[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here, we describe the identification of a novel human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1 allele, DRB1*1189, that was found in an Italian Caucasian individual. This sequence differs from HLA-DRB1*1134 by three nucleotide exchange at positions 286 (C-->T), 296 (A-->G), and 308 (C-->A) in exon 2.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Active infection with torquetenovirus (TTV) has been associated with an increased severity of diseases in which inflammation plays a particularly important pathogenetic role. Here, we report that cloned DNA of a genogroup 4 TTV (ViPiSAL) is an activator of proinflammatory cytokine production by murine spleen cells and that the effect is mediated via toll-like receptor (TLR)9. The same DNA also increased the levels of proinflammatory cytokines induced by two well-characterized TLR9 stimulants. Finally, in silico analyses of the genomes of ViPiSAL and other TTVs revealed marked differences in the representation of CpG motifs known to be most effective at activating immune cells via TLR9. These findings demonstrate for the first time that at least one TTV isolate has the potential to stimulate and co-stimulate inflammatory responses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to assess the ability of nanofiltration of albumin solution, prothrombin complex (PTC) and factor IX (FIX) to remove two small, non-enveloped DNA viruses, parvovirus B19 (B19V) and torque teno virus (TTV). Virus removal was investigated with down-scale experiments performed with sequential steps of 35-nm and 15-nm nanofiltrations of products spiked with virus DNA-positive sera. Viral loads were determined by real-time PCRs. The 15-nm nanofiltration removed more than 4.0 B19V log from all the products, TTV was reduced of more than 3.0 log from albumin solution and FIX by 35-nm and 15-nm nanofiltrations, respectively, being viral DNA undetectable after these treatments. Traces of TTV were still found in PTC after the 15-nm nanofiltration. In conclusion, nanofiltration can be efficacious in removing small naked viruses but, since viruses with similar features can differently respond to the treatment, a careful monitoring of large-scale nanofiltration should be performed.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · Transfusion Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few studies have been performed on the prevalence of Torque Teno Virus (TTV) infection in liver transplant (LT) recipients. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, viremia and genogroup pattern of TTV among LT patients and to ascertain whether TTV causes liver damage in liver transplanted patients with biochemical and histological changes of unknown origin. Twenty-five patients were evaluated before and after LT; 80 healthy subjects were considered as controls. Serum samples were serially obtained from all the patients before LT and thereafter at 3, 6 and 12 months post-transplant. Serum TTV-DNA and genogroups were assessed by PCR. Patients underwent protocol serial liver biopsies at 6 and 12 months after LT. Results were compared using the Chi-squared tests, McNemar's and Student's t-tests. TTV-DNA was found in 25/25 patients before LT and in 60/80 blood donors (P < 0.01). The TTV-DNA load increased significantly after LT (P < 0.001). TTV-DNA was significantly higher in patients on calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) and azathioprine or mycophenolate mofetil than in patients on CNI alone (P = 0.04) at 3 months after LT. Genogroup analysis showed a significant increase in genogroup 5 positivity after LT. No differences were seen in the viremia of patients compared according to their viral versus other etiologies of their liver disease before transplantation. Viremia and TTV genotype patterns did not correlate with the presence of hypertransaminasemia or histological liver damage of unknown etiology. The prevalence of TTV-DNA was significantly higher in patients with liver cirrhosis than in controls and the viral load was significantly higher after LT than beforehand. On the basis of our data, TTV does not seem to cause liver damage following LT, although larger studies with a long-term follow up are needed to confirm these findings.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2008 · Transplant International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Waters represent the main vehicle of spreading for the human enteric viruses that can survive longer in the environment than the majority of enteric non sporogenic bacteria, and have a lower infective dose. The different uses of water, like drinking, irrigating, bathing, and growing food (i.e. shellfishes) can frequently expose people to enteric viral infections. Therefore, water virological monitoring could constitute an important instrument both for the epidemiological surveillance and for the risk assessment. At present, knowledge on virological contamination of waters is still incomplete owing to the technical difficulties in virus detection, that limit the possibility of monitoring to few specialized laboratories and then obstacle a very large spread of this kind of investigation. Besides that, the number of possible viral species to be detected is very large and will become even larger in the future as knowledge about viral environmental spread will increase. The advent of molecular biology techniques (mostly PCR) has opened new possibilities for virological environmental monitoring, allowing to detect non culturable agents and to perform molecular epidemiology studies. However many questions remain still unsolved: the standardization of detection methods, the choice of the most significant agents for risk assessment, the selection of a reliable indicator for viral contamination, and so on. For this reasons we planned a study aimed to analyse the human enteric viruses environmental spread and its relations with virological diagnosis of gastroenteritis, to identify the most frequent viral pathogens in different types of water and to evaluate the possible correlations between pathogenic enteric viruses and commonly used faecal indicators.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: hBoV, a recently discovered parvovirus, can be present in the respiratory tract of patients with acute respiratory diseases (ARD), but its etiologic involvement in the underlying diseases is still uncertain.
