[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives The aim of this study was to report the long-term clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents (DES) versus coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for ostial/midshaft lesions in an unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA). Background Data regarding outcomes in these patients are limited. Methods Of a total of 2,775 patients enrolled in the DELTA multinational registry, 856 patients with isolated ostial/midshaft lesions in an ULMCA treated by PCI with DES (n = 482) or CABG (n = 374) were analyzed. Results At a median follow-up period of 1,293 days, there were no significant differences in the propensity score-adjusted analyses for the composite endpoint of all-cause death, myocardial infarction (MI), and cerebrovascular accident (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.79 to 1.86; p = 0.372), all-cause death (HR: 1.35, 95% CI: 0.80 to 2.27; p = 0.255), the composite endpoint of all-cause death and MI (HR: 1.33, 95% CI: 0.83 to 2.12; p = 0.235) and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (HR: 1.34, 95% CI: 0.93 to 1.93; p = 0.113). These results were sustained after propensity-score matching. However, a higher incidence of target vessel revascularization (HR: 1.94, 95% CI: 1.03 to 3.64; p = 0.039) was observed in the PCI compared with the CABG group, with a trend toward higher target lesion revascularization (HR: 2.00, 95% CI: 0.90 to 4.45; p = 0.090). Conclusions This study demonstrates that PCI for ostial/midshaft lesions in an ULMCA is associated with clinical outcomes comparable to those observed with CABG at long-term follow-up, despite the use of older first-generation DES. (JAmColl Cardiol Intv 2014;7:354-61) (C) 2014 by the American College of CardiologyFoundation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Women typically present with coronary artery disease later than men with more unfavorable clinical and anatomic characteristics. It is unknown whether differences exist in women undergoing treatment for unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) disease. Our aim was to evaluate long-term clinical outcomes in women treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents versus coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). All consecutive women from the Drug-Eluting stent for LefT main coronary Artery disease registry with ULMCA disease were analyzed. A propensity matching was performed to adjust for baseline differences. In total, 817 women were included: 489 (59.8%) underwent treatment with PCI with drug-eluting stents versus 328 (40.2%) with CABG. Propensity score matching identified 175 matched pairs, and at long-term follow-up there were no differences in all-cause (odds ratio [OR] 0.722, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.357 to 1.461, p = 0.365) or cardiovascular (OR 1.100, 95% CI 0.455 to 2.660, p = 0.832) mortality, myocardial infarction (MI; OR 0.362, 95% CI 0.094 to 1.388, p = 0.138), or cerebrovascular accident (CVA; OR 1.200, 95% CI 0.359 to 4.007, p = 0.767) resulting in no difference in the primary study objective of death, MI, or CVA (OR 0.711, 95% CI 0.387 to 1.308, p = 0.273). However, there was an advantage of CABG in major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (OR 0.429, 95% CI 0.254 to 0.723, p = 0.001), driven exclusively by target vessel revascularization (OR 0.185, 95% CI 0.079 to 0.432, p <0.001). In women with significant ULMCA disease, no difference was observed after PCI or CABG in death, MI, and CVA at long-term follow-up.
No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · The American journal of cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare, in a large all-comer registry, the long-term clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents (DES) for ostial/mid-shaft lesions versus distal bifurcation lesions in unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) stenosis.
Limited data are available regarding clinical outcomes following DES implantation at the different ULMCA sites.
Patients with ULMCA stenosis treated by PCI with DES were analyzed in this multinational registry.
A total of 1,612 patients were included: 482 were treated for ostial/mid-shaft lesions versus 1,130 for distal bifurcation lesions. At a median follow-up period of 1,250 (interquartile range: 987 to 1,564) days, PCI for distal bifurcation lesions was associated with a higher incidence of major adverse cardiac events (propensity-score adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16 to 1.89; p = 0.001), largely because of the higher target vessel revascularization rate observed in this group as compared to the ostial/mid-shaft lesions group (propensity-score adjusted HR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.19 to 2.38; p = 0.003). These results were sustained following propensity-score matched analysis. With regard to all-cause death and the composite endpoint of all-cause death and myocardial infarction, propensity-score adjusted analysis suggested a trend toward higher rates of these in the distal ULMCA PCI group, although this was not observed in the propensity-score matched analysis.
This study demonstrates that PCI for ostial/mid-shaft lesions is associated with better clinical outcomes than are distal bifurcation lesions in ULMCA, largely because there is a lower need for repeat revascularization in ostial/mid-shaft lesions.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · JACC Cardiovascular Interventions
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since the first aortic valve replacement through a right thoracotomy was reported in 1993, upper hemisternotomy and right anterior thoracotomy have become the predominant approaches for minimally invasive aortic valve replacement. Clinical studies have documented equivalent operative mortality, less bleeding, and reduced intensive care/hospital stay compared with conventional sternotomy despite longer procedure times. However, comparative trials face challenges due to patient preference, surgeon bias, and the lack of a standardized minimally invasive surgical approach.
Twenty cardiothoracic surgeons from 19 institutions across the United States, with a combined experience of nearly 5000 minimally invasive aortic valve replacement operations, formed a working group to develop a basis for a standardized approach to patient evaluation, operative technique, and postoperative care. In addition, a stepwise learning program for surgeons was outlined.
Improved cosmesis, less pain and narcotic use, and faster recovery have been reported and generally accepted by patients and by surgeons performing minimally invasive aortic valve replacement. These benefits are more likely to be verified with standardization of the procedure itself, which will greatly facilitate the design and implementation of future clinical studies.
Surgeons interested in learning and performing minimally invasive aortic valve replacement must have expertise in conventional aortic valve replacement at centers with adequate case volumes. A team approach that coordinates efforts of the surgeon, anesthesiologist, perfusionist, and nurses is required to achieve the best clinical outcomes. By first developing fundamental minimally invasive skills using specialized cannulation techniques, neck lines, and long-shafted instruments in the setting of conventional full sternotomy, the safest operative environment is afforded to patients.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Although echocardiography is commonly performed before coronary artery bypass surgery, there has yet to be a study examining the incremental prognostic value of a complete echocardiogram.
Methods and results:
Patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass surgery at 2 hospitals were divided into derivation and validation cohorts. A panel of quantitative echocardiographic parameters was measured. Clinical variables were extracted from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons database. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality or major morbidity, and the secondary outcome was long-term all-cause mortality. The derivation cohort consisted of 667 patients with a mean age of 67.2±11.1 years and 22.8% females. The following echocardiographic parameters were found to be optimal predictors of mortality or major morbidity: severe diastolic dysfunction, as evidenced by restrictive filling (odds ratio, 2.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.59-5.49), right ventricular dysfunction, as evidenced by fractional area change <35% (odds ratio, 3.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-7.20), or myocardial performance index >0.40 (odds ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-3.15). These results were confirmed in the validation cohort of 187 patients. When added to the Society of Thoracic Surgeons risk score, the echocardiographic parameters resulted in a net improvement in model discrimination and reclassification with a change in c-statistic from 0.68 to 0.73 and an integrated discrimination improvement of 5.9% (95% confidence interval, 2.8%-8.9%). In the Cox proportional hazards model, right ventricular dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension were independently predictive of mortality over 3.2 years of follow-up.
Preoperative echocardiography, in particular right ventricular dysfunction and restrictive left ventricular filling, provides incremental prognostic value in identifying patients at higher risk of mortality or major morbidity after coronary artery bypass surgery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective In this study, we aim to investigate the association between aortic sclerosis and mortality and major morbidity in patients with established coronary artery disease undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).
Design Preoperative echocardiograms of consecutive patients undergoing isolated CABG between 2007 and 2009 (n=1150) were analysed, excluding patients without an echocardiogram in the 30 days prior to surgery (n=483). Using logistic regression, we evaluated the association between aortic sclerosis and inhospital mortality and major morbidity. Using Cox proportional hazards, the effect on long-term all-cause mortality was determined.
Setting Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.
Patients Patients undergoing isolated CABG between 2007 and 2009.
Interventions Analysis of echocardiograms.
Main outcome measures Inhospital mortality and major morbidity, and long-term all-cause mortality.
Results 627 patients were suitable for enrolment; 207 (33%) had significant aortic sclerosis. These patients had higher rates of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Significant aortic sclerosis was associated with an increased risk of inhospital mortality or major morbidity (OR 1.95; 95% CI 1.25 to 3.04). Following adjustment for baseline clinical and echocardiographic variables, the association remained significant (OR 1.90; 95% CI 1.15 to 3.11). The HR for adjusted all-cause mortality was 2.52 (mean follow-up 2.7 years).
Conclusions Aortic sclerosis is a common finding in patients undergoing CABG. In these patients, its presence is associated with a higher risk of inhospital mortality or major morbidity, and is associated with a higher risk of all-cause long-term mortality independent of other risk factors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare, in a large all-comers registry, major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with first-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) versus coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) stenosis.
Percutaneous coronary intervention with DES implantation in ULMCA has been shown to be a feasible and safe approach at midterm clinical follow-up.
All consecutive patients with ULMCA stenosis treated by PCI with DES versus CABG were analyzed in this multinational registry. A propensity score analysis was performed to adjust for baseline differences in the overall cohort.
In total 2,775 patients were included: 1,874 were treated with PCI versus 901 with CABG. At 1,295 (interquartile range: 928 to 1,713) days, there were no differences, at the adjusted analysis, in the primary composite endpoint of death, cerebrovascular accidents, and myocardial infarction (MI) (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.85 to 1.42; p = 0.47), mortality (adjusted HR: 1.16; 95% CI: 0.87 to 1.55; p = 0.32), or composite endpoint of death and MI (adjusted HR: 1.25; 95% CI: 0.95 to 1.64; p = 0.11). An advantage of CABG over PCI was observed in the composite secondary endpoint of MACCE (adjusted HR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.33 to 2.03; p < 0.0001), driven exclusively by the higher incidence of target vessel revascularization with PCI.
In our multinational all-comers registry, no difference was observed in the occurrence of death, cerebrovascular accidents, and MI between PCI and CABG. An advantage of CABG over PCI was observed in the incidence of MACCE, driven by the higher incidence of target vessel revascularization with PCI.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiac surgery demands effective teamwork for safe, high-quality care. The objective of this pilot study was to develop a comprehensive program to sharpen performance of experienced cardiac surgical teams in acute crisis management.
We developed and implemented an educational program for cardiac surgery based on high realism acute crisis simulation scenarios and interactive whole-unit workshop. The impact of these interventions was assessed with postintervention questionnaires, preintervention and 6-month postintervention surveys, and structured interviews.
The realism of the acute crisis simulation scenarios gradually improved; most participants rated both the simulation and whole-unit workshop as very good or excellent. Repeat simulation training was recommended every 6 to 12 months by 82% of the participants. Participants of the interactive workshop identified 2 areas of highest priority: encouraging speaking up about critical information and interprofessional information sharing. They also stressed the importance of briefings, early communication of surgical plan, knowing members of the team, and continued simulation for practice. The pre/post survey response rates were 70% (55/79) and 66% (52/79), respectively. The concept of working as a team improved between surveys (P = .028), with a trend for improvement in gaining common understanding of the plan before a procedure (P = .075) and appropriate resolution of disagreements (P = .092). Interviewees reported that the training had a positive effect on their personal behaviors and patient care, including speaking up more readily and communicating more clearly.
Comprehensive team training using simulation and a whole-unit interactive workshop can be successfully deployed for experienced cardiac surgery teams with demonstrable benefits in participant's perception of team performance.
No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a relatively new procedure for high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis. We report a case of a new left ventricular outflow tract ventricular tachycardia following TAVR.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Quadricuspid aortic valve (QAV) is rare and its diagnosis, clinical course, and management are less well defined relative to other aortic valve abnormalities. Advances in diagnostic imaging, notably in ultrasound, have increased clinical awareness of this anomaly and prompted this review of our experience with 12 new patients and a compilation of previously reported patients to further characterize this condition.
No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Echocardiography