Aung Naing

University of Houston, Houston, Texas, United States

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Publications (241)

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    Full-text Dataset · Aug 2016
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Interleukin-10 (IL-10) stimulates the expansion and cytotoxicity of tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells and inhibits inflammatory CD4+ T cells. Pegylation prolongs the serum concentration of IL-10 without changing the immunologic profile. This phase I study sought to determine the safety and antitumor activity of AM0010. Patients and methods: Patients with selected advanced solid tumors were treated with AM0010 in a dose-escalation study, which was followed by a renal cell cancer (RCC) dose-expansion cohort. AM0010 was self-administered subcutaneously at doses of 1 to 40 μg/kg once per day. Primary end points were safety and tolerability; clinical activity and immune activation were secondary end points. Results: In the dose-escalation and -expansion cohorts, 33 and 18 patients, respectively, were treated with daily subcutaneous injection of AM0010. AM0010 was tolerated in a heavily pretreated patient population. Treatment-related adverse events (AEs) included anemia, fatigue, thrombocytopenia, fever, and injection site reactions. Grade 3 to 4 nonhematopoietic treatment-related AEs, including rash (n = 2) and transaminitis (n = 1), were observed in five of 33 patients. Grade 3 to 4 anemia or thrombocytopenia was observed in five patients. Most treatment-related AEs were transient or reversible. AM0010 led to systemic immune activation with elevated immune-stimulatory cytokines and reduced transforming growth factor beta in the serum. Partial responses were observed in one patient with uveal melanoma and four of 15 evaluable patients with RCC treated at 20 μg/kg (overall response rate, 27%). Prolonged stable disease of at least 4 months was observed in four patients, including one with colorectal cancer with disease stabilization for 20 months. Conclusion: AM0010 has an acceptable toxicity profile with early evidence of antitumor activity, particularly in RCC. These data support the further evaluation of AM0010 both alone and in combination with other immune therapies and chemotherapies.
    Article · Aug 2016 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
  • J Andrew Livingston · Kenneth R Hess · Aung Naing · [...] · Vivek Subbiah
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: We sought to validate the Royal Marsden Hospital (RMH) and MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) prognostic scoring systems for the selection of bone sarcoma patients for phase I clinical trials and to identify additional risk factors related to survival. Patients and methods: We retrospectively reviewed the baseline characteristics and outcomes of 92 bone sarcoma patients who were referred to MDACC's Phase I Clinical Trials Program. Results: Ninety-two patients with Ewing sarcoma (N = 47), osteosarcoma (N = 22), chondrosarcoma (N = 16), and other tumors (N = 7) were evaluated; 78 were enrolled in at least 1 of 43 different phase I trials. The median overall survival (OS) was 8.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.8-13.7 months). Independent factors that predicted shorter survival were male sex, >2 metastatic sites, >3 previous therapies, hemoglobin level <10.5 g/dL, platelet count >200 x103/L, creatinine level ≥1.3 mg/dL, and lactate dehydrogenase level >ULN. Patients with good RMH scores (0-1) had longer OS than patients with poor RMH scores (2-3) (HR = 5.8, 95% CI = 2.9-11.0; P < 0.0001), as did patients with low MDACC scores (0-1) as compared to patients with higher MDACC scores (2-4) (HR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.9-5.6; P < 0.0001). Conclusion: The RMH prognostic score can be used to predict the OS of bone cancer patients referred for phase I trials. The MDACC score added no value to the RMH score and therefore does not have a role in assessment of patients with bone tumors. Patients with advanced bone sarcomas should be considered for phase I trials.
