[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background & aim:
To investigate the prevalence, mortalities, and patient characteristics of Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) according to the AARC (Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver ACLF Research Consortium) and European Association for the Study of the Liver CLIF-C (Chronic Liver Failure Consortium) definitions.
We collected retrospective data for 1470 hospitalized patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and acute deterioration between January 2013 and December 2013 from 21 university hospitals in Korea.
Of the patients assessed, the prevalence of ACLF based on the AARC and CLIF-C definitions was 9.5% and 18.6%, respectively. The 28-day and 90-day mortality rates were higher in patients with ACLF than in those without ACLF. Patients who only met the CLIF-C definition had significantly lower 28-day and 90-day survival rates than those who only met the AARC definition (68.0% vs. 93.9%, P<0.001; 55.1% vs. 92.4%, P<0.001). Among the patients who had non-cirrhotic CLD, the 90-day mortality of the patients with ACLF was higher than of those without ACLF, although not significant (33.3% vs. 6.0%, P = 0.192). Patients with previous acute decompensation (AD) within 1- year had a lower 90-day survival rate than those with AD more than 1 year prior or without previous AD (81.0% vs. 91.9% or 89.4%, respectively, all P<0.001). Patients who had extra-hepatic organ failure without liver failure had a similar 90-day survival rate to those who had liver failure as a prerequisite (57.0% vs. 60.6%, P = 0.391).
The two ACLF definitions result in differences in mortality and patient characteristics among ACLF patients. We suggest that non-cirrhotic CLD, previous AD within 1 year, and extra-hepatic organ failure should be included in the ACLF diagnostic criteria. In addition, further studies are necessary to develop a universal definition of ACLF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and aims:
There has been remarkable progress in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) during the last several decades but its effect on the prognosis of HCC patient needs clarification. We analyzed the changes that affected prognosis of HCC patients diagnosed over two different eras.
A retrospective study of 1318 patients diagnosed with HCC from 1986 to 2012 was conducted. Analysis was done according to two cohorts, cohort 1 (patients diagnosed with HCC from 1986 to 1992) and cohort 2 (patients diagnosed from 2006 to 2012).
Hepatitis B virus was the most common cause of liver disease for both cohorts (66.2% and 66.0%). The proportion of patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage 0/A was significantly lower in cohort 1 than in cohort 2 (14.4% vs. 39.5%, P<0.001). The proportions of patients diagnosed during surveillance and general health-check were significantly higher in cohort 2 than in cohort 1 (28.6% vs. 10.6% and 26.3% vs. 7.9%, respectively) while those diagnosed during symptomatic evaluation was significantly higher in cohort 1 than in cohort 2 (45.1 vs. 81.4%, P<0.001). Surgical resection rate was similar between the two cohorts (26.1% vs 26%) while the transcatheter arterial chemoembolization rate which was highest in cohort 1 (40.6%) was overtaken by radiofrequency ablation in cohort 2 (55%) at BCLC stage 0/A. Median survival duration in cohort 2 was significantly longer than cohort 1 (65.0 vs. 7.9 months, P<0.001).
Implementation of national cancer surveillance and the advancement of treatment modalities have likely led to the early detection of HCC and improvements in prognosis over the last 20 years. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and AimAlthough the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system is widely used for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) staging, the most appropriate BCLC stage designation for single large HCC (SLHCC, single nodule >5 cm) remains controversial. This study investigated the prognosis of patients with SLHCC.Methods
Patients with newly diagnosed HCCs (BCLC stages A or B) were classified according to tumor burden: group 1, a single nodule >2 cm and ≤5 cm or 2 ~ 3 nodules ≤3 cm; group 2, a single nodule >5 cm; and group 3, 2 or 3 nodules >3 cm or >3 nodules. Survival analysis was performed according to tumor stage, treatment type, and Child-Pugh grade.ResultsA total of 1005 patients were enrolled. Age was 59.3 ± 10.6 years and 788 patients (78.4%) were men. Groups 1, 2, and 3 consisted of 613 (61.0%), 124 (12.3%), and 268 (26.7%) patients, respectively. HCC treatment included resection in 202 patients (20.1%), radiofrequency ablation ± transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in 311 patients (30.9%), and TACE in 492 patients (49.0%). The median survival time differed significantly according to tumor stage (75.2, 44.9, and 30.3 months in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively; P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that group 2 had significantly worse survival compared to group 1 and similar survival to group 3.Conclusions
Patients in group 2 had a worse prognosis than those in group 1 and a similar prognosis to those in group 3. Our results suggest that BCLC stage B is the best stage designation for SLHCC. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atelectasis is one of the pulmonary complications associated with anesthesia. Little is known about atelectasis following endoscopic procedures under deep sedation. This study evaluated the frequency, risk factors, and clinical course of atelectasis after endoscopic resection.
