Yuling Mi

Zhejiang University, Hang-hsien, Zhejiang Sheng, China

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Publications (29)60.84 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental endocrine disruptor that has toxic effects on the female reproductive system. Here we explore the ameliorative effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on Cd-induced meiosis inhibition during oogenesis. As compared with controls, chicken embryos exposed to Cd (3 µg/egg) displayed a changed oocyte morphology, decreased number of meiotic germ cells and decreased expression of the meiotic marker protein γH2AX. Real time RT-PCR also revealed a significant down-regulation in the mRNA expressions of various meiosis-specific markers (Stra8, Spo11, Scp3 and Dmc1) together with those of Raldh2, a retinoic acid (RA) synthetase, and of the receptors (RARα and RARβ). In addition, exposure to Cd increased the production of H2 O2 and malondialdehyde in the ovaries and caused a corresponding reduction in glutathione and superoxide dismutase. Simultaneous supplementation of GSPE (150 µg/egg) markedly alleviated the aforementioned Cd-induced embryotoxic effects by upregulating meiosis-related proteins and gene expressions and restoring the antioxidative level. Collectively, our findings provide novel insights into the underlying mechanism of Cd-induced meiosis inhibition and indicate that GSPE might potentially ameliorate related reproductive disorders. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · The Anatomical Record Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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    ABSTRACT: The formation of primordial follicles is a crucial process in the establishment of follicle pools required for the female's reproductive life span. For laying hens, ample follicles are a prerequisite for high laying performance. Notch signaling plays critical roles in germ cell cysts breakdown and in the formation of primordial follicles. Here, we investigated the role of Notch signaling in the ovarian development of post-hatch chicks. Results showed that around post-hatch day 4 (H4), the germ cell cysts broke apart, oocytes became surrounded by squamous pregranulosa cells and the primordial follicles were then formed. Subsequently, we detected the expression of Notch signaling-related genes including Notch receptors (Notch1, 2), ligands (Jag1, 2 and Dll1, 4) and target genes (Hes1, Hey1). These genes all showed expression at H4 and some of these genes were up-regulated during primordial follicle formation. To evaluate the Notch signaling requirement for early follicular development, we adopted an in vitro ovary culture system. Suppression of Notch signaling by γ-secretase inhibitor induced a decrease of primordial follicles and an increase of germ cells in cysts. Attenuating Notch signaling also inhibited the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase /protein kinase B pathways and suppressed cadherin expression. These results suggest that Notch signaling is endowed with an indispensable role in primordial follicle formation in post-hatch chicks. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Cell Biology International
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    ABSTRACT: The establishment of a primordial follicle culture system is important for the study of follicular development. Hence, the objective of this study was to isolate chicken primordial follicles and establish culture methods. Ovaries from 2-wk-old chickens were treated with trypsin-EDTA, collagenase II, or collagenase type IA, along with a mechanical isolation technique. Isolated follicles were cultured under different conditions. Results showed a significant difference in the follicular recovery and survival rates among different enzymes and methods used. The maximal follicular yield was obtained by trypsin+EDTA and collagenase II digestion, followed by collagenase type IA digestion. However, the highest follicular viability rate was observed in groups of collagenase type IA digestion and the mechanical isolation method. Enzymatic treatment resulted in higher misshapen oocytes or follicles, though the diameters of the follicles were not significantly changed. In addition, our follicle culture results for different conditions showed maximal survival rates of primordial follicles in alginate hydrogel beads after 12 d of culture. Thus, we successfully established methods for isolating and culturing chicken primordial follicles. The present method will greatly facilitate investigation of the regulation of follicular development. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Poultry Science
  • I.H. Leghari · J. Li · W. Zeng · Y. Mi · C. Zhang
