[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The constant presence of the viral genome in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated gastric cancers (EBVaGCs) suggests the applicability of novel EBV-targeted therapies. The antiviral nucleoside drug, ganciclovir (GCV), is effective only in the context of the viral lytic cycle in the presence of EBV-encoded thymidine kinase (TK)/protein kinase (PK) expression. In this study, screening of the Johns Hopkins Drug Library identified gemcitabine as a candidate for combination treatment with GCV. Pharmacological induction of EBV-TK or PK in EBVaGC-originated tumor cells were used to study combination treatment with GCV in vitro and in vivo. Gemcitabine was found to be a lytic inducer via activation of the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)/p53 genotoxic stress pathway in EBVaGC. Using an EBVaGC mouse model and a [125I] fialuridine (FIAU)-based lytic activation imaging system, we evaluated gemcitabine-induced lytic activation in an in vivo system and confirmed the efficacy of gemcitabine-GCV combination treatment. This viral enzyme-targeted anti-tumor strategy may provide a new therapeutic approach for EBVaGCs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
The optimal management of locally advanced and metastatic pulmonary carcinoid tumors remains to be determined.
Materials and methods
A retrospective review was conducted on patients with typical and atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumors treated at our institutions between 1990-2012.
300 patients were identified with pulmonary carcinoid, (80 patients with atypical carcinoid), of whom 29 presented with metastatic disease (16 atypical). Of evaluable patients, 26 (41%) with stage I-III atypical carcinoid tumors recurred at a median time of 3.7 years (range, 0.4-32), compared to 3 (1%) patients with typical carcinoid (range, 8-12.3). 39 patients were treated with chemotherapy, including 30 patients with metastatic disease (27 atypical), and 7 patients were treated with adjuvant platinum-etoposide chemoradiation (6 atypical, 1 typical, 6 stage IIIA, 1 stage IIB). At a median follow-up of 2 years there were 2 recurrences in the 7 patients receiving adjuvant treatment. Median survival after diagnosis of metastatic disease for patients with atypical pulmonary carcinoid was 3.3 years with a 5 year survival of 24%. Treatment regimens showing efficacy in pulmonary carcinoid include 15 patients treated with octreotide-based therapies (10% response rate (RR), 70% disease control rate (DCR), 15 month median progression-free survival (PFS)), 13 patients treated with etoposide + platinum (23% RR, 69% DCR, 7 m median PFS), and 14 patients treated with temozolomide-based therapies (14% RR, 57% DCR, 10 m median PFS). 8 of 10 patients with octreotide-avid disease treated with an octreotide-based regimen experienced disease control (1 partial response, 7 stable disease) for a median of 18 months (range 6-72 months).
These results support our previous finding that a subset of pulmonary carcinoid tumors are responsive to chemotherapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: All patients with metastatic lung, colorectal, pancreatic or head and neck cancers who initially benefit from epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted therapies eventually develop resistance. An increasing understanding of the number and complexity of resistance mechanisms highlights the Herculean challenge of killing tumors that are resistant to EGFR inhibitors. Our growing knowledge of resistance pathways provides an opportunity to develop new mechanism-based inhibitors and combination therapies to prevent or overcome therapeutic resistance in tumors. We present a comprehensive review of resistance pathways to EGFR-targeted therapies in lung, colorectal and head and neck cancers and discuss therapeutic strategies that are designed to circumvent resistance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two substituted oxines, nitroxoline (5) and 5-chloroquinolin-8-yl phenylcarbamate (22), were identified as hits in a high-throughput screen aimed at finding new anti-angiogenic agents. In a previous study, we have elucidated the molecular mechanism of antiproliferative activity of nitroxoline in endothelial cells, which comprises of a dual inhibition of type 2 human methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP2) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1). Structure-activity relationship study (SAR) of nitroxoline offered many surprises where minor modifications yielded oxine derivatives with increased potency against human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), but with entirely different as yet unknown mechanisms. For example, 5-nitrosoquinolin-8-ol (33) inhibited HUVEC growth with sub-micromolar IC(50), but did not affect MetAP2 or MetAP1, and it only showed weak inhibition against SIRT1. Other sub-micromolar inhibitors were derivatives of 5-aminoquinolin-8-ol (34) and 8-sulfonamidoquinoline (32). A sulfamate derivative of nitroxoline (48) was found to be more potent than nitroxoline with the retention of activities against MetAP2 and SIRT1. The bioactivity of the second hit, micromolar HUVEC and MetAP2 inhibitor carbamate 22 was improved further with an SAR study culminating in carbamate 24 which is a nanomolar inhibitor of HUVEC and MetAP2.