activity against minimal residual disease (MRD). Treatment also included the immunostimulant β-glucan. Experimental design: Patients with neuroblastoma in ≥2nd complete/very good partial remission received vaccine subcutaneously (weeks 1-2-3-8-20-32-52). Vaccine contained 30 μg each of GD2 and GD3 stabilized as lactones and conjugated to the immunologic carrier protein keyhole limpet hemocyanin; and OPT-821, which was dose escalated as 50, 75, 100, and 150 μg/m(2) per injection. Oral β-glucan (40 mg/kg/day, 14 days on/14 days off) started week 6. Results: The study was completed with 15 patients because there was no dose-limiting toxicity at 150 μg/m(2) of OPT-821 (the dosing used in adults). Thirteen of fifteen patients received the entire protocol treatment, including 12 who remain relapse-free at 24+ to 39+ (median 32+) months and 1 who relapsed (single node) at 21 months. Relapse-free survival was 80% ± 10% at 24 months. Vaccine and β-glucan were well tolerated. Twelve of fifteen patients had antibody responses against GD2 and/or GD3. Disappearance of MRD was documented in 6 of 10 patients assessable for response. Conclusions: This immunotherapy program lacks major toxicity and is transportable to any outpatient clinic. Patient outcome is encouraging but the efficacy is uncertain because of the complexity and heterogeneity of prior therapies. A larger phase II trial is underway.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Clinical Cancer Research
  • N. Cheung · I. Cheung · D. Kuk · I. Ostrovnaya · S. Modak · K. Kramer · B. Kushner

    No preview · Article · Nov 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) comprises clinical and radiologic findings with rapid onset and potentially dire consequences. Patients experience hypertension, seizures, headache, visual disturbance, and/or altered mentation. Magnetic resonance imaging reveals edematous changes in the brain (especially in the parietal and occipital lobes). In this report, the authors describe PRES associated with antidisialoganglioside (anti-GD2 ) monoclonal antibody (MoAb) immunotherapy, which is now standard for high-risk neuroblastoma but has not previously been implicated in PRES. Methods: Successive clinical trials using the anti-GD2 MoAb 3F8 (a murine immunoglobulin 3 MoAb specific for GD2) for patients with neuroblastoma involved multiple cycles of standard-dose 3F8 (SD-3F8) (20 mg/m2 daily for 5 days per cycle) or 2 cycles of high-dose 3F8 (HD-3F8) (80 mg/m2 daily for 5 days per cycle) followed by cycles of SD-3F8. Results: PRES was diagnosed in 5 of 215 patients (2.3%), including 3 of 160 (1.9%) who received SD-3F8 and 2 of 55 (3.6%) who received HD-3F8 (P = .6). All 5 patients had a rapid return to clinical-radiologic baseline. PRES occurred in 3 of 26 patients (11.5%) whose prior treatment included external-beam radiotherapy to the brain (2 of 6 patients status-post total body irradiation and 1 of 20 patients status-post craniospinal irradiation) compared with 2 of 189 patients (1.1%) who had not received prior brain irradiation (P = .01). Hypertension, which is strongly linked to PRES, reached grade 3 toxicity in 12 of 215 patients (5.6%), including the 5 patients with PRES and 7 patients without PRES. Conclusions: Patients who receive anti-GD2 MoAb immunotherapy should be closely monitored for, and undergo urgent treatment or evaluation of, symptoms that may herald PRES (eg, hypertension or headaches). Prior brain irradiation may be a predisposing factor for PRES with this immunotherapy.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: β-glucans are complex, naturally-occurring polysaccharides that prime leukocyte dectin and complement receptor 3. Based on our preclinical findings, indicating that oral barley-derived (1 → 3),(1 → 4)-β-D-glucan (BG) synergizes with the murine anti-GD2 antibody 3F8 against neuroblastoma, we conducted a Phase I clinical study to evaluate the safety of this combinatorial regimen in patients affected by chemoresistant neuroblastoma. In this setting, four cohorts of six heavily pre-treated patients bearing recurrent or refractory advanced-stage neuroblastoma were treated with 3F8 plus BG. Each cycle consisted of intravenous 3F8 at a fixed dose of 10 mg/m(2)/day plus concurrent oral BG, dose-escalated from 10 to 80 mg/Kg/day, for 10 d. Patients who did not develop human anti-mouse antibodies could be treated for up to 4 cycles. Twenty-four patients completed 50 cycles of therapy. All patients completed at least one cycle and were evaluable for the assessment of toxicity and responses. The maximum tolerated dose of BG was not reached, but two patients developed dose-limiting toxicities. These individuals developed grade 4 thrombocytopenia after one cycle of BG at doses of 20 mg/Kg/day and 40 mg/Kg/day, respectively. Platelet counts recovered following the administration of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura therapy. There were no other toxicities of grade > 2. Eleven and 13 patients manifested stable and progressive disease, respectively. Thirteen out of 22 patients with pre-treatment positive (123)I-MIBG scans demonstrated clinical improvement on semiquantitative scoring. Responses did not correlate with BG dose or with in vitro cytotoxicity. In summary, 3F8 plus BG is well tolerated and shows antineoplastic activity in recurrent or refractory advanced-stage neuroblastoma patients. Further clinical investigation of this novel combinatorial immunotherapeutic regimen is warranted.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2013 · OncoImmunology

  • No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Journal of Clinical Oncology

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics

Publication Stats

5k Citations
1,363.26 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1985-2015
    • Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Bone Marrow Transplant Service
      New York, New York, United States