[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Uric acid (UA) levels correlate positively with the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and/or hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that UA may also have a link to a new incidence of CKD and hypertension.
Study design is a cohort study and the predictor is UA levels. Of the 15,470 screened cases, 8223 participants without CKD were eligible for the analysis of the incidence of CKD. Among these CKD candidates, 7569 participants were eligible for the analysis of the new development of hypertension. The observation period was 4 years.
Relationship of UA with new cases of CKD. Higher UA levels had a closer association with the new development of CKD; 1.1 % (UA < 5 mg/dL), 1.5 % (5.0-5.9 mg/dL), 1.7 % (6.0-6.9 mg/dL), and 3.4 % (≧7 mg/dL), respectively (p < 0.001 by the Chi-square test). Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that the estimates of the CKD development were eGFR [Hazard Ratio (HR) 0.816, 95 % confidence intervals (CI) 0.791-0.840] and male gender (HR 0.562, 95 % CI 0.322-0.982). UA levels and new development of hypertension. Higher UA levels had a closer association with the new development of hypertension; 5.0 % (UA < 5 mg/dL), 8.9 % (5.0-5.9 mg/dL), 10.6 % (6.0-6.9 mg/dL), and 11.8 % (≧7 mg/dL), respectively (p < 0.001 by the Chi-square test). Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that the estimates of the hypertension development were BMI (HR 1.190, 95 % CI 1.155-1.226), age (HR 1.021, 95 % CI 1.010-1.032), HDL-cholesterol (HR 1.013, 95 % CI 1.007-1.019), male gender (HR 1.791, 95 % CI 1.338-2.395), UA level (HR 1.112, 95 % CI 1.024-1.207), and eGFR (HR 1008, 95 % CI 1.002-1.013). Furthermore, the logistic analysis showed that the odds ratio (OR) to estimate hypertension in the high UA group (UA ≧ 7 mg/dL; OR 1.33, 95 % CI 1.01-1.80) was greater than that in the low UA group (UA < 5 mg/dL). Kaplan-Meier analysis also confirmed the finding that the higher the UA levels the greater the hypertension development (p < 0.001 by the Log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard analysis).
High UA levels are associated with the new development of hypertension, but not with the incidence of CKD.
No preview · Article · May 2015 · Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
We assessed the efficacy and adverse effects of febuxostat in male hyperuricemia patients.
Subjects and methods:
This was a 12-week, multicenter, open-label, uncontrolled study. The enrolled subjects were 89 hyperuricemic male patients (12 overexcretors, 56 normal excretors, and 21 underexcretors). The endpoint was percent change in serum urate level.
The concentration of urate in serum before and 12 weeks after beginning administration of febuxostat in the overexcretors was 9.34 ± 1.48 and 5.59 ± 1.17 mg/dl, respectively, while those were 8.59 ± 1.24 and 5.41 ± 1.35 mg/dl, respectively, in the normal excretors, and 8.29 ± 1.01and 5.11 ± 1.71 mg/dl, respectively, in the underexcretors. After 12 weeks, the rate of change in serum urate after beginning administration of febuxostat was - 0.384 ± 0.186 in the overexcretors, - 0.368 ± 0.128 in the normal excretors, and - 0.365 ± 0.217 in the underexcretors, with no significant differences among them. A common adverse event related to febuxostat was gout flare.
Febuxostat effectively reduced the concentration of urate in serum in hyperuricemic patients regardless of the level of uric acid excreted in urine without severe adverse effects.
No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Modern Rheumatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gout, caused by hyperuricaemia, is a multifactorial disease. Although genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of gout have been reported, they included self-reported gout cases in which clinical information was insufficient. Therefore, the relationship between genetic variation and clinical subtypes of gout remains unclear. Here, we first performed a GWAS of clinically defined gout cases only.
A GWAS was conducted with 945 patients with clinically defined gout and 1213 controls in a Japanese male population, followed by replication study of 1048 clinically defined cases and 1334 controls.
