[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The pharmacokinetic properties of amoxicillin in healthy and respiratory-diseased pigs were studied, after ad libitum administration of medicated feed. In addition, amoxicillin dose linearity and drug penetration into respiratory tract tissues were evaluated in diseased animals. The respiratory disease involves porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and bacterial agents such as Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica and Streptococcus suis. Typical clinical signs and gross lesions of respiratory disease were observed. The plasma pharmacokinetic analysis was performed by means of a noncompartmental approach. After single intravenous bolus administration of amoxicillin to healthy pigs, the steady-state volume of distribution was 0.61 L/kg, the total plasma clearance was 0.83 L/h/kg and the mean residence time was 0.81 h. After oral bolus administration, the mean absorption time was 1.6 h and the peak plasma concentration (3.09 μg/mL) reached at 1.1 h postadministration. The oral bioavailability was 34%. For oral ad libitum administration, plasma concentration-time profiles were related to the feeding behaviour. Plasma concentrations at steady-state were established between 12 and 120 h. The pharmacokinetic parameters calculated (C(maxss) , C(minss) , C(avss) and AUC(24ss) ) showed significantly lower values in healthy pigs compared to diseased animals. This was in accordance with the significantly higher amoxicillin bioavailability (44.7% vs. 14.1%) and longer absorption period observed in diseased pigs. Amoxicillin dose linearity in diseased animals was established in a dose range of 4-18 mg/kg. On the other hand, tissue distribution ratio in diseased animals was 0.65 for bronchial mucosa, 0.48 for lung tissue and 0.38 for lymph nodes. Our results suggest that the pharmacokinetic properties and disposition of amoxicillin can be influenced by the disease state or by related factors such as changes in the gastrointestinal transit.
No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The pharmacokinetics of thiamphenicol (TAP), a broad-spectrum antibiotic, was determined in male mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, pigs, sheep and calves. The relationship between the main pharmacokinetic parameters of TAP and body weight (W) was studied across these seven mammalian species, using double-logarithmic plots. The experimental values of volume of distribution (Vss), clearance (Cl) and elimination half-life (t(1/2)beta) were plotted, and extrapolated values were determined from corresponding allometric equations. These parameters were fitted to the following equations: Vss=0.98W0.92, Cl=15.80W0.76 and t(1/2)beta=0.94W0.20, and present good correlation (Vss: r2=0.997, P < 0.001; Cl: r2=0.976, P < 0.001, t(1/2)beta: r2=0.852, P < 0.005), that is expected of a drug eliminated primarily by renal glomerular filtration, with insignificant hepatic metabolism. For the t(1/2)beta, the extrapolated and observed values were similar. The extrapolated values of Cl were close to the experimental values, except for the mouse and pig mean percent error [(M.E.) equal to 62 and 119%, respectively], while the extrapolated and observed values for the Vss were very similar. The comparison between experimental and extrapolated values suggests that it could be possible to extrapolate, with good prediction, the kinetic parameters of this drug for mammalian species, using allometric scaling, except for the species that eliminate the drug by a combination of renal excretion and hepatic metabolism.
No preview · Article · Jul 2001 · Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Indomethacin (INDO) is a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug widely used since the 1970s. The pharmacokinetic behavior of INDO (2 mg/kg) has been studied after intravenous (i.v.) and oral administration to broiler chickens. After i.v. administration, a first fast distribution phase and a later and slower elimination phase were observed. The elimination half-life and mean residence time (MRT) obtained were 1.0 hr and 0.8 hr, respectively. After oral administration, a flip-flop phenomenon was observed giving an elimination half-life and MRT approximately three times and six times higher, respectively, than the i.v. administration. The plasma concentrations after oral administration were sustained during 8-10 hr, giving an antinflammatory cover over the dose producing 50% of maximal effect during this time period.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Pharmacokinetic parameters of thiamphenicol (TAP) were determined after intravenous (i.v.) and intramuscular (i.m.) administration of 30 mg kg-1 of TAP in pigs. Plasma drug concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) Intravenous TAP kinetics were fitted to a bi-exponential equation, with a first rapid disposition phase followed by a slower disposition phase. Elimination half-life was short, at 59.3 (29.4) minutes; volume of distribution at steady state was 0.62 (0.24) 1 kg-1; and plasma clearance was 13.4 (4.5) ml min-1 kg-1. After i.m. administration, the peak plasma concentration (Cmax= 4.1 microg ml-1) was reached in about 60 minutes; these concentrations are lower than those reported in other species. The TAP elimination half-life after i.m. administration, 250.2 (107.1) minutes was longer after than i.v. administration, probably due to the slow rate of absorption from the muscle. The mean bioavailability value for i.m. administration was 76 (12) per cent.
No preview · Article · Jul 1999 · Research in Veterinary Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To determine pharmacokinetic parameters of thiamphenicol (TAP) after IV and IM administration in dogs.
6 healthy 2- to 3-year-old male Beagles.
IN a crossover design study, 3 dogs were given TAP IV, and 3 dogs were given TAP IM, each at a dosage of 40 mg/kg of body weight. Three weeks later, the same dogs were given a second dose by the opposite route. At preestablished times after TAP administration, blood samples were collected through a catheter placed in the cephalic vein, and TAP concentration was determined by use of a high-performance liquid chromatography. Results-Kinetics of TAP administered IV were fitted by a biexponential equation with a rapid first disposition phase followed by a slower disposition phase. Elimination half-life was short (1.7+/-0.3 hours), volume of distribution at steady state was 0.66+/-0.05 L/kg, and plasma clearance was 5.3+/-0.7 ml/min/kg. After IM administration, absorption was rapid. Peak plasma concentration (25.1+/-10.3 microg/ml) was reached about 45 minutes after drug administration. The apparent elimination half-life after IM administration (5.6+/-4.6 hours) was longer than that after IV administration probably because of the slow absorption rate from the muscle. Mean bioavailability after IM administration was 96+/-7%.
The pharmacokinetic profile of TAP in dogs suggests that it may be therapeutically useful against susceptible microorganisms involved in the most common infections in dogs, such as tracheobronchitis, enterocolitis, mastitis, and urinary tract infections.
No preview · Article · Dec 1998 · American Journal of Veterinary Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: A HPLC method using a C18 column and UV detection (254 nm) is described for the determination of indomethacin residues in chicken tissues (liver, muscle and fat). Drug extraction from tissue homogenate in phosphate buffer (pH 3.5) was performed with dichloromethane. Mobile phase was acetonitrile-acetic acid (0.5% in water) (50:50). Indomethacin detection limit was 20 ng/g for the studied tissues. After administration of an oral dose of indomethacin (2 mg/kg), only three of the eight poultry studied showed drug tissue levels, in those cases the levels were below 50 ng/g.
No preview · Article · Jun 1998 · Journal of chromatography. B, Biomedical sciences and applications