C. R. Babu

University of Delhi, Old Delhi, NCT, India

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Publications (85)157.71 Total impact

  • Amit Love · B D Banerjee · C R Babu
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    ABSTRACT: Assessment of oxidative stress levels and tissue concentrations of elements in plants growing wild on fly ash basins is critical for realistic hazard identification of fly ash disposal areas. Hitherto, levels of oxidative stress markers in plants growing wild on fly ash basins have not been adequately investigated. We report here concentrations of selected metal and metalloid elements and levels of oxidative stress markers in leaves of Cassia occidentalis growing wild on a fly ash basin (Badarpur Thermal Power Station site) and a reference site (Garhi Mandu Van site). Plants growing on the fly ash basin had significantly high foliar concentration of As, Ni, Pb and Se and low foliar concentration of Mn and Fe compared to the plants growing on the reference site. The plants inhabiting the fly ash basin showed signs of oxidative stress and had elevated levels of lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage from cells and low levels of chlorophyll a and total carotenoids compared to plants growing at the reference site. The levels of both protein thiols and nonprotein thiols were elevated in plants growing on the fly ash basin compared to plants growing on the reference site. However, no differences were observed in the levels of cysteine, reduced glutathione and oxidized glutathione in plants growing at both the sites. Our study suggests that: (1) fly ash triggers oxidative stress responses in plants growing wild on fly ash basin, and (2) elevated levels of protein thiols and nonprotein thiols may have a role in protecting the plants from environmental stress.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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    Radhey Shyam Sharma · Vandana Mishra · Asif Mohmmed · Cherukuri Raghavendra Babu
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    ABSTRACT: Outer-membrane characteristics may determine the survivability of rhizobia under diverse abiotic and biotic stresses. Therefore, the role of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and membrane proteins of two stem-nodulating bacteria of Sesbania rostrata (Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS571 and Rhizobium sp. WE7) in determining tolerance towards abiotic and biotic stresses (hydrophobics and phages) was investigated. Outer-membrane characteristics (LPS and membrane-protein profiles) of ORS571, WE7 and thirteen standard strains were distinct. ORS571 and WE7 also showed susceptibility towards morphologically distinct phages, i.e., ACSR16 (short-tailed) and WESR29 (long-tailed), respectively. ORS571 and WE7 were tolerant to hydrophobic compounds (triton X-100, rifampicin, crystal violet and deoxycholate). To ascertain the role of outer membrane characteristics in stress tolerance, phage-resistant transconjugant mutants of ORS571 (ORS571-M8 and ORS571-M20) and WE7 (WE7-M9) were developed. LPS- and membrane-protein profiles of mutants differed from that of respective wild types (ORS571 and WE7). In in vitro assay, phages got adsorbed onto purified LPS-membrane protein fractions of wild types. Phages did not adsorb onto membrane fraction of mutants and standard strains. Mutant with reduced expression of LPS (ORS571-M20 and WE7-M9) showed reduced tolerance towards hydrophobics. However, the tolerance was unaffected in mutant (ORS571-M8) where expression of LPS was not reduced but pattern was different. The tolerance level of mutants towards hydrophobics varied with the expression of LPS, whereas the specificity towards phages is correlated with the specific LPS pattern.