A total of 349 patients who underwent endoscopic resection of the upper gastrointestinal tract at a single academic tertiary referral center from March 2010 to October 2013 were enrolled. Baseline characteristics and clinical data were retrospectively reviewed from medical records. To identify atelectasis, we compared the chest radiography taken before and after the endoscopic procedure.
Among the 349 patients, 68 (19.5 %) had newly developed atelectasis following endoscopic resection. In univariate logistic regression analysis, atelectasis correlated significantly with high body mass index, smoking, diabetes mellitus, procedure duration, size of lesion, and total amount of propofol. In multiple logistic regression analysis, body mass index, procedure duration, and total propofol amount were risk factors for atelectasis following endoscopic procedures. Of the 68 patients with atelectasis, nine patients developed fever, and six patients displayed pneumonic infiltration. The others had no symptoms related to atelectasis.
The incidence of radiographic atelectasis following endoscopic resection was nearly 20 %. Obesity, procedural time, and amount of propofol were the significant risk factors for atelectasis following endoscopic procedure. Most cases of the atelectasis resolved spontaneously with no sequelae.
No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Digestive Diseases and Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Entecavir (ETV) induces biochemical and histologic improvement of the liver in patients with chronic hepatitis B. This study aimed to confirm that 2 years of ETV treatment improves liver function and non-invasive fibrosis markers in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated cirrhosis.
A total 472 naïve patients with HBV-associated cirrhosis was treated with ETV for at least 2 years, between March 2007 and December 2012. Model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) and Child-Pugh (CP) score were used to evaluate the improvement of liver function. Aspartate transaminase to platelet ratio index (APRI), FIB-4 index, and fibrosis index (FI) were used to evaluate the improvement of fibrosis.
The final 370 of 472 patients with HBV-associated cirrhosis were enrolled. Mean age was 51 ± 10 years and 240 patients (64.9%) were men. The distribution of CP class was 71.1% in A, 24.6% in B, and 4.3% in C. Mean MELD and CP score changed over the study period from 8.5 ± 4.6 to 6.2 ± 4.2 (P < 0.001) and from 6.2 ± 1.6 to 5.6 ± 0.9 (P < 0.001), respectively. APRI, FIB-4 index, and FI changed from 3.6 ± 4.5 to 1.5 ± 1.5 (P < 0.001), from 7.0 ± 6.2 to 3.9 ± 2.8 (P < 0.001), and from 3.3 ± 0.9 to 2.5 ± 1.1 (P < 0.001), respectively.
After 2 years of treatment, entecavir improves liver function and non-invasive fibrosis markers in patients with HBV- associated cirrhosis.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate whether the risk of cardiovascular events increases when antithrombotics are discontinued after ulcer bleeding.
Peptic ulcer bleeding associated with antithrombotics has increased due to the increase in the proportion of elderly population. Little is known about the long-term effects of discontinuing antithrombotics after peptic ulcer bleeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the risk of cardiovascular events increases when antithrombotics are discontinued after ulcer bleeding.
We reviewed the medical records of patients with ulcer bleeding who were taking antiplatelet agents or anticoagulants at the time of ulcer bleeding. Cox-regression model was used to adjust for potential confounders, and analyzed association between discontinuation of antithrombotic drugs after ulcer bleeding and thrombotic events such as ischemic heart disease or stroke.
Of the 544 patients with ulcer bleeding, 72 patients who were taking antithrombotics and followed up for >2 months were analyzed. Forty patients discontinued antithrombotics after ulcer bleeding (discontinuation group) and 32 patients continued antithrombotics with or without transient interruption (continuation group). Thrombotic events developed more often in discontinuation group than in the continuation group [7/32 (21.9%) vs. 1/40 (2.5%), P=0.019]. Hazard ratio for thrombotic event when antithrombotics were continuously discontinued was 10.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-89.7). There were no significant differences in recurrent bleeding events between the 2 groups.
Discontinuation of antithrombotics after peptic ulcer bleeding increases the risk of cardiovascular events. Therefore, caution should be taken when discontinuing antithrombotics after ulcer bleeding.
No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of clinical gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Caroli's disease is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder caused by malformation of the ductal plate during embryonic development. Although it is present at birth, Caroli's disease is typically not diagnosed until between the second and fourth decades of life, as it was in the present patient. Here we report a rare case of Caroli's disease limited to one liver segment, which was initially misdiagnosed as an intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct. The asymptomatic patient was treated with liver segmentectomy.
Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Clinical and molecular hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death, especially in Eastern areas. With advancements in diagnosis and treatment modalities for HCC, the survival and prognosis of HCC patients are improving. However, treatment patterns are not uniform between areas despite efforts to promote a common protocol. Although many hepatologists in Asian countries may adopt the principles of the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging system, they are also independently making an effort to expand the indications of each treatment and to combine therapies for better outcomes. Several expanded criteria for liver transplantation in HCC have been developed in Asian countries. Living donor liver transplantation is much more commonly performed in these countries than deceased donor liver transplantation, and it may be preceded by other treatments such as the down-staging of tumors. Local ablation therapies are often combined with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and the outcome is comparable to that of surgical resection. The indications of TACE are expanding, and there are new types of transarterial therapies. Although data on drug-eluting beads, TACE, and radioembolization in Asian countries are still relatively sparse compared with Western countries, these methods are gradually gaining popularity because of better tolerability and the possibility of improved response rates. Hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy and radiotherapy are not included in Western guidelines, but are currently being used actively in several Asian countries. For more advanced HCCs, appropriate combinations of TACE, radiotherapy, and sorafenib can be considered, and emerging data indicate improved outcomes of combination therapies compared with single therapies. To include these paradigm shifts into newer treatment guidelines, more studies may be needed, but they are certainly in progress.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This multicenter, randomized, open-labeled, clinical trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of cisplatin/5-fluorouracil (5-FU) hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (CF-HAIC) versus adriamycin adding to CF-HAIC (ACF-HAIC) in advanced HCC patients.
Fifty-six patients with advanced HCC were randomized to two treatment groups: (1) CF-HAIC group [n = 29, 5-FU, 500 mg/m(2) on days 1-3, and cisplatin, 60 mg/m(2) on day 2] and (2) ACF-HAIC group [n = 27, adriamycin, 50 mg/m(2) on day 1, 5-FU, 500 mg/m(2) on days 1-3, and cisplatin, 60 mg/m(2) on day 2] every 4 weeks via an implantable port system. Primary efficacy endpoint was overall survival (OS). Treatment response and time to progression were secondary endpoints.
Treatment response rates did not differ significantly between the two treatment groups. Time to progression (5.4 vs. 5.8 months, P = 0.863) and OS (11.1 vs. 8.8 months, P = 0.448) were not significantly different. When the factors affecting patient OS were analyzed, disease control rate [P < 0.001, HR 6.437 (95 % CI 2.580-16.064)] was independently associated with OS. Age (≥60 years) and serum AFP level (≥200 ng/dL) also were significant factors for OS [P = 0.007, HR 4.945 (95 % CI 1.543-15.850), P = 0.048, HR 2.677 (95 % CI 1.010-7.095), respectively]. Grade 4 treatment-related toxicity and mortality was not observed in both groups.
Although both HAIC regimens are safe and effective in patients with advanced HCC, HAIC adding adriamycin did not show delayed tumor progression and survival benefit compared to CF-HAIC in advanced HCC.
No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/aimsTransient elastography (TE) has become an alternative to liver biopsy (LB). This study investigated the diagnostic performance of liver stiffness (LS) measurement using TE in Korean patients with chronic hepatitis B and C (CHB and CHC).Methods
From April 2006 to June 2014, 916 patients (567 CHB and 349 CHC) who underwent LB and TE at 15 centers were analyzed. The Batts and Ludwig scoring system was used for histologic assessment. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)–to–platelet ratio indexes (APRI) were calculated. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was used.ResultsThe median age, LS value, and APRI score were 45 years, 8.8 kPa, and 0.61, respectively, in CHB patients versus 51 years, 6.8 kPa and 0.55, respectively in CHC patients. TE was significantly superior to APRI in CHB patients (AUROC 0.774 vs. 0.72 for ≥F2, 0.849 vs. 0.812 for ≥F3, and 0.902 vs. 0.707 for F4, respectively; all P<0.05). Furthermore, TE was significantly superior for predicting ≥ F3 stage (AUROC 0.865 vs. 0.840, P=0.009) whereas it was similar for predicting ≥ F2 and F4 stage (AUROC 0.822 vs. 0.796; 0.910 vs. 0.884; all P>0.05) in CHC patients. In CHB patients, optimal cutoff LS values were 7.8 kPa for ≥ F2, 8.2 kPa for ≥ F3, and 11.6 kPa for F4, versus 6.8 kPa, 8.6 kPa, and 14.5 kPa, respectively, in CHC patients.ConclusionsTE can accurately assess the degree of liver fibrosis in Korean patients with CVH. TE was superior to APRI for predicting each fibrosis stage.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
Interferon (IFN)-based therapy for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is cost-effective and is associated with reduced risk of disease progression. We aimed to assess the incidence of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to identify risk factors associated with disease progression.
We retrospectively reviewed 280 CHC patients who were registered at our hospital between 2001 and 2010.
About 80% of patients received antiviral treatment. The 10-year cumulative incidence of cirrhosis was significantly lower among patients who received antiviral therapy than among those who did not (8.3 vs. 44.0%; p = 0.001). Among them, patients with sustained virological response (SVR) had a significantly lower incidence of cirrhosis than those without SVR (0.6 vs. 33.9%; p < 0.001). Cox proportional hazards regression showed that SVR was the significant independent factor for reducing the risk of cirrhosis (hazard ratio, HR = 0.03; p = 0.034). The 10-year cumulative incidence of HCC was higher among patients who did not receive antiviral therapy than among those who did (43.9 vs. 6.1%; p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that underlying cirrhosis was the only independent risk factor associated with HCC development (HR = 7.70; p = 0.010).
SVR secondary to IFN-based therapy could reduce cirrhosis development in CHC patients. Underlying cirrhosis was the strongest predictor of HCC development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hemangioma of the esophagus is a rare form of benign esophageal tumor. It usually presents as a single lesion located in the lower third of the esophagus and is mostly asymptomatic. However, it may occasionally cause hematemesis and/or obstruction. Surgical resection is the conventional treatment modality for managing esophageal hemangioma, but less invasive approaches such as endoscopic therapy are recently becoming more widely employed. Herein, we report a case of a 54-year-old man who presented with an esophageal hemangioma that was successfully treated by endoscopic mucosal resection without any complications.
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prothrombin induced by vitamin K deficiency or antagonist II (PIVKA-II) is a widely used diagnostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We evaluated the correlation between alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and serum PIVKA-II levels in chronic liver disease (CLD) patients.
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 2,528 CLD patients without HCC. Among these patients, 76 exhibited serum high PIVKA-II levels of >125 mAU/mL (group 1). We categorized 76 control patients matched by age, sex, and the presence of liver cirrhosis from the remaining patients who were negative for serum PIVKA-II (group 2).
Group 1 revealed increased antibiotic usage (23.7% vs 2.6%, p<0.001) and incidence of ALD (60.5% vs 14.5%, p<0.001) as well as elevated aspartate aminotransferase (52.5 IU/L vs 30.5 IU/L, p=0.025) and γ glutamyl transpeptidase (67.5 IU/L vs 36.5 IU/L, p=0.005) levels compared with group 2. Further, group 1 was significantly associated with a worse Child-Pugh class than group 2. In the multivariate analysis, ALD (odds ratio [OR], 7.151; p<0.001) and antibiotic usage (OR, 5.846; p<0.001) were significantly associated with positive PIVKA-II levels.