To determine in a retrospective study, the prevalence of hBoV, compared with common respiratory viruses (RV), in respiratory specimens from patients with ARD.
A total of 335 specimens obtained over 7 years were examined. Two hundred were nasal swabs from infants hospitalized for ARD, 84 were nasal swabs or bronchoalveolar lavages from adults with pneumonia, bronchopneumonia or asthma, and 51 were nasal swabs from healthy children.
The overall rate of hBoV detection in specimens from infants with ARD, which was 4.5%, varied slightly from year to year, except for the period 2000-2002, when no specimen was positive. Unlike other RV, no seasonal variation in hBoV incidence was noted. Infants with hBoV infection suffered either from bronchiolitis or from bronchopneumonia and 5 out of 9 cases yielded no co-infecting viral pathogen. Only one sample from an adult was hBoV positive. None of the nasal swabs from healthy subjects tested hBoV-positive.
The findings indicate that hBoV can cause ARD in infants.
Full-text · Article · May 2007 · Journal of Clinical Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of torquetenovirus (TTV) infection in a group of children with recurrent lower respiratory tract infections and radiologic evidence of bronchiectasis. Correlations between TTV loads and severity of bronchiectasis and between TTV loads and lung function were evaluated.
In 38 subjects, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and plasma tests for TTV detection and quantification were done. In 21/38 subjects, spirometry was also performed.
TTV was found in 31/38 (81.6%) patients. The correlation between TTV loads and severity of bronchiectasis was statistically significant (r = 0.548; P = 0.01). TTV loads showed inverse correlation with FEF25-75% (r = -0.541; P = 0.011), and FEF25-75%/FVC (r = -0.512; P = 0.018). Inverse correlation was found also between severity of bronchiectasis and functional lung parameters: FEF25-75% (r = -0.635; P = 0.002), FEV1/FVC (r = -0.541; P = 0.011), and FEF25-75%/FVC (r = -0.645; P = 0.002).
This study demonstrated the high prevalence of TTV infection in children with bronchiectasis. Moreover, we have shown a significant correlation between TTV loads and airflow limitation within the peripheral airways, as well as between severity of bronchiectasis and decrease of lung function.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2006 · The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An apparently transient infection by a superimposed torquetenovirus (TTV) in a subject who already carried three different
genotypes of the virus is described. The superinfection induced a rapid increase in the plasma TTV load and a decline in immunocomplexed
virus. The superinfecting TTV was a novel group 2 genotype.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2006 · Journal of Clinical Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The safety of human serum albumin (HSA) is of special interest with respect to virus transmission because of the wide use of this blood product as a therapeutic agent and also, added to other products, as an excipient or a stabilizer. Conflicting data are reported concerning HSA contamination by small, naked viruses such as the erythrovirus B19 (B19V) and the anellovirus torquetenovirus (TTV). This study has been performed to assess the effect of the HSA purification procedures on the viral contamination.
Known concentrations of B19V and TTV virus were spiked in raw Fraction V, the starting material from fractionated human plasma for HSA purification, which was subsequently submitted to the depth filtration procedure. After spiking, B19V and TTV genome copies were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays in the mixture at the end of Fraction V dissolution, to determine the virus concentration achieved, in the HSA solution after the filtration step, in the filtered postwashing fluid, and in the supernatant of resuspended Celite.
B19V was completely adsorbed by the Celite used as a filter aid in the depth filtration process and was thus undetectable in the resulting HSA-containing fraction. In contrast, in 2 out of 3 experiments, TTV was detected in all samples.