    Article · Jul 2016 · Oncotarget
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    Jennifer J Wheler · Filip Janku · Aung Naing · [...] · Razelle Kurzrock
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TP53 tumor suppressor gene mutations are amongst the most frequent abnormalities in cancer, affecting approximately 40% of patients. Yet, there is no accepted way to target these alterations in the clinic. At the same time, antagonists of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor (VEGFR) or its ligand are best-selling oncology drugs, with multiple, expensive compounds approved. While only a subset of patients benefit from these anti-angiogenesis agents, no relevant biomarker has been identified. Interestingly, TP53 mutations up-regulate VEGF-A and VEGFR2. We prospectively enrolled 500 patients, to be interrogated by comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) (next generation sequencing, 236 genes), and to be matched, whenever possible, with targeted agents. Herein, we analyze outcomes based on VEGF/VEGFR inhibitor treatment and presence of TP53 mutations. Of the 500 patients, 188 (37.6%) (with {greater than or equal to}1 alteration) were treated; 106 (56% of 188) had tumors that harbored TP53 mutations. VEGF/VEGFR inhibitor therapy was independently associated with improvement in all outcome parameters (rate of stable disease (SD) {greater than or equal to}6 months/partial and complete remission (PR/CR) (31% versus 7%; TP53-mutant patients (who received no other molecular-matched agents) treated with versus without VEGF/VEGFR inhibitors), time-to-treatment failure and overall survival (multivariate analysis: all p{less than or equal to} 0.01)) for the patients harboring TP53-mutant cancers, but improvement was not seen in any of these parameters for patients with TP53 wild-type neoplasms. We conclude that TP53 mutations predict sensitivity to VEGF/VEGFR inhibitors in the clinic. TP53 alterations may therefore be a ready biomarker for treatment with anti-angiogenesis agents, a finding of seminal importance across the cancer field.
    Full-text Article · Jul 2016 · Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
  • Article · Jul 2016 · Cancer Research
  • Article · Jul 2016 · Cancer Research
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    Full-text Article · Jul 2016 · Cancer Research
  • Article · Jul 2016 · Cancer Research
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Limited data exist about sleep quality for patients with advanced cancer in phase 1 clinical trials. Poor sleep quality is often not captured as an adverse event, and its association with fatigue, one of the most frequently reported adverse events, is not documented routinely. This article describes sleep quality and its relation with fatigue, symptom burden, and mood in patients recruited from an early-phase clinic for targeted therapy. Methods: Sleep, fatigue, symptom burden, and mood were assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Brief Fatigue Inventory, the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI), and the Brief Profile of Mood States, respectively; the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) was determined from medical records. Results: The sample (n = 256) was 51.2% female, 90% had an ECOG PS of 0 or 1, and the mean age was 58 ± 0.8 years. Poor sleepers (global PSQI score > 5) constituted 64% of the sample. In separate multiple regression models, poor sleepers had higher levels of fatigue (P < .001), symptom burden (P < .001), and overall mood disturbance (P < .001) than good sleepers. Also, compared with good sleepers, poor sleepers had greater fatigue-related and symptom-related interference with daily activities (all P values < .001). The MDASI disturbed-sleep item correlated well with the global PSQI score (Pearson's r = 0.679, P < .001), and this suggests its usefulness as a patient-reported outcome screener of sleep quality in early-phase clinical trials clinics. Conclusions: Poor sleep quality was a significant problem in the current study and was associated with greater fatigue, symptom burden, and mood disturbance. Sleep quality should be routinely assessed in patients with advanced cancer who are participating in early-phase clinical trials. Cancer 2016. © 2016 American Cancer Society.
    Article · Jul 2016 · Cancer
  • Mehmet Asim Bilen · Amy Patel · Kenneth R. Hess · [...] · Aung Naing
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose Tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-induced thyroid dysfunction has been identified as an important but manageable adverse effect of targeted therapy. Several studies have suggested that patients who develop hypothyroidism respond better to TKIs, but this relationship is not well elucidated. We evaluated the relationship between new-onset hypothyroidism and clinical response in patients with advanced cancers treated with TKIs at our institution. Methods We retrospectively reviewed records for patients from four clinical trials that included at least one TKI therapy between January 2006 and December 2011. Patients with preexisting thyroid disease, including thyroid cancer, hypothyroidism, or hyperthyroidism, were excluded. Analysis of 197 patients was performed. Response was determined using RECIST 1.0. Clinical benefit was described as complete response, partial response, or stable disease greater than 4 months. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to correlate patient characteristics with clinical response. Results The median age for the 197 patients was 58 years (range, 13–85 years), and 56 % were female. Of the 197 patients, 52 (26 %) developed hypothyroidism after therapy. Clinical benefit rates were 50 % in patients with new-onset hypothyroidism versus 34 % in patients without hypothyroidism. In the univariate model, the odds ratio (OR) for new-onset hypothyroidism was 1.9 [95 % confidence interval (CI) (1.0, 3.6) and p = 0.05]. We grouped tumor types into six categories (breast, colorectal carcinoma, melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, pancreas, and other). When adjusted for tumor type, age (>50 years) and sex, the OR was 2.9 [95 % CI (1.3, 6.5) and p = 0.012] for new-onset hypothyroidism. Conclusion New-onset hypothyroidism was associated with favorable clinical response in patients who received TKI treatment.