Our study suggests that ALD and antibiotics usage may be confounding factors when interpreting high serum PIVKA-II levels in patients without HCC. Therefore, serum PIVKA-II levels in patients with ALD or in patients administered antibiotics should be interpreted with caution. (Gut Liver, Published online December 5, 2014).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background & Aims
Both corticosteroid and pentoxifylline reduce short-term mortality in severe alcoholic hepatitis. However, few studies have directly compared the efficacy of pentoxifylline and corticosteroid in patients with this condition.
In this multicentre, open-labelled, randomised non-inferiority trial, we assigned 121 patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis (Maddrey’s discriminant function ⩾32) to receive either pentoxifylline (400 mg, 3 times daily, in 62 subjects) or prednisolone (40 mg daily, in 59 subjects). The primary end point was non-inferiority in survival at the 1 month time point for the pentoxifylline treatment compared with prednisolone.
The 1-month survival rate of patients receiving pentoxifylline was 75.8% (15 deaths) compared with 88.1% (7 deaths) in those, taking prednisolone, for a treatment difference of 12.3% (95% confidence interval, −4.2% to 28.7%; p = 0.08). The 95% confidence interval for the observed difference exceeded the predefined margin of non-inferiority (Δ15%) and included zero. The 6-month survival rate was not significantly different between the pentoxifylline and prednisolone groups (64.5% vs. 72.9%; p = 0.23). At 7 days, the response to therapy assessed by the Lille model was significantly lower in the prednisolone group (n = 58) than in the pentoxifylline group (n = 59): 0.35 vs. 0.50 (p = 0.012). Hepatitis complications, including hepatorenal syndrome and side effects, such as infection and gastrointestinal bleeding, were similar in the two groups.
The findings demonstrate that the efficacy of the pentoxifylline is not statistically equivalent to the efficacy of prednisolone, supporting the use of prednisolone as a preferred treatment option in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Goals: The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors and clinical significance of terlipressin-induced hyponatremia. Background: Patients receiving terlipressin treatment frequently develop hyponatremia. However, its clinical significance and risk factors are not fully elucidated. Study: Records of patients treated with terlipressin for variceal bleeding were analyzed. Hyponatremia was defined as a decrease in serum sodium (Na) level of >5 mEq/L from the baseline level; severe hyponatremia as a decrease in serum Na level of >10 mEq/L from the baseline level; and rapid severe hyponatremia as a decrease in serum Na level of >10 mEq/L within 3 days of treatment. Results: The study involved 151 patients (mean age, 55.1+/-11.8 y) with male predominance (80.8%). Baseline serum Na and creatinine levels were 137.2+/-6.1 mEq/L and 0.9+/-0.4 mg/dL, respectively. Patients were treated with terlipressin for 4.5+/-1.9 days. Changes in serum Na levels from baseline were 0.4+/-4.1, -1.1+/-4.8, -4.0+/-7.0, -6.5+/-9.1, and -6.1+/-11.2 mEq/L, whereas the frequencies of hyponatremia and severe hyponatremia were 13.6%, 30.4%, 50.8%, 63.5%, and 66.9% and 0%, 8.8%, 23.3%, 33.0%, and 38.8% on days 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 of treatment, respectively. Younger age, lower Child-Pugh score, higher serum Na level, and longer duration of terlipressin treatment were independent risk factors. Rapid severe hyponatremia developed in 29 patients (19.2%); lower body mass index was an additional risk factor in this group. Mortality was not associated with hyponatremia. Conclusions: Terlipressin-induced hyponatremia occurred frequently, especially in young patients with good liver function and higher Na level. Caution is required when administering terlipressin to patients with low body mass index. Copyright
No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transcatheter arterial radioembolization (TARE) with Yttrium-90 ((90)Y)-labeled microspheres has an emerging role in treatment of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Although complication of TARE can be minimized by aggressive pre-evaluation angiography and preventive coiling of aberrant vessels, radioembolization-induced gastroduodenal ulcer can be irreversible and can be life-threatening. Treatment of radioembolization-induced gastric ulcer is challenging because there is a few reported cases and no consensus for management. We report a case of severe gastric ulceration with bleeding that eventually required surgery due to aberrant deposition of microspheres after TARE.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