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis claims about five thousand lives daily world-wide, while one-third of the world is infected with dormant tuberculosis. The increased emergence of multi- and extensively drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis (Mtb) has heightened the need for novel antimycobacterial agents. Here, we report the discovery of 7-bromo-5-chloroquinolin-8-ol (CLBQ14)-a congener of clioquinol (CQ) as a potent and selective inhibitor of two methionine aminopeptidases (MetAP) from M. tuberculosis: MtMetAP1a and MtMetAP1c. MetAP is a metalloprotease that removes the N-terminal methionine during protein synthesis. N-terminal methionine excision (NME) is a universally conserved process required for the post-translational modification of a significant part of the proteome. The essential role of MetAP in microbes makes it a promising target for the development of new therapeutics. Using a target-based approach in a high-throughput screen, we identified CLBQ14 as a novel MtMetAP inhibitor with higher specificity for both MtMetAP1s relative to their human counterparts. We also found that CLBQ14 is potent against replicating and aged non-growing Mtb at low micro molar concentrations. Furthermore, we observed that the antimycobacterial activity of this pharmacophore correlates well with in vitro enzymatic inhibitory activity. Together, these results revealed a new mode of action of clioquinol and its congeners and validated the therapeutic potential of this pharmacophore for TB chemotherapy.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Tuberculosis (Edinburgh, Scotland)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Identification of novel indications for commonly prescribed drugs could accelerate translation of therapies. We investigated whether any clinically-used drugs might have utility for treating prostate cancer by coupling an efficient, high-throughput laboratory-based screen and a large, prospective cohort study. In stage 1, we conducted an in vitro prostate cancer cell cytotoxicity screen of 3,187 compounds. Digoxin emerged as the leading candidate given its potency in inhibiting proliferation in vitro (mean IC₅₀=163 nM) and common use. In stage 2, we evaluated the association between the leading candidate drug from stage 1 and prostate cancer risk in 47,884 men followed 1986-2006. Regular digoxin users (versus nonusers: RR=0.76, 95% CI 0.61-0.95), especially users for ≥ 10 years (RR=0.54, 95% CI 0.37-0.79, P-trend<0.001), had a lower prostate cancer risk. Digoxin was highly potent in inhibiting prostate cancer cell growth in vitro and its use was associated with a 25% lower prostate cancer risk. SIGNIFICANCE: Our two-stage transdisciplinary approach for drug repositioning provides compelling justification for further mechanistic and possibly clinical testing of the leading nonchemotherapy candidate, digoxin, a cardiac glycoside, as a drug for prostate cancer treatment. Perhaps of equal importance, our study illustrates the power of the transdisciplinary approach in translational cancer research. By coupling laboratory and epidemiologic methods and thinking, we reduced the probability of identifying false-positive candidate drugs for the next steps in testing.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis plays an important role in tumor growth and metastasis; therefore, inhibition of angiogenesis is a promising strategy for developing new anticancer drugs. Type 2 methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP2) protein is likely a molecular target of angiogenesis inhibitors.
Nitroxoline, an antibiotic used to treat urinary tract infections, was identified from a high-throughput screen of a library of 175,000 compounds for MetAP2 inhibitors and from a parallel screen using the Johns Hopkins Drug Library to identify currently used clinical drugs that can also inhibit human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) proliferation. To investigate the mechanism of action of nitroxoline, inhibition of MetAP2 activity and induction of senescence were assessed in HUVEC. To test the antiangiogenic activity of nitroxoline, endothelial tube formation in Matrigel and microvessel formation in Matrigel plugs in vivo were assessed. Antitumor efficacy of nitroxoline was evaluated in mouse models of human breast cancer xenograft (n = 10) and bladder cancer orthotopic xenograft (n = 11). Furthermore, the mechanism of action of nitroxoline was investigated in vivo.
Nitroxoline inhibited MetAP2 activity in vitro (half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC(50)] = 54.8 nM, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 22.6 to 132.8 nM) and HUVEC proliferation (IC(50) = 1.9 μM, 95% CI = 1.54 to 2.39 μM). Nitroxoline inhibited MetAP2 activity in HUVEC in a dose-dependent manner and induced premature senescence in a biphasic manner. Nitroxoline inhibited endothelial tube formation in Matrigel and reduced microvessel density in vivo. Mice (five per group) treated with nitroxoline showed a 60% reduction in tumor volume in breast cancer xenografts (tumor volume on day 30, vehicle vs nitroxoline, mean = 215.4 vs 86.5 mm(3), difference = 128.9 mm(3), 95% CI = 32.9 to 225.0 mm(3), P = .012) and statistically significantly inhibited growth of bladder cancer in an orthotopic mouse model (tumor bioluminescence intensities of vehicle [n = 5] vs nitroxoline [n = 6], P = .045).
Nitroxoline shows promise as a potential therapeutic antiangiogenic agent.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Journal of the National Cancer Institute
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Described herein are methods of inhibiting methionine aminopeptidase or SIRT1, inhibiting angiogenesis, and treating disorders (or symptoms thereof), associated with methionine aminopeptidase, SIRT1 and/or angiogenesis wherein a compound of the invention is administered to a subject.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a screen of drugs previously tested in humans we identified itraconazole, a systemic antifungal, as a potent antagonist of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway that acts by a mechanism distinct from its inhibitory effect on fungal sterol biosynthesis. Systemically administered itraconazole, like other Hh pathway antagonists, can suppress Hh pathway activity and the growth of medulloblastoma in a mouse allograft model and does so at serum levels comparable to those in patients undergoing antifungal therapy. Mechanistically, itraconazole appears to act on the essential Hh pathway component Smoothened (SMO) by a mechanism distinct from that of cyclopamine and other known SMO antagonists, and prevents the ciliary accumulation of SMO normally caused by Hh stimulation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Described herein are methods of inhibiting angiogenesis, and treating or preventing a disease or disorder (or symptoms thereof) associated with angiogenesis, wherein anti-angiogenesis compound is administered to a subject.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: No effective approved drug therapy exists for Cryptosporidium infection of immunocompromised patients. Here we investigated the nonabsorbed anthelmintic drug pyrvinium pamoate for inhibition of the growth of the intestinal protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum. The concentration of pyrvinium that effected 50% growth inhibition in human enterocytic HCT-8 cells by a quantitative alkaline phosphatase immunoassay was 354 nM. For comparison, in the same assay, 50% growth inhibition was obtained with 711 microM paromomycin or 27 microM chloroquine. We used a neonatal mouse model to measure the anti-Cryptosporidium activity of pyrvinium pamoate in vivo. Beginning 3 days after infection, pyrvinium at 5 or 12.5 mg/kg of body weight/day was administered to the treatment group mice for 4 or 6 consecutive days. Nine days after infection, the mice were sacrificed, and drug efficacy was determined by comparing the numbers of oocysts in the fecal smears of treated versus untreated mice. The intensities of trophozoite infection in the ileocecal intestinal regions were also compared using hematoxylin-and-eosin-stained histological slides. We observed a >90% reduction in infection intensity in pyrvinium-treated mice relative to that in untreated controls, along with a substantial reduction in tissue pathology. Based on these results, pyrvinium pamoate is a potential drug candidate for the treatment of cryptosporidiosis in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2008 · Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Kv1.3 potassium channel plays an essential role in effector memory T cells and has been implicated in several important autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis, psoriasis and type 1 diabetes. A number of potent small molecule inhibitors of Kv1.3 channel have been reported, some of which were found to be effective in various animal models of autoimmune diseases. We report herein the identification of clofazimine, a known anti-mycobacterial drug, as a novel inhibitor of human Kv1.3. Clofazimine was initially identified as an inhibitor of intracellular T cell receptor-mediated signaling leading to the transcriptional activation of human interleukin-2 gene in T cells from a screen of the Johns Hopkins Drug Library. A systematic mechanistic deconvolution revealed that clofazimine selectively blocked the Kv1.3 channel activity, perturbing the oscillation frequency of the calcium-release activated calcium channel, which in turn led to the inhibition of the calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway. These effects of clofazimine provide the first line of experimental evidence in support of a causal relationship between Kv1.3 and calcium oscillation in human T cells. Furthermore, clofazimine was found to be effective in blocking human T cell-mediated skin graft rejection in an animal model in vivo. Together, these results suggest that clofazimine is a promising immunomodulatory drug candidate for treating a variety of autoimmune disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diethyldithiocarbamate (DETC) and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) were highly active against tubercle bacilli, with MICs
of 8 μg/ml and 0.13 μg/ml, respectively. DETC and PDTC were active against old cultures, enhanced pyrazinamide or pyrazinamide/rifampin
activity, and had serum inhibitory titers of 1:2 and 1:4, respectively, in mice given 100 mg/kg orally.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2008 · Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antiarthritis drug D-penicillamine (D-PEN) catalyzes zinc(II) transfer from carboxypeptidase A to chelators such as thionein and EDTA at a rate constant up to 400-fold faster than the uncatalyzed release. Once D-PEN releases zinc(II) from enzyme stronger chelators can tightly bind zinc(II) leading to complete and essentially irreversible inhibition. D-PEN is the first drug to inhibit a zinc protease by catalyzing metal removal, and the name "catalytic chelation" is proposed for this mechanism.
No preview · Article · Dec 2007 · Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It takes too long and costs too much to bring new drugs to market. So
let's beef up efforts to screen existing drugs for new uses, argue
Curtis R. Chong and David J. Sullivan Jr.