    Article · Jun 2016 · Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell-free (cf) DNA from plasma offers an easily obtainable material for BRAF mutation analysis for diagnostics and response monitoring. In this study, plasma-derived cfDNA samples from patients with progressing advanced cancers or malignant histiocytosis with known BRAF (V600) status from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumors were tested using a prototype version of the Idylla BRAF Mutation Test, a fully integrated real-time PCR-based test with turnaround time about 90 minutes. Of 160 patients, BRAF (V600) mutations were detected in 62 (39%) archival FFPE tumor samples and 47 (29%) plasma cfDNA samples. The two methods had overall agreement in 141 patients [88%; κ, 0.74; SE, 0.06; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.63-0.85]. Idylla had a sensitivity of 73% (95% CI, 0.60-0.83) and specificity of 98% (95% CI, 0.93-1.00). A higher percentage, but not concentration, of BRAF (V600) cfDNA in the wild-type background (>2% vs. ≤ 2%) was associated with shorter overall survival (OS; P = 0.005) and in patients with BRAF mutations in the tissue, who were receiving BRAF/MEK inhibitors, shorter time to treatment failure (TTF; P = 0.001). Longitudinal monitoring demonstrated that decreasing levels of BRAF (V600) cfDNA were associated with longer TTF (P = 0.045). In conclusion, testing for BRAF (V600) mutations in plasma cfDNA using the Idylla BRAF Mutation Test has acceptable concordance with standard testing of tumor tissue. A higher percentage of mutant BRAF (V600) in cfDNA corresponded with shorter OS and in patients receiving BRAF/MEK inhibitors also with shorter TTF. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(6); 1-8. ©2016 AACR.
    Article · May 2016 · Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
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    Jennifer J Wheler · Filip Janku · Aung Naing · [...] · Razelle Kurzrock
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Innovative molecular diagnostics deployed in the clinic enable new ways to stratify patients into appropriate treatment regimens. These approaches may resolve a major challenge for early-phase clinical trials, which is to recruit patients who, while having failed previous treatments, may nevertheless respond to molecularly-targeted drugs. We report the findings of a prospective, single-center study conducted in patients with diverse refractory cancers who underwent comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP; next-generation sequencing, 236 genes). Of the 500 patients enrolled, 188 (37.6%) received either matched (N=122/188, 65%) or unmatched therapy (N=66/188, 35%). The most common reasons that patients were not evaluable for treatment included insufficient tissue, death, or hospice transfer. The median number of molecular alterations per patient was five (range, 1-14); median number of prior therapies, four. The most common diagnoses were ovarian cancer (18%), breast cancer (16%), sarcoma (13%), and renal cancer (7%). Of the 339 successfully-profiled patients, 317 (93.5%) had at least one potentially actionable alteration. By calculating matching scores, based on the number of drug matches and genomic aberrations per patient, we found that high scores were independently associated with a greater frequency of stable disease {greater than or equal to}6 months/partial/complete remission (22% (high scores) vs. 9% (low scores), p=0.024), longer time-to-treatment failure (hazard ratio [HR]=0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.36-0.74, p=0.0003), and survival (HR=0.65, CI=0.43-1.0, p=0.05). Collectively, this study offers a clinical proof of concept for the utility of CGP in assigning therapy to patients with refractory malignancies, especially in those patients with multiple genomic aberrations for whom combination therapies could be implemented.
    Full-text Article · May 2016 · Cancer Research
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High-grade epithelial ovarian cancer (HG-EOC) is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy worldwide Once patients develop chemoresistance, effective novel strategies are required to improve prognosis We analyzed characteristics and outcomes of 242 consecutive patients with HG-EOC participating in 94 phase I clinical trials at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. Baseline lactate dehydrogenase levels, albumin levels, and number of metastatic sites were independent predictors of overall survival (OS). Receiving more than 1 phase I protocol was associated with improved OS (p < 0.001). Regimens including a chemotherapeutic agent plus bevacizumab or Aurora A kinase inhibitor led to a median progression-free survival (PFS) duration of more than 6 months. Although patients receiving bevacizumab-based regimens in the phase I clinical trials had significantly longer PFS than those receiving other anti-angiogenic therapies (p = 0.017), patients treated with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (VEGFR-TKIs) had significantly longer OS (12.2 months) than those not treated with VEGFR-TKIs (8.6 months, p = 0.015).In conclusion, anti-angiogenic therapy is one of the most important strategies for the treatment of HG-EOC, even in those who have already experienced tumor progression. Therefore, eligible patients with HG-EOC should be encouraged to participate in novel phase I studies of anti-angiogenic therapies, even after disease progression.