Vasoactive drugs are recommended to be started as soon as possible in suspected variceal bleeding, even before diagnostic endoscopy. However, it is still unclear whether the therapeutic efficacies of the various vasoactive drugs used are comparable. The aim of this prospective, multicenter, randomized, noninferiority trial was to characterize the effects of terlipressin, somatostatin, and octreotide when they are initiated before endoscopic treatment in patients with acute variceal bleeding. Patients with liver cirrhosis and significant upper gastrointestinal bleeding were randomly assigned to receive early administration of terlipressin, somatostatin, or octreotide, followed by endoscopic treatment. Patients with nonvariceal bleeding were excluded after endoscopy. The primary endpoint was 5-day treatment success, defined as control of bleeding without rescue treatment, rebleeding, or mortality, with a noninferiority margin of 0.1. In total, 780 patients with variceal bleeding were enrolled: 261 in the terlipressin group; 259 in the somatostatin group; and 260 in the octreotide group. At the time of initial endoscopy, active bleeding was noted in 43.7%, 44.4%, and 43.5% of these patients, respectively (P=0.748), and treatment success was achieved by day 5 in 86.2%, 83.4%, and 83.8% (P=0.636), with similar rates of control of bleeding without rescue treatment (89.7%, 87.6%, and 88.1%; P=0.752), rebleeding (3.4%, 4.8%, and 4.4%; P=0.739), or mortality (8.0%, 8.9%, and 8.8%; P=0.929). The absolute values of the lower bound of confidence intervals for terlipressin versus somatostatin, terlilpressin versus octreotide, and octreotide versus somatostatin were 0.095, 0.090, and 0.065, respectively.
Hemostatic effects and safety did not differ significantly between terlipressin, somatostatin, and octreotide as adjuvants to endoscopic treatment in patients with acute gastroesophageal variceal bleeding.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) and sorafenib in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT).
A total of 110 patients were observed between February 2008 and May 2013 in seven Korean centers. Fifty patients were treated with HAIC, and 60 patients were treated with sorafenib.
The disease control rate in the HAIC was significantly higher than that in the sorafenib group (p < 0.001), although there was no significant difference in the objective response rate (p = 0.214). The median overall survival (OS) was significantly longer in the HAIC group than in the sorafenib group (7.1 vs. 5.5 months, p = 0.011). The median time to-progression (TTP) was also significantly longer in the HAIC group than in the sorafenib group (3.3 vs. 2.1 months, p = 0.034). In the multivariate analysis, tumor diameter (≥ 10 cm) and the absence of combined loco-regional treatment were significant prognostic factors influencing OS (p = 0.002 and p = 0.010, respectively) and TTP (p = 0.017 and p = 0.006, respectively). The treatment modality tended to be a significant prognostic factor for survival (p = 0.052), but not for tumor progression (p = 0.121).
HAIC is comparable with sorafenib in terms of OS and TTP in advanced HCC patients with PVTT. HAIC shows more favorable treatment responses compared with sorafenib. Therefore, HAIC might be an alternative treatment modality to sorafenib in advanced HCC patients with PVTT.
No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
This study was designed to prospectively evaluate the antiviral responses and evolution of resistance mutations during adefovir (ADV) plus lamivudine (LMV) therapy in patients with entecavir (ETV)-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.
Twenty chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients who had been receiving ETV for more than 6 months and developed virologic breakthrough due to ETV resistance were consecutively enrolled.
Patients received ADV plus LMV therapy for 12 months. The baseline mean serum HBV DNA level was 5.59 ± 1.28 log10 IU/ml. The rtT184L/I/A/F (50%), rtS202G (25%) and mixed ETV-resistant mutations (25%) were detected at enrollment. The mean reduction in serum HBV DNA levels from baseline to 12 months was -2.3 ± 1.06 log10 IU/ml (p < 0.001). Seventeen patients were followed up for the full 12 months, and complete virologic response (HBV DNA <20 IU/ml) was observed in 4 patients (23.5%). Among the remaining 13 patients who still had detectable HBV DNA, 7 patients showed disappearance of ETV-resistant mutations or reduction of the proportion of ETV-resistant mutants. An ADV- and LMV-resistant mutant (rtA181T) emerged in 2 patients (11.7%).
ADV plus LMV combination therapy suppresses ETV-resistant mutants in the viral population and significantly reduces serum HBV DNA levels in ETV-resistant CHB patients.