Five gout susceptibility loci were identified at the genome-wide significance level (p<5.0×10(-8)), which contained well-known urate transporter genes (ABCG2 and SLC2A9) and additional genes: rs1260326 (p=1.9×10(-12); OR=1.36) of GCKR (a gene for glucose and lipid metabolism), rs2188380 (p=1.6×10(-23); OR=1.75) of MYL2-CUX2 (genes associated with cholesterol and diabetes mellitus) and rs4073582 (p=6.4×10(-9); OR=1.66) of CNIH-2 (a gene for regulation of glutamate signalling). The latter two are identified as novel gout loci. Furthermore, among the identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we demonstrated that the SNPs of ABCG2 and SLC2A9 were differentially associated with types of gout and clinical parameters underlying specific subtypes (renal underexcretion type and renal overload type). The effect of the risk allele of each SNP on clinical parameters showed significant linear relationships with the ratio of the case-control ORs for two distinct types of gout (r=0.96 [p=4.8×10(-4)] for urate clearance and r=0.96 [p=5.0×10(-4)] for urinary urate excretion).
Our findings provide clues to better understand the pathogenesis of gout and will be useful for development of companion diagnostics.
Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/aims:
Combining peritoneal dialysis (PD) and hemodialysis (HD) has been common treatment option in Japan.
In this retrospective, multicenter, observational study, the clinical characteristics and outcomes of 104 patients (57 ± 11 years, males 72%) who had switched from PD alone to combined therapy with PD and HD were studied. Clinical parameters were measured at baseline and after 3 months of combined therapy.
At baseline, urine volume, dialysate-to-plasma ratio of creatinine (D/P Cr), and total Kt/V were 150 ml/day (range: 0-2,000 ml/day), 0.67 ± 0.11, and 1.8 ± 0.4, respectively. During the first 3 months of combined therapy, body weight, urine volume, serum creatinine level, and D/P Cr decreased, whereas hemoglobin levels increased.
In patients where PD does not result in acceptable outcomes, combined therapy with PD and HD may have potential benefits in terms of dialysis adequacy and hydration status. Video Journal Club “Cappuccino with Claudio Ronco” at http://www.karger.com/?doi=368389
No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Blood Purification
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy (FJHN) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in UMOD that encodes uromodulin. Topiroxostat, a novel non-purine analog, selectively inhibits xanthine oxidase and reduces the serum uric acid levels and the urinary albuminuria.
Genomic DNA of a patient was extracted from peripheral white blood. Exons and flanking sequences of UMOD were amplified by PCR with primers. Mutation analysis was performed by direct sequencing of the PCR products. The wild-type and mutant uromodulin were expressed in HEK293 cells and analyzed by western blotting, immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, and flow cytometry.
We identified an FJHN patient who carried a novel UMOD mutation G335A (C112Y). The levels of both cytosolic and secreted C112Y protein were significantly decreased compared with the wild-type, whereas the level of ubiquitination was higher in C112Y than that in the wild type. The half-life of C112Y was shortened and it was restored by a proteasome inhibitor MG132. Immunofluorescence revealed decreased levels of C112Y in the Golgi apparatus and on the plasma membrane. Expression of C112Y induced cellular apoptosis as revealed by flow cytometry. Apoptosis induced by C112Y was suppressed by topiroxostat.
C112Y causes its protein instability resulting cellular apoptosis which could be suppressed with topiroxostat.
No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperuricemia (HU) is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and accumulating evidence suggests it has a pathogenic role in the progression of the disease. However, a major challenge in treating patients with HU is the adverse effects caused by urate-lowering drugs used to treat CKD. Because of these untoward effects, doses need to be reduced, which leads to suboptimal efficacy. Febuxostat has been shown to be highly efficacious in reducing serum uric acid (sUA) and is well tolerated in patients with mild kidney dysfunction. However, its safety and efficacy have not been well studied in more advanced cases of CKD. We studied the safety and efficacy of escalating doses of febuxostat over a 24-week period in 70 patients with CKD stages 3b, 4 and 5, and we also observed the changes in blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and proteinuria following the reduction of sUA. Drug-related adverse events (AEs) occurred in only 5 out of 70 patients. All but one of the events were mild, and all five patients fully recovered. By 24 weeks, the reduction of sUA levels was >40% in CKD stage 3b and >50% in CKD stages 4 and 5. More than 70% of patients achieved target sUA levels of 6 mg dl(-1) or less. Multivariate analysis showed that a greater reduction in sUA with febuxostat was associated with an increase in eGFR and a tendency toward decreased proteinuria. Febuxostat was safe and efficacious in the treatment of CKD stages 3b-5.Hypertension Research advance online publication, 19 June 2014; doi:10.1038/hr.2014.107.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Hypertension Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gout/hyperuricemia is a common multifactorial disease having typical environmental risks. Recently, common dysfunctional variants of ABCG2, a urate exporter gene also known as BCRP, are revealed to be a major cause of gout/hyperuricemia. Here, we compared the influence of ABCG2 dysfunction on serum uric acid (SUA) levels with other typical risk factors in a cohort of 5,005 Japanese participants. ABCG2 dysfunction was observed in 53.3% of the population investigated, and its population-attributable risk percent (PAR%) for hyperuricemia was 29.2%, much higher than those of the other typical environmental risks, i.e. overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 25.0; PAR% = 18.7%), heavy drinking (>196 g/week (male) or >98 g/week (female) of pure alcohol; PAR% = 15.4%), and aging (≥60 years old; PAR% = 5.74%). SUA significantly increased as the ABCG2 function decreased (P = 5.99 × 10(-19)). A regression analysis revealed that ABCG2 dysfunction had a stronger effect than other factors; a 25% decrease in ABCG2 function was equivalent to "an increase of BMI by 1.97-point" or "552.1 g/week alcohol intake as pure ethanol" in terms of ability to increase SUA. Therefore, ABCG2 dysfunction originating from common genetic variants has a much stronger impact on the progression of hyperuricemia than other familiar risks. Our study provides a better understanding of common genetic factors for common diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calcium channel blockers are one of the most useful antihypertensive agents because of their definite blood pressure lowering action. Although the antihypertensive effect of calcium channel blockers is attributed predominantly to the blockade of L-type calcium channels, recent studies demonstrate that the blockade of other subtypes of calcium channels, including T-type and N-type calcium channels, offers renal protective action because of their beneficial action on glomerular capillary pressure, renal fibrotic process, sympathetic nerve activity and aldosterone synthesis. It requires more extensive studies to clarify whether the ostensibly beneficial actions of these calcium channel blockers are available in a clinical setting.
No preview · Article · May 2014 · Current Hypertension Reviews
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ATP-binding cassette transporter, sub-family G, member 2 (ABCG2/BCRP) is identified as a high-capacity urate exporter, and its dysfunction has an association with serum uric acid levels and gout/hyperuricemia risk. Generally, hyperuricemia has been classified into urate "overproduction type," "underexcretion type," and "combined type" based on only renal urate excretion, without considering an extra-renal pathway such as gut excretion. In this study, we investigated the effects of ABCG2 dysfunction on human urate handling and the mechanism of hyperuricemia. Clinical parameters for urate handling including urinary urate excretion (UUE) were examined in 644 Japanese male outpatients with hyperuricemia. The severity of their ABCG2 dysfunction was estimated by genotype combination of two common ABCG2 variants, nonfunctional Q126X (rs72552713) and half-functional Q141K (rs2231142). Contrary to the general understanding that ABCG2 dysfunction leads to decreased renal urate excretion, UUE was significantly increased by ABCG2 dysfunction (P = 3.60 × 10(-10)). Mild, moderate, and severe ABCG2 dysfunctions significantly raised the risk of "overproduction" hyperuricemia including overproduction type and combined type, conferring risk ratios of 1.36, 1.66, and 2.35, respectively. The present results suggest that common dysfunctional variants of ABCG2 decrease extra-renal urate excretion including gut excretion and cause hyperuricemia. Thus, "overproduction type" in the current concept of hyperuricemia should be renamed "renal overload type," which is caused by two different mechanisms, "extra-renal urate underexcretion" and genuine "urate overproduction." Our new concept will lead to a more accurate diagnosis and more effective therapeutic strategy for hyperuricemia and gout.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monitoring of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is recommended in the management of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). However, unlike calcium, phosphate or parathyroid hormone, the relationship between serum ALP and patient outcome receiving hemodialysis (HD) in Japan is unknown.
Baseline data of 185 277 HD patients with duration >90 days (66 ± 12 years, males 61.9%, and median HD duration of 5.8 years) were extracted from a nationwide dialysis registry at the end of 2009 in Japan. Outcomes were then evaluated using the registry at the end of 2010 using a multivariate logistic regression analysis.
During 1-year follow-up, 14 230 (7.9%) patients died of all causes, including 6396 (3.6%) cardiovascular deaths. In addition, 1586 patients (1.0%) were newly diagnosed as hip fractures. All-cause and cardiovascular mortality and the incidence of hip fracture were higher in line with the increase in baseline serum ALP. On multivariate analysis, patients with the highest ALP quartile had higher all-cause and cardiovascular mortalities and a higher incidence of hip fracture than those with the lowest quartile [odds ratio (OR) 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33-1.60; OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.10-1.42; and OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.33-2.18, respectively].
In this large cohort study, higher serum ALP levels were independently associated not only with mortality but also with the incidence of hip fracture in Japanese HD patients. Further study is needed to test whether serum ALP measurements could improve the patient outcomes.
Preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To elucidate the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) in Japanese populations, we performed a comprehensive search for mutations in PKD1 and PKD2 in 180 Japanese ADPKD patients from 161 unrelated families. We identified 112 (89 PKD1 and 23 PKD2) mutations within 135 families. Patients with PKD2 mutations account for 23.6% of all Japanese ADPKD families in this study. Seventy-five out of the 112 mutations have not been reported previously. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline was significantly faster in patients with PKD1 mutations than in those with PKD2 mutations (−3.25 and −2.08 ml · min−1 · year−1 for PKD1 and PKD2, respectively, p < 0.01). These results indicate that mutations within PKD1 and PKD2 can be linked to most of the cases of Japanese ADPKD, and the renal function decline was faster in patients with PKD1 mutations than in those with PKD2 mutations also in the Japanese ADPKD. We also found that PKD2 mutations were more frequent in Japanese ADPKD than that in European or American ADPKD.
No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Clinical Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a non-invasive method to estimate total body water (TBW) and extracellular water (ECW) volume. Crit-Line(®) (CL), on the other hand, assesses intravascular water (IVW) volume. We evaluate continuous changes in body water composition during hemodialysis (HD) with concurrent use of BIA and CL.
BIA at the start and the end of the HD session was measured using a BIA device. To investigate the shifting pattern of body water composition, patients were subjected to simultaneous monitoring of BIA with CL.
Both TBW resistance (Rt) and ECW resistance (Re) increased in response to changes in the ultrafiltration (UF) ratio. There was a positive correlation between ΔRe/Rt and the UF ratio, and the ratio of Re/Rt at the end of HD was significantly higher than that at the start of HD. Simultaneous monitoring of BIA with CL showed a parallel shift of the change in the Re (ΔRe) and the change in hematocrit (ΔHt). In one patient with increasing inflammatory response, change in ΔHt was dissociated from change in ΔRe. One hyponatremic patient showed a different pattern of changing ΔRe between the first half and the latter half of the HD session.
Our study suggests that the concurrent use of BIA and CL may be a useful technique to simulate water shift patterns across the different compartments in HD.
No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NFE2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a master regulatory transcription factor for antioxidant genes. Inhibition of its adaptor protein, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), activates Nrf2. Podocyte injury triggers the progressive deterioration of glomerular damage toward glomerulosclerosis. We examined whether modulation of the Keap1-Nrf2 system has an impact on this process.
Nrf2 null-mutant (KO) and Keap1 hypomorphic knockdown (KD) mice were crossed with NEP25 mice, in which podocyte-specific injury can be induced by an immunotoxin.
Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and phosphorylated JNK were increased in the injured NEP25 kidney. Real-time PCR revealed that Keap1 KD upregulated Nrf2 target genes, including Gclc, Gclm, Gstp1, Gstp2 and Nqo1 in the glomerulus. However, podocyte injury did not upregulate these genes in Keap1 wild-type mice, nor did it further increase the expression of those genes in Keap1 KD mice. Three weeks after the induction of podocyte injury, glomerulosclerosis was considerably more attenuated in Keap1 KD mice than in control mice (median sclerosis index, 0.27 versus 3.03, on a 0-4 scale). Keap1 KD mice also showed considerably preserved nephrin staining (median index, 6.76 versus 0.91, on a 0-8 scale) and decreased glomeruli containing desmin-positive injured podocytes (median percentage, 24.5% versus 85.8%), along with a decrease in mRNAs for Fn1, Tgfb1, Col4a4 and Col1a2.
Thus, podocyte injury cannot effectively activate Nrf2, but Nrf2 activation by Keap1 knockdown attenuates glomerulosclerosis. These results indicate that the Nrf2-Keap1 system is a promising drug target for the treatment of chronic kidney diseases.
Preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a serious complication that occurs in patients with long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD). Investigation of risk factors that contribute to EPS in patients on long-term PD therapy is needed. In a retrospective, observational study, data were collected for 107 patients treated with PD therapy for more than 5 years. Fifty cases of EPS were compared with 57 cases of non-EPS. To evaluate the impact of PD-associated peritonitis in EPS, univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were applied. Episodes of peritonitis, number of peritonitis episodes and the duration of peritonitis were included as explanatory variables in addition to previously reported risk factors. D/P Cr and serum β2MG levels in the EPS and non-EPS groups were: 0.82 ± 0.10 and 0.67 ± 0.12 (P < 0.01), and 33.8 ± 8.54 and 29.2 ± 8.18 mg/L (P < 0.01), respectively. Episodes of peritonitis, number of peritonitis episodes and the duration of peritonitis was 68% and 42% (P < 0.01), 1.80 ± 2.19 and 0.75 ± 1.07 times (P < 0.01), and 18.1 ± 15.3 and 10.2 ± 4.90 days (P < 0.01), in the EPS and non-EPS groups, respectively. Furthermore, multivariate logistic regression models demonstrated that both D/P Cr and the duration of peritonitis were independently associated with EPS (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). In patients on long-term PD therapy, D/P Cr and the duration of peritonitis are independently associated with EPS. Earlier treatment to promote an early recovery from PD-associated peritonitis could be critical in preventing EPS.
No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Therapeutic apheresis and dialysis: official peer-reviewed journal of the International Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Topiroxostat, a selective xanthine oxidase inhibitor, shows effective reduction in the serum urate level in hyperuricemic patients with or without gout. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topiroxostat in hyperuricemic stage 3 chronic kidney disease patients with or without gout.
The study design was a 22-week, randomized, multicenter, double-blind study. The enrolled patients were randomly assigned to treatment with topiroxostat 160 mg/day (n = 62) or to the placebo (n = 61). The endpoints were the percent change in the serum urate level, change in the estimated glomerular filtration rate, the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio, the proportion of patients with serum urate levels of 356.88 μmol/L or less, blood pressure, and serum adiponectin.
After 22 weeks, although the changes in the estimated glomerular filtration rate and blood pressure were not significant, the percent change in the serum urate level (-45.38 vs. -0.08 %, P < 0.0001) and the percent change in urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (-33.0 vs. -6.0 %, P = 0.0092) were found to have decreased in the topiroxostat as compared with the placebo. Although the incidence of 'alanine aminotransferase increased' was higher in the topiroxostat, serious adverse event rates were similar in the two groups.
Topiroxostat 160 mg effectively reduced the serum urate level in the hyperuricemic stage 3 chronic kidney disease patients with or without gout.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gout is a common disease which results from hyperuricemia. We have reported that the dysfunction of urate exporter ABCG2 is the major cause of renal overload (ROL) hyperuricemia, but its involvement in renal underexcretion (RUE) hyperuricemia, the most prevalent subtype, is not clearly explained so far. In this study, the association analysis with 644 hyperuricemia patients and 1,623 controls in male Japanese revealed that ABCG2 dysfunction significantly increased the risk of RUE hyperuricemia as well as overall and ROL hyperuricemia, according to the severity of impairment. ABCG2 dysfunction caused renal urate underexcretion and induced hyperuricemia even if the renal urate overload was not remarkable. These results show that ABCG2 plays physiologically important roles in both renal and extra-renal urate excretion mechanisms. Our findings indicate the importance of ABCG2 as a promising therapeutic and screening target of hyperuricemia and gout.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Scientific Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperuricemia is a risk factor for the onset of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is significantly associated with the progression of CKD. However, there is no sufficient evidence by interventional research supporting a cause-effect relationship. Hyperuricemic patients without gouty arthritis, whose serum urate (SUA) concentration is >=8.0 mg/dL and who have a complication, are treated by pharmacotherapy in addition to lifestyle guidance. Nevertheless, there is no evidence that rationalizes pharmacotherapy for patients with hyperuricemia who have no complication and whose SUA concentration is below 9.0 mg/dL.
The FEATHER (FEbuxostat versus placebo rAndomized controlled Trial regarding reduced renal function in patients with Hyperuricemia complicated by chRonic kidney disease stage 3) study is a prospective, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of febuxostat--a novel, nonpurine, selective, xanthine oxidase inhibitor. The present study will enroll, at 67 medical institutions in Japan, 400 Japanese patients aged 20 years or older who have hyperuricemia without gouty arthritis, who present CKD stage 3, and whose SUA concentration is 7.1-10.0 mg/dL. Patients are randomly assigned to either the febuxostat or the control group, in which febuxostat tablets and placebo are administered orally, respectively. The dosage of the study drugs should be one 10-mg tablet/day at weeks 1 to 4 after study initiation, increased to one 20-mg tablet/day at weeks 5 to 8, and elevated to one 40-mg tablet/day at week 9 and then maintained until week 108. The primary endpoint is estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) slope. The secondary endpoints include the amount and percent rate of change in eGFR from baseline to week 108, the amount and percent rate of change in SUA concentration from baseline to week 108, the proportion of patients who achieved an SUA concentration <=6.0 mg/dL, and the incidence of renal function deterioration.
The present study aims to examine whether febuxostat prevents a further reduction in renal function as assessed with eGFR in subjects and will (1) provide evidence to indicate the inverse association between a reduction in SUA concentration and an improvement in renal function and (2) rationalize pharmacotherapy for subjects and clarify its clinical relevance.Trial registration: UMIN Identifier: UMIN000008343.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, the number of patients with gout and hyperuricemia has increased in Japan; therefore, we expected to find an increase
in the number of uric acid stones in our study. We examined the frequency of uric acid stones and its relationship with the
number of patients with gout and hyperuricemia or their nutritional state. We reviewed the records of 5477 patients with urolithiasis
who visited our hospital between 1975 and 1993. During this period, the incidence of calcium-containing stones remained at
86%. The percentage incidence of uric acid and urate stones during the same period showed a steady increase to 7.2%. This
increase was computed to be 3-fold that of 1975. The male gender dominates among the patients with uric acid and urate stones.
We believe that the increases in the incidence of gout and hyperuricemia and alcohol consumption are responsible for this
No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Modern Rheumatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The disease entity of “gouty kidney” was established in about 19th century. However, it has been discussed for a long time, whether hyperuricemia aggravates renal function. Ultrasonography is useful for diagnosis of gouty kidneys. As the abdominal ultrasonographic findings, the renal medulla is hypoechoic compared with the renal cortex in the normal kidneys, whereas the renal medulla is often hyperechoic compared with the renal cortex in the gouty kidneys, and called the “hyperechoic medulla”. This study aimed to elucidate the clinical characteristics of the cases with gout and/or hyperuricemia that exhibited gouty kidneys by abdominal ultrasonography. Of the cases with gout and / or hyperuricemia followed-up at the outpatient clinic, 10 cases with the abdominal ultrasonographic findings of the hyperechoic medulla and 10 with no such findings were categorized into the gouty kidney group and non-gouty kidney group, respectively, and change in serum uric acid levels and change in renal function before and after treatment were examined. In addition, mutations in the ABCG2 gene, a recently identified gene related with the onset of gout, was examined. No case showed acidic urine in the non-gouty kidney group, whereas acidic urine was observed significantly more frequently in 9 of 10 cases in the gouty kidney group. No deterioration in renal function was observed for five years after the introduction of treatment in the non-gouty kidney group, whereas significantly increased serum creatinine levels and decreased estimated glomerular filtration rates were observed in the gouty kidney group. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of ABCG2 gene mutation between the two groups.