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    ABSTRACT: For comparison of the reproductive organs and the egg quality in hens, a case study was undertaken on traditional Chinese Zhenning and commercial Hyline hen. A total of 15 hens from each breed were selected to study lipogenesis, serum lipids, and organ body weight ratios of liver, ovary and oviduct to compare their lipid synthesis and transportation mechanism. Moreover we also examined the histomorphological comparison of the egg forming organs and egg quality parameters between two breeds. Results showed significantly higher values of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma (PPAR γ), estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ER β) mRNA expressions in the liver of Zhenning than Hyline hen. Same difference was also observed in the vitellogenin (Vtg) protein levels. Triglyceride levels were higher in the Hyline hens. Besides this, liver, ovary and oviduct body weight ratio were significantly higher in Hyline hen than Zhenning hen. Moreover, Hyline hen had significantly higher oviduct weights. Ovary weight and hierarchy was also bigger in the Hyline hen. Finally, egg quality parameter comparison showed significantly lower values in the Zhenning eggs than the White Hyline eggs. These findings suggest that Hyline and Zhenning hen differ significantly due to selection in terms of lipogenesis, increase in body weight ratio of liver, ovary and oviduct morphology, while Hyline hens have also superior egg quality than Zhenning hen eggs.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Pakistan Veterinary Journal
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    H. Wang · C. Zhang · Y. Mi · M. T. Kidd
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    ABSTRACT: Nutritional modulation of live performance and meat yield must be continuously tested as broiler strains become more efficient every year. This study evaluates both copper- and lysine-derived amino acid balance. In experiment 1, amino acid balance (high, moderate, and low) and copper (5 and 200 ppm) were investigated in a factorial array of treatments (6 treatments with 8 replications; 1,536 Cobb 500 male broilers across 48 floor pens from 1–40 d of age; 32 birds per pen). In experiment 2, amino acid density (high and low) was assessed in 2 broiler strains (a multipurpose and a high-yield strain) obtained from the field in a factorial array of treatments (4 treatments with 21 replications; 1,344 multipurpose and 1,344 high-yield broilers across 84 floor pens from 1–42 d of age; 32 birds per pen). Amino acid density treatments were created by altering digestible lysine and other essentials amino acids at a fixed ratio. Copper and amino acid density did not interact, but supplementing broilers with 200 ppm of copper in the form of tribasic copper chloride improved growth rate. Lysine-derived amino acid density improved performance and yields, but should be assessed as strains are improved for efficiency to ensure digestible lysine adequacy in the nutrient formulation matrix. Although both copper and lysine influence growth rate, interactive effects were not assessed in this study.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2014 · The Journal of Applied Poultry Research
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    ABSTRACT: Steroid hormones and their receptors play pivotal roles throughout vertebrate reproduction and development. Egg formation in avian species is a prime example. The synthesis of egg yolk proteins by the liver is highly estrogen dependent. Two major components of the yolk protein precursors, vitellogenin II (VTG II) and very low-density apolipoprotein II (ApoVLDL II) are synthesized in the liver of hens under estrogen stimulation and are subsequently transferred via the blood to the developing oocytes. Estrogen-inducible transcription can be mediated through estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) or through G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) but the exact participation of the individual receptor is not clear. Here we determine the relative contribution of each transduction pathway in VTG II and ApoVLDL II synthesis in the hepatocytes by using selective compounds that are known to specifically interact with each of the ERs and GPR30. 17β-estradiol and propyl-pyrazole-triol (PPT, ERα agonist) induced a dose-dependent increase in VTG II and ApoVLDL II mRNA expression. A high concentration of diarylpropionitrile (DPN, which preferentially motivates ERβ) slightly stimulated the expression of VTG II and ApoVLDL II mRNA. However, G-1 (a GPR30 agonist) failed to display any stimulating role. MPP (a highly selective ERα antagonist) fully blocked the expression of both yolk precursors which were up-regulated by 17β-estradiol, PPT and DPN. Considering that DPN can also provoke the action of ERα at high concentration, this excludes the participation of ERβ and supports the role of ERα. The above results indicate that estrogen stimulates the mRNA expression of VTG II and ApoVLDL II predominantly through ERα in the chicken liver.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Theriogenology
  • Yuling Mi · Bin He · Jian Li · Caiqiao Zhang