The different behavior of the two viruses might be a reflection of their different surface charge.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the aim of studying possible relations between viruses detected in clinical specimens and the ones found in different environmental matrices, in the period May 2004 to April 2005, the collection of faecal samples from gastroenteritis cases and the monthly monitoring of raw and treated wastewater, river water, seawater and mussels were carried out. The viruses considered for environmental monitoring were adenovirus, rotavirus, enterovirus, norovirus, hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Torque teno virus (TTV): they were searched for with PCR and RT-PCR and confirmed by gene sequencing. Faecal coliforms and somatic coliphages' counts were also determined. The surveillance of case detected 45 positive faecal samples out of 255 (17.6%) while 35 of 56 environmental samples (62.5%) resulted positive for at least one of the considered viruses. The detection of the same viral strain in the faeces of gastroenteritis cases and in water was possible for adenovirus and rotavirus, which were also predominant in environmental matrices; thus they could be considered as a reference for risk assessment.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2006 · Water Science & Technology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fifty-nine children with well-controlled, mild to moderate persistent asthma were studied for the presence and load of torquetenovirus (TTV) in nasal fluid. Rates of TTV positivity and mean nasal TTV loads were not dissimilar to those observed in the general population and in a group of 30 age- and residence-matched healthy control children without a history of asthmatic disease. However, in the children with asthma, 3 important indices of lung function--forced expiratory flow (FEF) in which 25% and 75% of forced vital capacity (FVC) is expired (FEF(25%-75%)), forced expiratory volume in 1 s/FVC, and FEF(25%-75%)/FVC--showed an inverse correlation with nasal TTV load. Furthermore, signs of reduced airflow were more frequent in the children with asthma who had high nasal TTV loads (> or =6 log(10) DNA copies/mL of nasal fluid) than they were in those who had low nasal TTV loads (<6 log(10) DNA copies/mL of nasal fluid), despite similar therapy regimens. In contrast, the control children showed no associations between nasal TTV load and the spirometric indices. Levels of eosinophil cationic protein in sputum were also greater in the children with asthma who had higher nasal viral burdens than they were in those who had lower nasal viral burdens. These findings are the first report of TTV infection status in children with asthma and suggest that TTV might be a contributing factor in the lung impairment caused by this condition.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2005 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 239 torquetenovirus-positive people, multiple-genogroup infections were common and associated with higher viral loads than
would be expected from simple additive effects. The latter observation was restricted to the infections which included both
genogroups 1 and 3, pointing to the possible existence of some kind of infection facilitation between these genogroups.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2005 · Journal of Clinical Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Torque Teno virus (TTV) has been demonstrated to be present persistently in the blood of healthy individuals without evidence that it causes any disease process. The levels of TTV vary in patients co-infected with other viruses and there has been considerable speculation as to whether TTV contributes to pathogenesis by other viruses or if the varying levels might be related to immune activation in the host. In the present study, the load of TTV was examined in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) following immunization of subjects with either influenza (a recall antigen) or hepatitis B virus (HBV) (a new antigenic exposure). The results overall did not indicate a significant change in TTV titers over a 90 day observation period; however, when TTV genogroup was taken into consideration there was an increase in viral load in plasma at some time points for subjects persistently infected with genogroup 3. While this was observed in both influenza and HBV immunized subjects, the effect was more profound in HBV vaccination. Thus, it appears that exposure to a new antigen rather than a recall antigen may stimulate TTV replication more effectively. The data further suggest that investigating the interactions between TTV and its host might require to examine specifically each TTV genogroup separately in order to determine if certain TTV types have any role in disease pathogenesis.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2005 · Journal of Medical Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Children with bronchopneumonia have considerably higher Torque tenovirus (TTV) loads than do children with milder acute respiratory diseases (ARDs). Moreover, in children with ARDs, high TTV loads correlate with low percentages of circulating CD3+ and CD4+ T cells and with elevated percentages of B cells, suggesting that TTV might be immunomodulatory. Here, we show that, in children with ARDs, the presence of TTV and TTV load correlate with concentrations of serum eosinophil cationic protein. The possible mechanisms whereby TTV infection might lead to augmented activity of eosinophils and the implications for pathogenesis are discussed.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2004 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases