David C Rettew

University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, United States

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Publications (57)218.64 Total impact

  • David C Rettew

    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Although the increase in treatment of children and adolescents with antipsychotic medications has been well documented, much less is known about the factors related to the use of these agents and how closely the treatment follows best practice recommendations. Prescribers of each antipsychotic medication prescription issued for a Medicaid-insured child in Vermont aged <18 years were sent a prior authorization survey that assessed several domains including the clinical indication, other treatments, metabolic monitoring, prescriber specialty, and prescription origin. These variables were combined to categorize prescriptions as following indications approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and best practice guidelines. The response rate of the survey was 80%, with 677 surveys from 147 prescribers available for analysis; more than one-half of the respondents were primary care clinicians. Overall, the clinical indication for an antipsychotic prescription followed best practice guidelines 91.7% of the time, with overall best practice guidelines followed at a rate of 50.1%. An FDA indication was followed in 27.2% of cases. Psychiatrists were significantly more likely to follow best practice guidelines than nonpsychiatrists. Antipsychotic medications were typically used only after other pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments were ineffective, although previous treatment with cognitive-behavioral therapy was uncommon (15.5%). Metabolic monitoring that included serial laboratory tests was reported in 57.2% of cases. Current prescribing patterns of antipsychotic medications for children and adolescents follow best practice guidelines approximately one-half of the time, with nonadherence often related to lack of metabolic monitoring. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Pediatrics
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    ABSTRACT: Data on youth emotional and behavioral problems from societies in Sub-Saharan Africa are lacking. This may be due to the fact that few youth mental health assessments have been tested for construct validity of syndrome structure across multicultural societies that include developing countries, and almost none have been tested in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Youth Self-Report (YSR), for example, has shown great consistency of its syndrome structure across many cultures, yet data from only one developing country in Sub-Saharan Africa have been included. In this study, we test the factor structure of YSR syndromes among Kenyan youth ages 11-18 years from an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya and examine sex-differences in levels of emotional and behavioral problems. We find the eight syndrome structure of the YSR to fit these data well (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation=.049). While Kenyan girls have significantly higher internalizing (Anxious/Depressed, Withdrawn/Depressed, Somatic) problem scores than boys, these differences are of similar magnitude to published multicultural findings. The results support the generalizability of the YSR syndrome structure to Kenyan youth and are in line with multicultural findings supporting the YSR as an assessment of emotional and behavioral problems in diverse societies.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment
  • Elien De Caluwé · David C Rettew · Barbara De Clercq
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Various studies have shown that obsessive-compulsive symptoms exist as part of not only obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but also obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). Despite these shared characteristics, there is an ongoing debate on the inclusion of OCPD into the recently developed DSM-5 obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRDs) category. The current study aims to clarify whether this inclusion can be justified from an item response theory approach. Method: The validity of the continuity model for understanding the association between OCD and OCPD was explored in 787 Dutch community and referred adolescents (70% female, 12-20 years old, mean = 16.16, SD = 1.40) studied between July 2011 and January 2013, relying on item response theory (IRT) analyses of self-reported OCD symptoms (Youth Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms Scale [YOCSS]) and OCPD traits (Personality Inventory for DSM-5 [PID-5]). Results: The results support the continuity hypothesis, indicating that both OCD and OCPD can be represented along a single underlying spectrum. OCD, and especially the obsessive symptom domain, can be considered as the extreme end of OCPD traits. Conclusions: The current study empirically supports the classification of OCD and OCPD along a single dimension. This integrative perspective in OC-related pathology addresses the dimensional nature of traits and psychopathology and may improve the transparency and validity of assessment procedures.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To understand the rate of genetic events in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who were exposed to assisted reproduction. Design: Case control study using genetics data. Setting: Twelve collaborating data collection sites across North America as part of the Simons Simplex Collection. Patient(s): 2,760 children with ASD, for whom 1,994 had published copy number variation data and 424 had published gene mutation status available. Intervention(s): None. Main Outcome Measure(s): Rates of autism-associated genetic events in children with ASD conceived with assisted reproduction versus those conceived naturally. Result(s): No statistically significant differences in copy number variations or autism-associated gene-disrupting events were found when comparing ASD patients exposed to assisted reproduction with those not exposed to assisted reproduction. Conclusion(s): This is the first large genetic association to concurrently examine the genotype of individuals with ASD in relation to their exposure to ART versus natural conception, and it adds reassuring evidence to the argument that ART does not increase the risk of ASD. ((C)2014 by American Society for Reproductive Medicine.)
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Fertility and Sterility
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    ABSTRACT: We examined child temperament, maternal parenting, and the effects of their interactions with each other on child social functioning. A total of 355 children aged 5–18 years old (54 % male; mean age = 10.8) were evaluated. Regression equations were used to test models of the main and interactive effects of temperament and maternal parenting behavior on the Social Problems and Social Competence Subscales of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), a questionnaire assessing internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in children ages 4–18. Higher levels of child Novelty Seeking and Harm Avoid-ance and lower levels of Persistence were significantly associated with poorer social functioning. When account-ing for child temperament, neither maternal parenting nor the interaction between maternal parenting and child temperament were significantly associated with social functioning. However, the interaction between maternal positive involvement and harm avoidance trended toward significance, such that at higher levels of harm avoidance, more extreme levels of maternal positive involvement were related to lower levels of social functioning. Further research on the interplay between child temperament and parenting across different stages of development is warranted.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Journal of Child and Family Studies

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Oct 2013

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Oct 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Social withdrawal is a core neuropsychiatric phenomenon in developmental psychopathology. Its presence predicts psychopathology across many domains, including depression, psychosis, autism, anxiety, and suicide. Withdrawn behavior is highly heritable, persistent, and characteristically worsens without intervention. To date, few studies have successfully identified genetic associations with withdrawn behavior, despite the abundance of evidence of its heritability. This may be due to reliance of categorical over dimensional measures of the behaviorally inhibited phenotype. The aim of this study is to identify associations between known psychiatric candidate genes and a dimensionally derived measure of withdrawn behavior. Genetic information was collected on 20 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from a custom-designed SNP chip and TAQMAN arrays of 4 variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) genes for 551 individuals from 187 families. Linear mixed modeling was employed to examine the relationship between genotypes of interest and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Withdrawn Behavior Subscale Score (WBS) while controlling for gender and age through multiple linear regressions. Withdrawn behavior was highly associated with polymorphism rs6314 of the serotonin receptor 2A (HTR2A) [p = .009, estimate = 0.310 (bootstrap 95% CI 0.155-0.448), bootstrap p = .001] and rs1800544 of the alpha 2-adrenergic (ADRA2A) [p = .001, estimate = -0.310 (bootstrap 95% CI -0.479 to -0.126), bootstrap p = .001] genes after correction for gender and age. The association between withdrawn behavior and ADRA2A was stronger for younger children. HTR2A and ADRA2A genes are associated with withdrawn behavior. This reinforces the role of catecholaminergic genes in the heritability of withdrawn behavior.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Oct 2012
  • David C Rettew
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    ABSTRACT: The debate surrounding the inclusion of gender dysphoria/gender variant behavior (GD/GV) as a psychiatric diagnosis exposes many of the fundamental shortcomings and inconsistencies of our current diagnostic classification system. Proposals raised by the authors of this special issue, including basing diagnosis on cause rather than overt behavior, reclassifying GD/GV behavior as a physical rather than mental condition, and basing diagnosis on impairment or distress, offer some solutions but have limitations themselves given the available database. In contrast to most accepted psychiatric conditions where emphasis is placed on ultimately changing internal thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, consensus treatment for most GD/GV individuals, at least from adolescence onward, focuses on modifying the external body and external environment to maximize positive outcomes. This series of articles illustrating the diversity of opinions on when and if gender incongruence should be considered pathological reflects the relative lack of scientific indicators of disease in this area, similar to many other domains of mental functioning.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Journal of Homosexuality
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    ABSTRACT: It is crucial to characterize self-regulation in children. We compared the temperamental profiles of children with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Dysregulation Profile (CBCL-DP) to profiles associated with other CBCL-derived syndromes. 382 children (204 boys; aged 5-18) from a large family study were examined. Temperamental profiles were based on the Juvenile Temperament and Character Inventory. Children with the CBCL-DP had a temperamental profile characterized by high Novelty Seeking, high Harm Avoidance, low Reward Dependence and low Persistence. Linear mixed models and regression-based models demonstrated that the CBCL-DP was associated with a "disengaged" temperamental profile. This profile is similar to the profile seen in adult disorders of self-regulation, including cluster B personality disorders. These results support the hypothesis that the CBCL-DP measures poor self-regulation.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Child Psychiatry and Human Development
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    ABSTRACT:   Substantial evidence suggests that a Five-Factor Model personality assessment generates a valid description of childhood individual differences and relates to a range of psychological outcomes. Less is known, however, about naturally occurring profiles of personality and their links to psychopathology. The current study explores whether childhood personality characteristics tend to cluster in particular personality profiles that show unique associations with psychopathology and quality of life across time.   Latent class analysis was conducted on maternal rated general personality of a Flemish childhood community sample (N = 477; mean age 10.6 years). The associations of latent class membership probability with psychopathology and quality of life 2 years later were examined, using a multi-informant perspective.   Four distinguishable latent classes were found, representing a Moderate, a Protected, an Undercontrolled and a Vulnerable childhood personality type. Each of these types showed unique associations with childhood outcomes across raters.   Four different personality types can be delineated at young age and have a significant value in understanding vulnerability and adaptation over time.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Oct 2011
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    ABSTRACT: A commonly encountered situation for evaluating clinicians is a history of significant problems in one setting with little or no difficulties in another. This study aims to describe this phenomenon and to examine its relations with other child and family characteristics. A total of 1,730 children (mean age 11.05 years) was studied from the first wave of the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), a large population-based study of Dutch youth. Parent and teacher ratings of aggression, rule breaking, inattention, and hyperactivity were obtained. Children were assigned to groups according to the presence of clinically relevant problems at home only, at school only, or in both settings. The rate of setting specific problems was calculated and comparisons between groups were made. Setting specific, especially home-specific, problems were quite common. Among children whom parents rated as having at least borderline-clinical problems, teachers reported clear or very clear behaviors at school at the following rates: aggression (22%), rule breaking (12.5%), inattention (55%), and hyperactivity/impulsivity (33%). Compared with the school-specific group, the home-specific group contained a significantly higher percentage of girls with regard to inattention or hyperactivity and a significantly lower percentage of girls with regards to rule breaking. Logistic regression analyses revealed that home- versus school-specific problems were related to sex, child effortful control, and parental stress. Externalizing problems are frequently encountered only in one setting between home and school and are related to sex, child effortful control, and parental stress.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2011 · Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Personality traits and socioeconomic factors such as neighborhood income have been identified as risk factors for future alcohol abuse, but findings have been inconsistent possibly due to interactions between risk and protective factors. The present study examined the prediction of drinking behavior using empirically derived multi-trait patterns and tested for moderation by average neighborhood income. Using latent profile analysis (LPA) in a sample of 863 Dutch adolescents, four empirical personality profiles based on 6 traits were observed: Extraverted, Dysregulated, Neurotic, and Regulated. Dysregulated and Extraverted youth drank higher quantities of alcohol more frequently in young adulthood relative to the Regulated group, above and beyond the effects of baseline adolescent drinking, age, and sex. Profile levels of neuroticism did not appear to affect drinking behavior. Average neighborhood income did not moderate adolescent personality and young adult drinking. These findings suggest that future alcohol research should consider individual trait patterns to inform prevention and intervention efforts, and theories implicating both positive and negative emotionality traits as risk factors for drinking are preferable to those emphasizing the importance of the latter.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Addictive behaviors

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Using a general population sample, the adult outcomes of children who presented with severe problems with self-regulation defined as being concurrently rated highly on attention problems, aggressive behavior, and anxious-depression on the Child Behavior Checklist-Dysregulation Profile (CBCL-DP) were examined. Two thousand seventy-six children from 13 birth cohorts 4 to 16 years of age were drawn from Dutch birth registries in 1983. CBCLs were completed by parents at baseline when children from the different cohorts were 4 to 16 years of age and sampled every 2 years for the next 14 years. At year 14 the CBCL and DSM interview data were collected. Logistic regression was used to compare and contrast outcomes for children with and without dysregulation, as measured by the latent-class-defined CBCL-DP. Sex and age were covaried and concurrent DSM diagnoses were included in regression models. Presence of childhood CBCL-DP at wave 1 was associated with increased rates of adult anxiety disorders, mood disorders, disruptive behavior disorders, and drug abuse 14 years later. After controlling for co-occurring disorders in adulthood, associations with anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders with the CBCL-DP remained, whereas the others were not significant. A child reported to be in the CBCL-DP class is at increased risk for problems with regulating affect, behavior, and cognition in adulthood.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Disorders of self-regulatory behavior are common reasons for referral to child and adolescent clinicians. Here, the authors sought to compare 2 methods of empirically based assessment of children with problems in self-regulatory behavior. Using parental reports on 2,028 children (53% boys) from a U.S. national probability sample of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL; T. M. Achenbach & L. A. Rescorla, 2001), the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was applied to compare scores on the Posttraumatic Stress Problems Scale (PTSP) of the CBCL with the CBCL Dysregulation Profile (DP), identified using latent class analysis of the Attention Problems, Aggressive Behavior, and Anxious/Depressed scales of the CBCL. The CBCL-PTSP score demonstrated an area under the curve of between .88 and .91 for predicting membership in the CBCL-DP profile for boys and for girls. These findings suggest that the CBCL-PTSP, which others have shown does not uniquely identify children who have been traumatized, does identify the same profile of behavior as the CBCL-DP. Therefore, the authors recommend renaming the CBCL-PTSP the Dysregulation Short Scale and provide some guidelines for the use of the CBCL-DP scale and the CBCL-PTSP in clinical practice.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2010 · Psychological Assessment
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    ABSTRACT: The Dysregulation Profile (DP) of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) (previously called the CBCL-Juvenile Bipolar Disorder or CBCL-JBD profile) characterized by elevated scores on CBCL attention problems, aggressive behavior, and anxious/depressed scales is associated with severe psychopathology and suicidal behavior. The stability of this profile across informants has not been established. In this study, agreement across parent, teacher, and self-reports was examined for the Dysregulation Profile phenotype derived using latent class analysis of a national probability sample of 2031 children aged 6-18. The Dysregulation Profile latent class was found for each informant and accounted for 6-7% of the sample. There was mild to fair agreement on the Dysregulation Profile latent class between parents and youth (Kappa=0.22-0.25), parents and teachers (Kappa=0.14-0.24) and youth and teachers (Kappa=0.19-0.28). When parents and youth reports both placed children into the Dysregulation Profile latent class, 42% of boys and 67% of girls reported suicidal thoughts or behavior. We conclude that the Dysregulation Profile latent class is identified across informants although agreement of specific individuals is mild. Children in this class as identified by parental and youth reports have a very high risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2010 · Psychiatry Research

Publication Stats

1k Citations
218.64 Total Impact Points


  • 2005-2015
    • University of Vermont
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      Burlington, Vermont, United States
  • 2008-2012
    • University of Vermont Medical Center
      Burlington, Vermont, United States
  • 2010
    • Erasmus University Rotterdam
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2006-2008
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2004-2006
    • VU University Amsterdam
      • • Department of Biological Psychology
      • • Faculty of Psychology and Education
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2003
    • McLean Hospital
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States