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    ABSTRACT: The signaling molecule retinoic acid (RA) is known to triggers germ cells to enter meiosis. However, RA may not be the only secreted inducer of meiosis. Our previous data indicates that luteinizing hormone also promotes germ cell meiotic initiation by upregulating 3βHSDII transcription. Here, using chicken embryos, we investigate the role of progesterone (P4) in regulating germ cell meiotic initiation. P4 treatment at embryonic day 9.5 accelerated germ cell meiosis entry in the female chicken embryos. However, P4 treatment in vivo did no influence on testicular germ cells but triggered their meiotic initiation in the cultured testes. As treatment with a RA receptor (RAR) inhibitor did not block the stimulatory effect of P4 on germ cell meiotic initiation, this P4 stimulatory effect seems to be independent of RAR-mediated signaling. The abundance of RA metabolism-related enzymes and RA receptor (RARβ) mRNAs did not differ significantly between P4-treated and control individuals. The RA concentration in the ovaries remained unchanged by P4 treatment in vivo. Since no inhibition by the PR nuclear receptor antagonist mifepristone on P4 effect was observed in either in vitro or in vivo experiments, the effect of P4 on germ cell meiotic initiation is probably mediated by membrane progesterone receptors (mPR). The mPRα, mPRβ and mPRγ mRNAs were all expressed in the embryonic ovaries. The expression of mPRα and mPRβ were higher than that of mPRγ. Immunohistochemical results showed that mPRα-positive cells were mainly scattered in the ovarian cortex area where most germ cells were distributed. The mPRβ-positive cells were widely distributed in the ovaries and positive cells were clustered with a similar morphology to that of germ cell clusters. In conclusion, P4 may regulate embryonic germ cell meiotic initiation independent of RA signaling through the membrane PRs. This study provides a new insight into the mechanisms of germ cell meiotic initiation in the chicken.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Theriogenology
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    ABSTRACT: The beneficial effects of quercetin on reproductive damage elicited by 4-nitrophenol (PNP) were studied in adult male mice. A six-week treatment of weekly intraperitoneal injections of PNP (50 mg/kg) resulted in severe damage to the seminiferous tubules, a remarkable increase in both hydroxyl radical and malondiadehyde production, and notably decreased glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. Moreover, PNP treatment induced germ cell apoptosis, inhibited Bcl-xl expression, and then activated Bax expression and the caspase-3 enzyme. Exposure to PNP also increased XBP-1 and HO-1 mRNAs levels. However, simultaneous supplementation with quercetin (75 mg/kg) attenuated the toxicity induced by PNP through renewal of the antioxidant enzyme's status, alleviating apoptosis by regulating the expressions of Bax and Bcl-xl, XBP-1 and HO-1mRNAs, and the regulation of caspase-3 activity. Taken together, these findings indicated that the antioxidant quercetin displays a potential preventive effect on PNP-induced oxidative damage in mouse testes and may represent an efficient supplement to attenuate reproductive toxicity from environmental toxicants in order to ensure reproductive health and sperm production. Anat Rec, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · The Anatomical Record Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
  • Yudong Jia · Jinxing Lin · Yuling Mi · Caiqiao Zhang
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    ABSTRACT: The interactive effect of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on the proliferation of theca externa cells (TECs) was investigated in the prehierarchical small yellow follicles of laying hens. IGF-I manifested a proliferating effect like PGE2 on TECs, but this stimulating effect was restrained by AG1024 (IGF-IR inhibitor), KP372-1 (PKB/AKT inhibitor) or NS398 (COX-2 inhibitor). AG1024, KP372-1 or NS398 abolished IGF-I-stimulated COX-2 expression and PGE2 production. Meanwhile, KP372-1, NS398 or AG1024 depressed the PGE2-stimulated expression of COX-2 and IGF-IR mRNA. Therefore, the IGF-I receptor pathway up-regulates COX-2 expression and PGE2 synthesis via PKB signaling cascade, and then PGE2 stimulates IGF-IR mRNA expression to promote TEC proliferation in an autocrine pattern. Overall, the reciprocal stimulation of intracellular PGE2 and IGF-I may enhance TEC proliferation and facilitate the development of chicken prehierarchical follicles.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Prostaglandins & other lipid mediators
  • Bin He · Yuling Mi · Caiqiao Zhang
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    ABSTRACT: Gonadotropins are required for gametogenesis but in embryonic gonads this mechanism is not well understood. Here we use chicken embryos to investigate the mechanism that gonadotropins regulate the ovarian germ cell mitosis/meiosis decision. Treatment with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) delayed germ cell meiosis entry and promoted their proliferation. This action was blocked by an aromatase inhibitor. Treatment with luteinizing hormone (LH) accelerated germ cell meiosis entry and promoted transcription of 3βHSDII to increase progesterone (P4) production. In the cultured ovaries, P4 triggered meiotic initiation in germ cells. MiR181a*, which acts to downregulate the NR6A1 transcript to trigger the meiotic initiation, was upregulated by FSH and downregulated by LH. Collectively, gonadotropins regulate germ cells mitosis and meiotic initiation through steroid hormones and a miR181a*-mediated pathway. In particularly, FSH delays germ cell meiosis entry and promotes cell proliferation via estrogen while LH accelerates the meiotic initiation via elevated P4 production.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
  • Jie Li · Jun Li · Sha Li · Bin He · Yuling Mi · Hongcui Cao · Caiqiao Zhang · Lanjuan Li
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to examine the effect of the grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on developing hepatic fibrosis that was induced by thioacetamide (TAA) in mice. Administration of TAA for 9 weeks led to a serious necrosis and apoptosis of the parenchymal cells, which resulted in an accumulation of excessive collagen in the liver and an increase of transformed hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). In addition, the mRNA expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), as the marker of the activated HSCs, and α1-(I)-collagen were all up-regulated significantly when compared with the control. However, combined oral administration of GSPE at 100mg/kg suppressed the mRNA expression of TGF-β1 and α-SMA, with decreased collagen accumulation as demonstrated by histomorphological evaluation and quantitative RT-PCR. The mRNA expression of the pro-inflammatory factors, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), was remarkably enhanced by TAA treatment. However, their levels displayed a down-regulated trend beyond simultaneous GSPE treatment. Moreover, GSPE administration markedly suppressed lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, as a plant antioxidant, GSPE manifested effective hepatocellular protective action to ameliorate the developing liver fibrosis induced by chronic TAA administration in mice.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Toxicology Letters
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    ABSTRACT: Meiosis is a process unique to the differentiation of germ cells and exhibits sex-specific in timing. Previous studies showed that retinoic acid (RA) as the vitamin A metabolite is crucial for controlling Stra8 (Stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8) expression in the gonad and to initiate meiosis; however, the mechanism by which retinoid-signaling acts has remained unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of the enzyme retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (RALDH2) which catalyzes RA synthesizes by initiating meiosis in chicken ovarian germ cells. Meiotic germ cells were first detected at day 15.5 in chicken embryo ovary when the expression of synaptonemal complex protein 3 (Scp3) and disrupted meiotic cDNA 1 homologue (Dmc1) became elevated, while Stra8 expression was specifically up-regulated at day 12.5 before meiosis onset. It was observed from the increase in Raldh2 mRNA expression levels and decreases in Cyp26b1 (the enzyme for RA catabolism) expression levels during meiosis that requirement for RA accumulation is essential to sustain meiosis. This was also revealed by RA stimulation of the cultured ovaries with the initiation of meiosis response, and the knocking down of the Raldh2 expression during meiosis, leading to abolishment of RA-dependent action. Altogether, these studies indicate that RA synthesis by the enzyme RALDH2 and signaling through its receptor is crucial for meiosis initiation in chicken embryonic ovary.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Amino Acids
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    ABSTRACT: As embryonic progenitors for the gametes, PGCs (primordial germ cells) proliferate and develop under strict regulation of numerous intrinsic and external factors. As the most active natural metabolite of vitamin A, all-trans RA (retinoic acid) plays pivotal roles in regulating development of various cells. The proliferating action of RA on PGCs was investigated along with the intracellular PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt (protein kinase B; also known as Akt)-mediated NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) signalling cascade. The results show that RA significantly promoted PGC proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner, confirmed by BrdU (bromodeoxyuridine) incorporation and cell cycle analysis. However, this promoting effect was attenuated by sequential inhibitors of LY294002 for PI3K, KP372-1 for Akt and SN50 for NF-κB respectively. Western blot analysis showed increased Akt phosphorylation (Ser473) of PGCs after stimulation with RA, but this was abolished by LY294002 or KP372-1. Treatment with RA increased expression of NF-κB and decreased IκBα (inhibitory κBα) expression, which were inhibited by SN50. Blockade of PI3K or Akt activity inhibited NF-κB translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Finally, mRNA expression of cell cycle regulating genes [cyclin D1 and E, CDK6 (cyclin-dependent kinase 6) and CDK2] was up-regulated in the RA-treated cells. This stimulation was also markedly retarded by combined treatment with LY294002, KP372-1 and SN50. These results suggest that RA activates the PI3K/Akt and NF-κB signalling cascade to promote proliferation of the cultured chicken PGCs.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Cell Biology International
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    ABSTRACT: Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF or FGF2) plays diverse roles in regulating cell proliferation, migration and differentiation during embryo development. In this study, the effect of bFGF on ovarian germ cell development was investigated in the embryonic chicken by in vitro and in vivo experiments. Results showed that a remarkable decrease in bFGF expression in the ovarian cortex was manifested during meiosis progression. With ovary organ culture, we revealed that meiosis was initiated after retinoic acid (RA) treatment alone but was decreased after combined bFGF treatment that was detected by real time RT-PCR, fluorescence immunohistochemistry and Giemsa staining. Further, no significant difference in mRNA expression of either RA metabolism-related enzymes (Raldh2 and Cyp26b1) or RA receptors was displayed after bFGF challenge. This result suggests that the suppression of bFGF on meiosis was unlikely through inhibition of RA signaling. In addition, as a mitogen, bFGF administration increased germ cell proliferation (via BrdU incorporation) in cultured organ or cells in vitro and also in developing embryos in vivo. In contrast, blockade of bFGF action by SU5402 (an FGFR1 antagonist) or inhibition of protein kinase C signaling showed inhibited effect of bFGF on mitosis. In conclusion, bFGF suppresses RA-induced entry of germ cells into meiosis to ensure embryonic ovarian germ cells to maintain at undifferentiated status and accelerate germ cell proliferation by binding with FGFR1 involving PKC activation in the chicken.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · General and Comparative Endocrinology
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    J Lin · Y Jia · W Zeng · Y Mi · C Zhang
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    ABSTRACT: The proliferating effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on granulosa cells from ovarian pre-hierarchical follicles was evaluated in the laying chickens. Expression of bFGF receptor 1 (FGFR1) from small yellow follicles was determined by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. The FGFR1 protein and mRNA were intensively expressed in the granulosa layer. After 8- to 24-h treatment with bFGF (0.1-100 ng/ml), the proliferation of cultured granulosa cells was remarkably enhanced in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The FGFR1 antagonist SU5402 inhibited bFGF-induced cell proliferation. This stimulating effect was further confirmed by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine incorporation and terminal transferase dUTP nick end-labelling assay. Immunocytochemistry of protein kinases A (PKA) and C (PKC) showed that the pro-proliferation action of bFGF predominantly activated PKC expression. Meanwhile, the bFGF-induced cell proliferation was significantly promoted by PKC activator PMA and inhibited by PKC inhibitor H(7) (p < 0.05). In addition, the bFGF-elicited cell proliferation was accompanied with increased mRNA expression of the cell cycle-regulating genes including cyclins D1 and E1, cyclin-dependent kinases 2 and 6. In conclusion, bFGF promoted the proliferation of ovarian granulosa cells through binding with FGFR1 and involving PKC pathway in the pre-hierarchical follicles of the laying chickens.
    Preview · Article · May 2011 · Reproduction in Domestic Animals
  • Yudong Jia · Jinxing Lin · Yuling Mi · Caiqiao Zhang
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    ABSTRACT: The attenuating effect of quercetin on cadmium-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis was investigated in cultured granulosa cells from chicken ovarian follicles. Results showed that exposure to 5 μM CdCl(2) induced a decrease in granulosa cell number and viability, caused chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation. Moreover, cadmium treatment markedly increased malondialdehyde level and decreased glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. Furthermore, cadmium provoked higher BAX expression, inhibited expression of BCL2 and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and activated caspase-3. However, simultaneous supplementation with 1 μg/ml quercetin protected granulosa cells against cadmium-induced cytotoxicity through attenuating lipid peroxidation, renewing antioxidant enzymes activities and alleviating apoptosis by modulating XIAP, BAX and BCL2 expression, and inhibiting caspase-3 activity. Therefore, these results suggested that quercetin, as a widely distributed dietary antioxidant, contributes potentially to prevent cadmium-induced cytotoxicity in granulosa cells through attenuating lipid peroxidation, elevating intracellular antioxidant status and inhibiting apoptosis to ensure reproductive health.
    No preview · Article · May 2011 · Reproductive Toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal that is widely distributed in the environment. As a critical process, oxidative toxicity mediates the morphological and functional damages in germ cells after cadmium exposure. In this study, the protective effect of quercetin on cadmium-induced oxidative toxicity was investigated in mouse testicular germ cells. After oral administration of cadmium chloride at 4 mg/kg body weight for 2 weeks, damages in spermatozoa occurred in the early stage of spermatogenesis. Cadmium treatment significantly decreased the testicular antioxidant system, including decreases in the glutathione (GSH) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and GSH peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities. Moreover, exposure to cadmium resulted in an increase of hydrogen peroxide production and lipid peroxidation in testes. In addition, cadmium provoked germ cell apoptosis by upregulating expression of the proapoptotic proteins Bax and caspase-3 and downregulating expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-XL. However, combined administration of a common flavonoid quercetin at 75 mg/kg body weight significantly attenuated cadmium-induced germ cell apoptosis by suppressing the hydrogen peroxide production and lipid peroxidation in testicular tissue. Simultaneous supplementation of quercetin markedly restored the decrease in GSH level and SOD and GSH-Px activities elicited by cadmium treatment. Additionally, quercetin protected germ cells from cadmium-induced apoptosis by downregulating the expression of Bax and caspase-3 and upregulating Bcl-XL expression. These results indicate that quercetin, due to its antioxidative and antiapoptotic characters, may manifest effective protective action against cadmium-induced oxidative toxicity in mouse testicular germ cells.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2011 · The Anatomical Record Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of GS (ginsenosides) on proliferation of chicken GCs (granulosa cells) from prehierarchical SYF (small yellow follicles) was evaluated, and involvement of the PKC (protein kinase C) signalling pathway as well as mRNA expression of cyclins and CDK (cyclin-dependent kinase) were investigated. Whole SYF or GCs isolated from SYF were cultured in Medium 199 supplemented with 0.5% FCS (fetal calf serum). After 16 h, the cells were challenged with GS alone or in combination with PKC inhibitor H7 or activator PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) for 24 h in serum-free medium. Results showed that in both whole follicles and pure GCs monolayer culture system, GS (0.1-10 microg/ml) significantly increased the number of GCs in SYF in a dose-dependent manner, and this stimulatory effect was inhibited by H7, but enhanced by PMA. Meanwhile, the PCNA-LI (proliferating cell nuclear antigen labelling index) of GCs displayed similar changes with the cell number. Mechanism of GS action was further evaluated in cultured GCs separated from SYF. Western blot analysis showed that 10 microg/ml GS increased PKC translocation from cytoplasm to the plasma membrane of the GCs to become the active state. This effect was blocked by H7. Furthermore, GS up-regulated the expression of cyclin D1/CDK6 and cyclin E/CDK2 mRNAs in GCs; however, inhibition of PKC with H7 attenuated this stimulatory effect. These results indicated that GS could stimulate proliferation of chicken GCs through activated PKC-involved up-regulation of cyclin D1/CDK6 and cyclin E/CDK2 genes, subsequently promoting development of the chicken prehierarchical follicles.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2010 · Cell Biology International
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    ABSTRACT: Quercetin, an antioxidant flavonoid, is considered beneficial for human and animal health. In this study, the protective effect of quercetin on oxidative damage to testicular cells was studied in embryonic chickens after treatment with 4-nitro-3-phenylphenol (PNMPP) derived from diesel exhaust particles. Testicular cells were challenged with PNMPP (10(-8)-10(-6) M) alone and in combination with quercetin for 48 h. The results showed that quercetin manifested no deleterious effect on spermatogonial cells up to 1.0 microg/ml. Exposure to PNMPP (10(-6) M) induced condensed nuclei and vacuolated cytoplasm and reductions in testicular cell viability and spermatogonial cell numbers (p<0.05). It also induced lipid peroxidation by an elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and decreased glutathione peroxidase activity and superoxide dismutase activity (p<0.05). Simultaneous supplementation with quercetin restored these parameters to the same levels as in the control. These data indicate that quercetin protects spermatogonial cells from oxidative damage in embryonic chickens intoxicated with PNMPP.
    No preview · Article · May 2010 · Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: The 4-nitrophenol (PNP) in diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has been identified as a vasodilator and is a known degradation product of the insecticide parathion. In this study, the protective effect of quercetin, a potent oxygen free radical scavenger and metal chelator, against the oxidative damage of PNP on cultured testicular cells was studied in male embryonic chickens. Testicular cells from Day 18 embryos were cultured in serum-free McCoy's 5A medium and challenged with quercetin (1.0 microg/ml) alone or in combinations with PNP (10(-7)-10(-5) M) for 48 h. The oxidative damage was estimated by measuring cell viability, content of malondialdehyde (MDA), activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidation (GSH-Px) activity. The results showed that exposure to PNP (10(-5) M) induced condensed nuclei, vacuolated cytoplasm and a decrease in testicular cell viability and spermatogonial cell number. Exposure to PNP induced lipid peroxidation by elevation of the content of MDA. Exposure to PNP also decreased GSH-Px activity and SOD activity. However, simultaneous supplementation with quercetin restored these parameters to the same levels as the control. Consequently, PNP induced oxidative stress in spermatogonial cells, and dietary quercetin may attenuate the reproductive toxicity of PNP to restore the intracellular antioxidant system in the testicular cells of embryonic chickens.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Journal of Reproduction and Development