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2011 · Current Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: The genus Lantana has many species complexes, and L. camara is one of the aggressive alien weedy species complexes; species delimitation in these complexes is a nightmare for taxonomists. We examined the diversity in the chemical composition of foliar essential oils among morphotypes of Lantana species complexes inhabiting the same ecological gradient, and its taxonomic and ecological significance. The yields of essential oils varied from 0.1 to 0.79% in foliar hydrodistillates of eleven morphotypes, and a total of 39 chemical constituents were detected by GC/MS. The quantitative and qualitative variability in the composition of essential oils among morphotypes was very high, and hence they represent chemotypes. The diversity observed in the composition of essential oils appears to be of genetic origin and thus of taxonomic value. The formation of distinct clusters and sub-clusters at high distance cluster combine values also substantiates that the patterns of distribution of chemical constituents among morphotypes can be used in delimiting species and infraspecific taxa within the species complexes. The presence of beta-caryophyllene and other such compounds, which are known to prevent herbivory, in morphotypes of Lantana species complexes suggest that these compounds may provide selective advantage to Lantana over native species in the invasion of new and disturbed habitats.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Chemistry & Biodiversity
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    S. Babu · A. Love · C. R. Babu
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    ABSTRACT: Lantana (Lantana camara), one of the world's most troublesome invasive weeds, has become a menace in most of the protected areas located in tropical and subtropical belt of India. The lantana-infested landscapes not only are impoverished as habitats of wildlife but also contribute to human-wildlife conflicts owing to diminished ecosystem services. This paper is a case study of successful eradication and restoration of two lantana-invaded sites in Corbett Tiger Reserve, India. A method for eradicating lantana was developed using knowledge about its ecology, and, subsequently, weedfree landscapes were restored to productive grasslands and mixed woodlands using native species. The restoration of these areas to grassland communities has successfully prevented secondary invasions by lantana and other weeds and has enhanced the habitat quality for herbivores whose populations are vital for the survival of top carnivores such as tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti).
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2009 · Ecological Restoration
  • Amit Love · Suresh Babu · C. R. Babu
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    ABSTRACT: Lantana is one of the world's worst weeds of South American origin that threatens native biodiversity of forest ecosystems across India. It was introduced into India as a garden ornamental and or a bio hedge plant in the early part of the 19th century and now it has virtually invaded all the tropical and subtropical regions of India. Although attempts have been made to control Lantana by physical, chemical and biological methods, there is no success either in its control or the prevention of its spread. No effective management strategy is yet available for the containment of this obnoxious alien weed. On the basis of critical assessment of the biological and ecological attributes of Lantana that enabled it to overcome all the existing management practices, we have developed a new management strategy. The new strategy involves (i) its removal by cut rootstock method, (ii) weeding of saplings from beneath the trees used for perching by generalist birds that disperse the seeds throughout their home range and from surface drainage channels originating from the area covered by such trees and (iii) ecological restoration of weed-free landscapes, preferably to the grassland, or forest communities according to the needs of stakeholders to prevent reinvasion of the same species or secondary invasion by another alien species. The new strategy developed has been implemented successfully in demonstration plots of 2-5 hectares at the Corbett Tiger Reserve (Uttarakhand), Kalesar National Park (Haryana) and Satpura Tiger Reserve (Madhya Pradesh). The advantages of the new management strategy over other control methods currently used are: (i) cost effectiveness, (ii) simple and easy to adopt and (iii) ensures successful control of Lantana without using chemicals and exotic biological control agents, and with minimum disturbance of soil.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Current science
  • Shruti Rai · K.K. Aggarwal · B Mitra · T.K. Das · C.R. Babu
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    ABSTRACT: A novel serine protease inhibitor (AmPI) was purified from larval hemolymph of tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta by two-step process of trypsin-affinity and gel-filtration (FPLC) chromatography. AmPI was active against larval midgut and commercial bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin. The extent of purification was determined by SDS and Native PAGE. The protease inhibitor had an apparent molecular weight of approximately 14.5 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE. Its activity was stable over a pH range of 4.5-9 and temperatures range of 4-65 degrees C. Molecular weight as determined by MALDITOF-MS was between 13241.63 and 13261.66 Da. MS profile of AmPI also suggests two isoforms of AmPI because of glycosylation by heptose (C(7)H(14)O(7)). This confirmed the result of Native PAGE showing two bands. N-terminal amino acid sequence of this protein did not show similarity to any known protease inhibitor. To study the functional implications of AmPI in insect, it was localized in insect body tissue of different larval instars by immunogold labeling technique using GAR-gold conjugate as secondary antibody. The pattern of localization suggests constitutive nature of AmPI, which may have role in insect's defense mechanism.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Peptides
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    ABSTRACT: Open dumping of fly ash in fly ash basins has significant adverse environmental impacts due to its elevated trace element content. In situ biomonitoring of genotoxicity is of practical value in realistic hazard identification of fly ash. Genotoxicity of openly disposed fly ash to natural plant populations inhabiting fly ash basins has not been investigated. DNA damage, and concentrations of As, Co, Cr, Cu and Ni in the leaves of natural populations of Cassia occidentalis growing at two contrasting sites-one having weathered fly ash (fly ash basin) and the other having soil (reference site) as plant growth substrates-were assessed. The foliar concentrations of As, Ni and Cr were two to eight fold higher in plants growing on fly ash as compared to the plants growing on soil, whereas foliar concentrations of Cu and Co were similar. We report, for the first time, based upon comet assay results, higher levels of DNA damage in leaf tissues of Cassia occidentalis growing wild on fly ash basin compared to C. occidentalis growing on soil. Correlation analysis between foliar DNA damage and foliar concentrations of trace elements suggests that DNA damage may perhaps be associated with foliar concentrations of As and Ni. Our observations suggest that (1) fly ash triggers genotoxic responses in plants growing naturally on fly ash basins; and (2) plant comet assay is useful for in situ biomonitoring of genotoxicity of fly ash.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2009 · Ecotoxicology
  • Arindam Bhattacharyya · Cherukuri R Babu
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    ABSTRACT: A potent serine proteinase inhibitor was isolated and characterized from the seeds of the tropical legume liana, Derris trifoliata (DtTCI) by ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. SDS-PAGE as well as MALDI-TOF analysis showed that DtTCI is a single polypeptide chain with a molecular mass of approximately 20 kDa. DtTCI has three isoinhibitors (pI: 4.55, 5.34 and 5.72) and, inhibited both trypsin and chymotrypsin in a 1:1 molar ratio. Both Dixon plots and Lineweaver-Burk double reciprocal plots revealed a competitive inhibition of trypsin and chymotrypsin activity, with inhibition constants (K(i)) of 1.7x10(-10) and 1.25x10(-10) M, respectively. N-terminal sequence of DtTCI showed over 50% similarity with numerous Kunitz-type inhibitors of the Papilionoideae subfamily. High pH amplitude and broad temperature optima were noted for DtTCI, and time course experiments indicated a gradual loss in inhibitory potency on treatment with dithiothreitol (DTT). Circular Dichroism (CD) spectrum of native DtTCI revealed an unordered structure whereas exposure to thermal-pH extremes, DTT and guanidine hydrochloride (Gdn HCl) suggested that an abundance of beta-sheets along with intramolecular disulfide bonds provide conformational stability to the active site of DtTCI, and that severity of denaturants cause structural modifications promoting inhibitory inactivity. Antimalarial studies of DtTCI indicate it to be a potent antiparasitic agent.
    No preview · Article · May 2009 · Phytochemistry
  • S. Rai · K.K. Aggarwal · C.R. Babu
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    ABSTRACT: Temporal and spatial distribution of plant's foliage generate microclimatic conditions that influence the chemistry of foliage, which in turn regulate the herbivory and foraging behaviours of insects. These aspects have not been studied with respect to tasar silkworm and its host plant, Terminalia arjuna. Pollarding reduces all the foliar constituents of T. arjuna, particularly the defense chemicals thus confirming the role of canopy in foliar chemistry. Pollarding of trees simulates low light conditions in the canopy of T. arjuna with respect to variation in foliar constituents. Thus in terms of antinutrients, pollarding has beneficial effect for tasar silkworm rearing.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2009
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    Vinod B Shimpale · S R Yadav · C R Babu
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    ABSTRACT: Five species of the genus Mussaenda L. are reported from Great Nicobar Island. Out of these M. nicobarica is described as a new species, M. wallichii G. Don is collected after Kurz's collection, M. frondosa L. and M. macrophylla Wall. are widely distributed species while for the Indian fl ora M. villosa Wall. ex Hook.f. is confi ned to Great Nicobar Island. A taxonomic account of Mussaenda species from Great Nicobar Island along with a new species is presented.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2009 · Rheedea
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    ABSTRACT: Extracts of roots of Rumex nepalensis, Berberis aristata, Arnebia benthamii, bark of Taxus wallichiana, Juglans regia and petals of Jacquinia ruscifolia were tested for their antifungal activity against twelve different fungal pathogens. Ethanolic extracts of R. nepalensis and J. ruscifolia extracts showed a broad spectrum of activity.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · Fitoterapia
  • M. C. GOPINATHAN · C. R. BABU
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    ABSTRACT: Obligate subterranean cleistogamy, observed in a natural population of Vigna minima, is associated with the production of one or two negatively geotropic, leafy shoots and several positively geotropic, highly pigmented, leafless shoots. The latter branch profusely after penetrating the soil and produce much reduced, cleistogamous flowers. The undehisced anthers contain germinated pollen grains. The seeds developing from the cleistogamous flowers differ in size, weight and surface features from those produced by the chasmogamous flowers of other natural populations within the species.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2008 · Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society
  • Shruti Rai · K. K. Aggarwal · C. R. Babu
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    ABSTRACT: A serine Kunitz protease inhibitor was isolated from the semi-mature leaves of Terminalia arjuna, a host plant for Antheraea mylitta, using ammonium sulphate fractionation, gel permeation chromatography and trypsin-sepharose affinity chromatography. A 29-fold purification of T. arjuna Trypsin Inhibitor (TaTI) with a yield recovery of 3.2% was achieved. The purified protease inhibitor (TaTI) was resolved into a single protein band corresponding to molecular weight of 19.0 kDa on 12% SDS-PAGE under non-reducing conditions, whereas an additional band of 21.5 kDa was observed when the same fraction was resolved on SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol. TaTI inhibited both trypsin and chymotrypsin, but showed higher affinity for trypsin compared to chymotrypsin. However, it is more effective on bovine trypsin than midgut trypsin of tasar silkworm. TaTI retains its activity over a wide range of temperatures (0-100°C) and pH (2.0-8.0), with pH optimum of 8.0. These observations indicate that TaTI is not only specific to tasar silkworm but also to bovine serine proteases. Hence it can be considered as a generalist protease inhibitor.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2008
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    Radhey Shyam Sharma · Vandana Mishra · Asif Mohmmed · Cherukuri Raghavendra Babu
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    ABSTRACT: Phage susceptibility pattern and its correlation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and plasmid profiles may help in understanding the phenotypic and genotypic diversity among highly promiscuous group of rhizobia nodulating Sesbania spp.; 43 phages were from two stem-nodulating bacteria of S. rostrata and 16 phages were from root-nodulating bacteria of S. sesban, S. aegyptica and S. rostrata. Phage susceptibility pattern of 38 Sesbania nodulating bacteria was correlated with their LPS rather than plasmid profiles. Different species of bacteria (A. caulinodans- ORS571, SRS1-3 and Sinorhizobium saheli- SRR907, SRR912) showing distinct LPS subtypes were susceptible to different group of phages. Phages could also discriminate the strains of Si. saheli (SSR312, SAR610) possessing distinct LPS subtypes. Phages of Si. meliloti (SSR302) were strain-specific. All the strains of R. huautlense having incomplete LPS (insignificant O-chain) were phage-resistant. In in vitro assay, 100% of the phages were adsorbed to LPS of indicator bacterium or its closely related strain(s) only. These observations suggest the significance of LPS in phage specificity of Sesbania nodulating rhizobia. Highly specific phages may serve as biological marker for monitoring the susceptible bacterial strains in culture collections and environment.
    Full-text · Article · May 2008 · Archives of Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: The roles of serine proteases involved in the digestion mechanism of the cutworm Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were examined (in vitro and in vivo) following feeding of plant protease inhibitors. A trypsin inhibitor from Archidendron ellipticum (AeTI) was purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, ion-exchange chromatography and size-exclusion chromatography (HPLC) and its bioinsecticidal properties against S. litura were compared with Soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (SBTI). AeTI inhibited the trypsin-like activities of the midgut proteases of fifth instar larvae of S. litura by over 70%. Dixon plot analysis revealed competitive inhibition of larval midgut trypsin and chymotrypsin by AeTI, with an inhibition constant (K(i)) of 3.5x10(-9) M and 1.5x10(-9) M, respectively. However, inhibitor kinetics using double reciprocal plots for both trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitions demonstrated a mixed inhibition pattern. Feeding experiments conducted on different (neonate to ultimate) instars suggested a dose-dependent decrease for both the larval body weight as well as % survival of larva fed on diet containing 50, 100 and 150 microM AeTI. Influence of AeTI on the larval gut physiology indicated a 7-fold decrease of trypsin-like protease activity and a 5-fold increase of chymotrypsin-like protease activity, after being fed with a diet supplemented with 150 microM AeTI. This study suggests that although the early (1st to 3rd) larval instars of S. litura are susceptible to the trypsin inhibitory action of AeTI, the later instars may facilitate the development of new serine proteases, insensitive to the inhibitor.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2007 · Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C Toxicology & Pharmacology
  • S.S. Garbyal · A. Grover · K.K. Agrawal · C.R. Babu
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    ABSTRACT: Bhotias of Dharchula sub-division in Kumaon, Uttaranchal in North India have been living in isolation for centuries. They have had strong bond with the nature. They have traditionally been dependent on nature for healthcare, as they did not have access to the modern medicinal facilites until about 1960s. No serious attempts were made to document the traditional phytomedicines used by Bhotias of Dharchula areas in the past. Present attempt is the ethnomedicinal survey to document the traditional phytomedicines used by them.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2007 · Indian journal of traditional knowledge
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    ABSTRACT: Evolution of proteinase inhibitor diversity in leguminous plants of tropical rainforests is under immense pressure from the regular upregulation of proteolytic machinery of their pests. The present study illustrates the isolation and bioinsecticidal potency of a serine proteinase inhibitor from the seeds of Caesalpinia bonduc (CbTI), inhabiting Great Nicobar Island, India. Following initial fractionation by ammonium sulfate precipitation, CbTI was purified to homogeneity by ion exchange, gel filtration and trypsin affinity chromatography. SDS-PAGE of gel filtrated CbTI showed a couple of proteins CbTI-1 ( approximately 16kDa) and CbTI-2 (20kDa) under non-reducing conditions, which subsequent to trypsin affinity chromatography yielded only CbTI-2. Both Native PAGE as well as iso-electric focusing showed 2 iso-inhibitors of CbTI-2 (pI values of 5.35 and 4.6). CbTI exhibited tolerance to extremes of temperatures (0-60 degrees C) and pH (1-12). A 1:1 stoichiometric ratio was noted during CbTI-2-trypsin complex formation, which was absent on binding with chymotrypsin. Further, SDS-PAGE analysis also showed that CbTI-1 has affinity only towards chymotrypsin, whereas both trypsin and chymotrypsin formed complexes with CbTI-2. Dixon plot analysis of CbTI-2 yielded inhibition constants (K(i)) of 2.75 x 10(-10)M and 0.95 x 10(-10)M against trypsin and chymotrypsin activity respectively. Preliminary investigations on the toxicological nature of CbTI revealed it to be a promising bioinsecticidal candidate.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2007 · Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
  • A Bhattacharyya · C.R. Babu
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    ABSTRACT: A Kunitz proteinase inhibitor from Archidendron ellipticum seeds (AeTI) was purified and complexed with bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin. The stoichiometric stability of AeTI with its interacting proteinases was then investigated using spectrophotometric, size exclusion chromatography (HPLC system), Western blotting and circular dichroism (CD) studies. All the methods were remarkably similar in revealing the preference of trypsin over chymotrypsin by AeTI for complex formation. Both Western blotting as well as spectrophotometry based assays for competition experiments indicated that trypsin displaces chymotrypsin from a previously formed AeTI-chymotrypsin complex. Chemical modification of lysine and arginine by TNBS and CHD treatments, respectively, suggested a lysine as the active site residue and also indicated the presence of a single protease-binding site for AeTI. CD of native AeTI showed a sharp minimum at 200 nm and deconvolution of the CD spectra revealed it to be an unordered protein possessing high beta-sheet content. Complex formation of AeTI with trypsin induces a fractional switchover of its unordered structure towards the beta-sheet fraction but lacked any such conversion in the presence of chymotrypsin. Prolonged exposure of excess trypsin generates conformational modifications both in the secondary and the tertiary structures.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2006 · Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
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    Shruti Rai · Kamal K. Aggarwal · Cherukuri R. Babu
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    ABSTRACT: Both under indoor and outdoor rearing conditions, early instars of Antheraea mylitta showed differential preference for eating towards developmentally different leaves of host plant, Terminalia arjuna. Semi-mature leaves were preferred by first, second and third instar of A. mylitta. Nutritional-value study of leaves of different age groups with respect to soluble protein and electrophoretic profile showed that young leaves are nutritionally rich compared to semi-mature and mature leaves. However, growth response and survival of larvae were better on semi-mature leaves compared to young and mature leaves. When analysed, semi-mature leaves showed protease inhibitor activity intermediate between young and mature leaves. This observation suggests optimal defence theory, where young and semi-mature leaves having high fitness and high probability of attack tend to have higher concentration of defence metabolites. Differential inhibition of midgut and bovine proteases by host plant protease inhibitor indicates that the tasar silkworm might have detoxified or evolved proteases that are insensitive to the leaf protease inhibitor of the host plant. Thus the differential feeding behaviour of larvae of tasar silkworm is an adaptation for coexistence of the insect and its host plant.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2006
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    ABSTRACT: Leguminous plants in the tropical rainforests are a rich source of proteinase inhibitors and this work illustrates isolation of a serine proteinase inhibitor from the seeds of Archidendron ellipticum (AeTI), inhabiting Great Nicobar Island, India. AeTI was purified to homogeneity by acetone and ammonium sulfate fractionation, and ion exchange, size exclusion and reverse phase chromatography (HPLC). SDS-PAGE of AeTI revealed that it is constituted by two polypeptide chains (alpha-chain, M(r) 15,000 and beta-chain, M(r) 5000), the molecular weight being approximately 20 kDa. N-terminal sequence showed high homology with other serine proteinase inhibitors belonging to the Mimosoideae subfamily. Both Native-PAGE as well as isoelectric focussing showed four isoinhibitors (pI values of 4.1, 4.55, 5.27 and 5.65). Inhibitory activity of AeTI remained unchanged over a wide range of temperatures (0-60 degrees C) and pH (1-10). The protein inhibited trypsin in the stoichiometric ratio of 1:1, but lacked similar stoichiometry against chymotrypsin. Also, AeTI-trypsin complex was stable to SDS unlike the SDS unstable AeTI-chymotrypsin complex. AeTI, which possessed inhibition constants (K(i)) of 2.46 x 10(-10) and 0.5 x 10(-10)M against trypsin and chymotrypsin activity, respectively, retained over 70% of inhibitory activity after being stored at -20 degrees C for more than a year. Initial studies on the insecticidal properties of AeTI indicate it to be a very potent insect anti-feedant.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2006 · Phytochemistry

Publication Stats

770 Citations
157.71 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1979-2013
    • University of Delhi
      • • Department of Environmental Studies
      • • Centre of Environmental Management of Degraded Ecosystems
      • • Department of Botany (Faculty of Science)
      • • CSIR Centre for Biochemicals
      Old Delhi, NCT, India
  • 1980
    • Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute
      Old Delhi, NCT, India