    Full-text Article · Apr 2016 · Oncotarget
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Bevacizumab and temsirolimus are active agents in advanced solid tumors. Temsirolimus inhibits mTOR in the PI3 kinase/AKT/mTOR pathway as well as CYP2A, which may be a resistance mechanism for cetuximab. In addition, temsirolimus attenuates upregulation of HIF-1α levels, which may be a resistance mechanism for bevacizumab. RESULTS: The median age of patients was 60 years (range, 23-80 years). The median number of prior systemic therapies was 3 (range, 1-6). The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was determined to be bevacizumab 10 mg/kg biweekly, temsirolimus 5 mg weekly and cetuximab 100/75 mg/m2 weekly. Grade 3 or 4 toxicities were seen in 52% of patients with the highest prevalence being hyperglycemia (14%) and hypophosphatemia (14%). Eighteen of the 21 patients were evaluable for response. Three patients were taken off the study before restaging for toxicities. Partial response (PR) was observed in 2/18 patients (11%) and stable disease (SD) lasting ≥ 6 months was observed in 4/18 patients (22%) (total = 6/18 (33%)). In 8 evaluable patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) there were partial responses in 2/8 (25%) patients and SD ≥ 6 months in 1/8 (13%) patients (total ≥ 3/8, (38%)). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed safety and responses in 21 patients with advanced solid tumors treated with bevacizumab, cetuximab, and temsirolimus. CONCLUSION: The combination of bevacizumab, cetuximab, and temsirolimus showed activity in HNSCC; however, there were numerous toxicities reported, which will require careful management for future clinical development.
    Article · Apr 2016
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: The primary objective was to determine safety, toxicity, and a recommended phase II dose regimen of LY2606368, an inhibitor of checkpoint kinase 1, as monotherapy. Patients and methods: This phase I, nonrandomized, open-label, dose-escalation trial used a 3 + 3 dose-escalation scheme and included patients with advanced solid tumors. Intravenous LY2606368 was dose escalated from 10 to 50 mg/m(2) on schedule 1 (days 1 to 3 every 14 days) or from 40 to 130 mg/m(2) on schedule 2 (day 1 every 14 days). Safety measures and pharmacokinetics were assessed, and pharmacodynamics were measured in blood, hair follicles, and circulating tumor cells. Results: Forty-five patients were treated; seven experienced dose-limiting toxicities (all hematologic). The maximum-tolerated doses (MTDs) were 40 mg/m(2) (schedule 1) and 105 mg/m(2) (schedule 2). The most common related grade 3 or 4 treatment-emergent adverse events were neutropenia, leukopenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and fatigue. Grade 4 neutropenia occurred in 73.3% of patients and was transient (typically < 5 days). Febrile neutropenia incidence was low (7%). The LY2606368 exposure over the first 72 hours (area under the curve from 0 to 72 hours) at the MTD for each schedule coincided with the exposure in mouse xenografts that resulted in maximal tumor responses. Minor intra- and intercycle accumulation of LY2606368 was observed at the MTDs for both schedules. Two patients (4.4%) had a partial response; one had squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anus and one had SCC of the head and neck. Fifteen patients (33.3%) had a best overall response of stable disease (range, 1.2 to 6.7 months), six of whom had SCC. Conclusion: An LY2606368 dose of 105 mg/m(2) once every 14 days is being evaluated as the recommended phase II dose in dose-expansion cohorts for patients with SCC.
    Full-text Article · Apr 2016 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors like temsirolimus may result in undesirable AKT upregulation. Metformin inhibits mTOR through different mechanisms and may enhance temsirolimus's antitumor activity. We conducted an open-label phase I dose escalation trial of this drug combination in patients with advanced/refractory cancers. Methods: Temsirolimus, 25 mg weekly, was combined with an escalating daily dose of metformin (level 1: 500; level 2: 1000; level 3: 1500; level 4: 2000 mg) by utilizing a standard 3 + 3 trial design. Treatment was administered in 28-day cycles following initial 2-week metformin titration during the first cycle. Results: Twenty-one patients (median age, 56 years) with sarcoma (n = 8), colorectal (n = 3), endometrial (n = 4), uterine carcinosarcoma (n = 2), ovarian (n = 2), and other (n = 2) cancers were enrolled. Patients had received median of four prior systemic treatments. Two dose-limiting toxicities were observed (grade 3 mucositis, grade 3 renal failure); both patients continued treatment after dose modification. Fifty-six percent patients had stable disease as best response; clinical benefit rate was 22 %. Patients continued treatment for median of 11 weeks. Conclusions: Combination temsirolimus/metformin was well tolerated with modestly promising effectiveness among this heavily pretreated patient cohort. We recommend a dose of temsirolimus 25 mg weekly and metformin 2000 mg daily for phase II study.
    Article · Mar 2016 · Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
  • F Janku · DS Hong · JT Atkins · [...] · JJ Wheler
    Article · Feb 2016 · Cancer Research
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose Lenalidomide has synergistic anticancer effects when used with chemotherapy. We conducted a phase I study of lenalidomide in combination with FOLFOX (5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin) in patients with advanced cancer. Methods A “3 + 3” study design was used. Lenalidomide was given orally on days 1–14, oxaliplatin and leucovorin were given intravenously on day 1, and 5-fluorouracil was given as a continuous infusion on days 1–2. The dose escalation phase of the study was followed by an expansion phase. We assessed the maximum tolerated dose, dose-limiting toxicities, and response. Results Thirty-eight patients were treated [median age 53 years (range 31–76); male/female 20:18]. The most common diagnosis was colorectal cancer (CRC) (n = 30, 79 %). Overall, 132 cycles (median 2/patient) were administered. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed. The maximum tested dose (dose level 4) was used in the expansion phase. Grade 3/4 treatment-related toxicities (all reversible) were seen in 14 (37 %) patients and included neutropenia (n = 11), thrombocytopenia (n = 2), and fatigue (n = 2). There were no thrombotic events. Response was evaluable in 32 patients: 19 (59 %) had stable disease (SD), including SD ≥6 months in 4 (13 %) patients. Tumor types with SD ≥6 months were CRC (n = 2; progression-free survival [PFS] 11.3 and 7.1 months, respectively), gastric (n = 1; PFS 8.5 months), and pancreatic (n = 1; PFS 6.4 months) cancer. The median PFS and overall survival durations were 2.2 months (range <1.3–23) and 5.5 months (range <1.6–23), respectively. Conclusions Lenalidomide in combination with FOLFOX was well tolerated. Four patients had prolonged stable disease. This combination merits further investigation for selected patient populations.
    Article · Jan 2016 · Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway was first described by Lewis C. Cantley’s group in 1998 (Fruman et al. in Annu Rev Biochem 67:481–507, 1998, [1]; Cantley in Science 296(5573):1655–1657, 2002, [2]). Upon activation, PI3K signaling can act on diverse downstream substrates (Cantley in Science 296(5573):1655–1657, 2002, [2]; Laplante and Sabatini in Cell 149(2):274–293, 2012, [3]). The PI3K pathway that includes AKT and mTOR contributes to many events that are critical for normal and pathophysiological cell metabolism, regulation of gene expression, cytoskeletal rearrangement, and cell survival.
    Chapter · Jan 2016
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Cancer patients with predominantly hepatic metastases have poor outcomes and limited options. Hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) of a therapeutic agent may be an appropriate option for producing increased drug concentrations at the tumor sites while reducing systemic adverse effects in normal tissues. Methods: Patients with predominantly hepatic metastases (n = 48) were placed in 6 groups according to nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) dose level using a 3 + 3 design plus dose expansion for responsive tumor types. We evaluated the toxicity, antitumor activity, and pharmacokinetics of nab-paclitaxel delivered via HAI. Results: Thirty-eight and ten patients underwent HAI over 1 and 4 h, respectively, at doses of up to 300 mg/m(2). The treatment was safe and exhibited antitumor activity. Pharmacokinetic analyses revealed that HAI of nab-paclitaxel over 4 h resulted in markedly lower peak drug concentrations (C max) and longer times to peak concentration (T max) than that over 1 h. The self-control pharmacokinetic studies showed that HAI of nab-paclitaxel led to much lower C max and areas under the curve (AUC), compared with intravenous infusion. Conclusions: HAI of nab-paclitaxel at up to 300 mg/m(2) over 4 h was well tolerated. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of C max, T max, and AUC implied that 4-h HAI enhanced hepatic extraction of nab-paclitaxel. Further preclinical and clinical studies are required to develop reliable methods of evaluation of hepatic extraction (clinicaltrials.gov registration number NCT00732836, first registered on August 8, 2008, and last updated on October 27, 2014).
    Full-text Article · Dec 2015 · Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology