Craig R Malloy

University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States

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Publications (255)1192.88 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The source of hyperpolarized (HP) [(13) C]bicarbonate in the liver during metabolism of HP [1-(13) C]pyruvate is uncertain and likely changes with physiology. Multiple processes including decarboxylation through pyruvate dehydrogenase or pyruvate carboxylase followed by subsequent decarboxylation via phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (gluconeogenesis) could play a role. Here we tested which metabolic fate of pyruvate contributed to the appearance of HP [(13) C]bicarbonate during metabolism of HP [1-(13) C]pyruvate by the liver in rats after 21 h of fasting compared to rats with free access to food. The (13) C NMR of HP [(13) C]bicarbonate was observed in the liver of fed rats, but not in fasted rats where pyruvate carboxylation and gluconeogenesis was active. To further explore the relative fluxes through pyruvate carboxylase versus pyruvate dehydrogenase in the liver under typical conditions of hyperpolarization studies, separate parallel experiments were performed with rats given non-hyperpolarized [2,3-(13) C]pyruvate. (13) C NMR analysis of glutamate isolated from the liver of rats revealed that flux from injected pyruvate through pyruvate dehydrogenase was dominant under fed conditions whereas flux through pyruvate carboxylase dominated under fasted conditions. The NMR signal of HP [(13) C]bicarbonate does not parallel pyruvate carboxylase activity followed by subsequent decarboxylation reaction leading to glucose production. In the liver of healthy well-fed rats, the appearance of HP [(13) C]bicarbonate exclusively reflects decarboxylation of HP [1-(13) C]pyruvate via pyruvate dehydrogenase. © 2016 The Authors. NMR in Biomedicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · NMR in Biomedicine
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    ABSTRACT: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is heterogeneous in the genetic and environmental parameters that influence cell metabolism in culture. Here, we assessed the impact of these factors on human NSCLC metabolism in vivo using intraoperative 13C-glucose infusions in nine NSCLC patients to compare metabolism between tumors and benign lung. While enhanced glycolysis and glucose oxidation were common among these tumors, we observed evidence for oxidation of multiple nutrients in each of them, including lactate as a potential carbon source. Moreover, metabolically heterogeneous regions were identified within and between tumors, and surprisingly, our data suggested potential contributions of non-glucose nutrients in well-perfused tumor areas. Our findings not only demonstrate the heterogeneity in tumor metabolism in vivo but also highlight the strong influence of the microenvironment on this feature.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Cell
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    ABSTRACT: The metabolic status of the kidney is a determinant of injury susceptibility and a measure of progression for many disease processes, however, noninvasive modalities to assess kidney metabolism are lacking. In this study we employed positron emission tomography (PET) and intravital multiphoton microscopy (MPM) to assess cortical and proximal tubule glucose tracer uptake respectively following experimental perturbations of kidney metabolism. Applying dynamic image acquisition PET with 2-18fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) and tracer kinetic modeling we found that an intracellular compartment in the cortex of the kidney could be distinguished from the blood and urine compartments in animals. Given emerging literature that the tumor suppressor protein p53 is an important regulator of cellular metabolism, we demonstrated that PET imaging was able to discern a three-fold increase in cortical 18F-FDG uptake following the pharmacologic inhibition of p53 in animals. Intravital MPM with the fluorescent glucose analogue 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG) provided increased resolution and corroborated these findings at the level of the proximal tubule. Extending our observation of p53 inhibition on proximal tubule glucose tracer uptake, we demonstrated by intravital MPM that pharmacologic inhibition of p53 diminishes mitochondrial potential difference. We provide additional evidence that inhibition of p53 alters key metabolic enzymes regulating glycolysis and increases intermediates of glycolysis. In summary we provide evidence that PET is a valuable tool to examine kidney metabolism in preclinical and clinical studies, intravital MPM is a powerful adjunct to PET in preclinical studies of metabolism, and p53 inhibition alters basal kidney metabolism.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · AJP Renal Physiology
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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondria are critical for respiration in all tissues; however, in liver, these organelles also accommodate high-capacity anaplerotic/cataplerotic pathways that are essential to gluconeogenesis and other biosynthetic activities. During nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), mitochondria also produce ROS that damage hepatocytes, trigger inflammation, and contribute to insulin resistance. Here, we provide several lines of evidence indicating that induction of biosynthesis through hepatic anaplerotic/cataplerotic pathways is energetically backed by elevated oxidative metabolism and hence contributes to oxidative stress and inflammation during NAFLD. First, in murine livers, elevation of fatty acid delivery not only induced oxidative metabolism, but also amplified anaplerosis/cataplerosis and caused a proportional rise in oxidative stress and inflammation. Second, loss of anaplerosis/cataplerosis via genetic knockdown of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (Pck1) prevented fatty acid-induced rise in oxidative flux, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Flux appeared to be regulated by redox state, energy charge, and metabolite concentration, which may also amplify antioxidant pathways. Third, preventing elevated oxidative metabolism with metformin also normalized hepatic anaplerosis/cataplerosis and reduced markers of inflammation. Finally, independent histological grades in human NAFLD biopsies were proportional to oxidative flux. Thus, hepatic oxidative stress and inflammation are associated with elevated oxidative metabolism during an obesogenic diet, and this link may be provoked by increased work through anabolic pathways.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Clinical Investigation
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    Full-text · Dataset · Nov 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Hyperpolarized 1-13C-pyruvate has shown tremendous promise as an agent for imaging tumor metabolism with unprecedented sensitivity and specificity. Imaging hyperpolarized substrates by magnetic resonance is unlike traditional MRI because signals are highly transient and their spatial distribution varies continuously over their observable lifetime. Therefore, new imaging approaches are needed to ensure optimal measurement under these circumstances. Constrained reconstruction algorithms can integrate prior information, including biophysical models of the substrate/target interaction, to reduce the amount of data that is required for image analysis and reconstruction. In this study, we show that metabolic MRI with hyperpolarized pyruvate is biased by tumor perfusion, and present a new pharmacokinetic model for hyperpolarized substrates that accounts for these effects. The suitability of this model is confirmed by statistical comparison to alternates using data from 55 dynamic spectroscopic measurements in normal animals and murine models of anaplastic thyroid cancer, glioblastoma, and triple-negative breast cancer. The kinetic model was then integrated into a constrained reconstruction algorithm and feasibility was tested using significantly under-sampled imaging data from tumor-bearing animals. Compared to naïve image reconstruction, this approach requires far fewer signal-depleting excitations and focuses analysis and reconstruction on new information that is uniquely available from hyperpolarized pyruvate and its metabolites, thus improving the reproducibility and accuracy of metabolic imaging measurements.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Cancer Research
  • Eunsook S Jin · A Dean Sherry · Craig R Malloy
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    ABSTRACT: Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) generated from pyruvate is required for de novo synthesis of glycerol and glycogen in skeletal muscle. One possible pathway involves synthesis of PEP from the citric acid cycle intermediates via PEP carboxykinase, whereas another could involve reversal of pyruvate kinase (PK). Earlier studies have reported that reverse flux through PK can contribute carbon precursors for glycogen synthesis in muscle, but the physiological importance of this pathway remains uncertain especially in the setting of high plasma glucose. In addition, although PEP is a common intermediate for both glyconeogenesis and glyceroneogenesis, the importance of reverse PK in de novo glycerol synthesis has not been examined. Here we studied the contribution of reverse PK to synthesis of glycogen and the glycerol moiety of acylglycerols in skeletal muscle of animals with high plasma glucose. Rats received a single intraperitoneal bolus of glucose, glycerol, and lactate under a fed or fasted state. Only one of the three substrates was 13C-labeled in each experiment. After 3 h of normal awake activity, the animals were sacrificed, and the contribution from each substrate to glycogen and the glycerol moiety of acylglycerols was evaluated. The fraction of 13C labeling in glycogen and the glycerol moiety exceeded the possible contribution from either plasma glucose or muscle oxaloacetate. The reverse PK served as a common route for both glyconeogenesis and glyceroneogenesis in the skeletal muscle of rats with high plasma glucose. The activity of pyruvate carboxylase was low in muscle, and no PEP carboxykinase activity was detected.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
  • Jimin Ren · A. Dean Sherry · Craig R. Malloy
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    ABSTRACT: The conventional method for measuring brain ATP synthesis is 31P saturation transfer (ST), a technique typically dependent on prolonged pre-saturation with γ-ATP. In this study, ATP synthesis rate in resting human brain is evaluated using EBIT (exchange kinetics by band inversion transfer), a technique based on slow recovery of γ-ATP magnetization in the absence of B1 field following co-inversion of PCr and ATP resonances with a short adiabatic pulse. The unidirectional rate constant for the Pi γ-ATP reaction is 0.21 ± 0.04 s−1 and the ATP synthesis rate is 9.9 ± 2.1 mmol min−1 kg−1 in human brain (n = 12 subjects), consistent with the results by ST. Therefore, EBIT could be a useful alternative to ST in studying brain energy metabolism in normal physiology and under pathological conditions. In addition to ATP synthesis, all detectable 31P signals are analyzed to determine the brain concentration of phosphorus metabolites, including UDPG at around 10 ppm, a previously reported resonance in liver tissues and now confirmed in human brain. Inversion recovery measurements indicate that UDPG, like its diphosphate analogue NAD, has apparent T1 shorter than that of monophosphates (Pi, PMEs, and PDEs) but longer than that of triphosphate ATP, highlighting the significance of the 31P–31P dipolar mechanism in T1 relaxation of polyphosphates. Another interesting finding is the observation of approximately 40% shorter T1 for intracellular Pi relative to extracellular Pi, attributed to the modulation by the intracellular phosphoryl exchange reaction Pi γ-ATP. The sufficiently separated intra- and extracellular Pi signals also permit the distinction of pH between intra- and extracellular environments (pH 7.0 versus pH 7.4). In summary, quantitative 31P MRS in combination with ATP synthesis, pH, and T1 relaxation measurements may offer a promising tool to detect biochemical alterations at early stages of brain dysfunctions and diseases. Copyright
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · NMR in Biomedicine
  • Jimin Ren · A Dean Sherry · Craig R Malloy
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    ABSTRACT: Inversion transfer (IT) is a well-established technique with multiple attractive features for analysis of kinetics. However, its application in measurement of ATP synthesis rate in vivo has lagged behind the more common saturation transfer (ST) techniques. One well-recognized issue with IT is the complexity of data analysis in comparison with much simpler analysis by ST. This complexity arises, in part, because the γ-ATP spin is involved in multiple chemical reactions and magnetization exchanges, whereas Pi is involved in a single reaction, Pi → γ-ATP. By considering the reactions involving γ-ATP only as a lumped constant, the rate constant for the reaction of physiological interest, kPi→γATP , can be determined. Here, we present a new IT data analysis method to evaluate kPi→γATP using data collected from resting human skeletal muscle at 7 T. The method is based on the basic Bloch-McConnell equation, which relates kPi→γATP to m˙Pi, the rate of Pi magnetization change. The kPi→γATP value is accessed from m˙Pi data by more familiar linear correlation approaches. For a group of human subjects (n = 15), the kPi→γATP value derived for resting calf muscle was 0.066 ± 0.017 s(-1) , in agreement with literature-reported values. In this study we also explored possible time-saving strategies to speed up data acquisition for kPi→γATP evaluation using simulations. The analysis indicates that it is feasible to carry out a (31) P IT experiment in about 10 min or less at 7 T with reasonable outcome in kPi→γATP variance for measurement of ATP synthesis in resting human skeletal muscle. We believe that this new IT data analysis approach will facilitate the wide acceptance of IT to evaluate ATP synthesis rate in vivo. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · NMR in Biomedicine
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    ABSTRACT: (13)C NMR spectroscopy of extracts from patient tumor samples provides rich information about metabolism. However, in IDH-mutant gliomas (13)C labeling is obscured in glutamate and glutamine by the oncometabolite, 2-hydroxyglutaric acid (2HG), prompting development of a simple method to resolve the metabolites. J-coupled multiplets in 2HG were similar to glutamate and glutamine and could be clearly resolved at pH 6. A cryogenically-cooled (13)C probe but not J-resolved heteronuclear single quantum coherence spectroscopy significantly improved detection of 2HG. These methods enable the monitoring of (13)C-(13)C spin-spin couplings in 2HG expressing IDH mutant gliomas. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Analytical Biochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Measuring intracellular metabolism has increasingly led to important insights in biomedical research. (13)C tracer analysis, although less information-rich than quantitative (13)C flux analysis that requires computational data integration, has been established as a time-efficient method to unravel relative pathway activities, qualitative changes in pathway contributions, and nutrient contributions. Here, we review selected key issues in interpreting (13)C metabolite labeling patterns, with the goal of drawing accurate conclusions from steady state and dynamic stable isotopic tracer experiments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Current Opinion in Biotechnology
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    ABSTRACT: In high-field magnetic resonance imaging, the radio frequency wavelength within the human body is comparable to anatomical dimensions, resulting in B1 inhomogeneity and nonuniform sensitivity patterns. Thus, this relatively short wavelength presents engineering challenges for RF coil design. In this study, a bilateral breast coil for 1H imaging at 7 T was designed and constructed using forced-current excitation. By forcing equal current through the coil elements, we reduce the effects of coupling between the elements to simplify tuning and to ensure a uniform field across both breasts. To combine the benefits of the higher power efficiency of a unilateral coil with the bilateral coverage of a bilateral coil, a switching circuit was implemented to allow the coil to be reconfigured for imaging the left, right, or both breasts.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering

  • No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Nature Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: In liver, 13CO2 can be generated from [1-13C]pyruvate via pyruvate dehydrogenase or anaplerotic entry of pyruvate into the TCA cycle followed by decarboxylation at phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), the malic enzyme, isocitrate dehydrogenase, or α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative importance of these pathways in production of hyperpolarized (HP) 13CO2 after administration of hyperpolarized pyruvate in livers supplied with a fatty acid plus substrates for gluconeogenesis. Isolated mouse livers were perfused with a mixture of thermally-polarized 13C-enriched pyruvate, lactate and octanoate in various combinations prior to exposure to HP pyruvate. Under all perfusion conditions, HP malate, aspartate and fumarate were detected within ~3 s showing that HP [1-13C]pyruvate is rapidly converted to [1-13C]oxaloacetate which can subsequently produce HP 13CO2 via decarboxylation at PEPCK. Measurements using HP [2-13C]pyruvate allowed the exclusion of reactions related to TCA cycle turnover as sources of HP 13CO2. Direct measures of O2 consumption, ketone production, and glucose production by the intact liver combined with 13C isotopomer analyses of tissue extracts yielded a comprehensive profile of metabolic flux in perfused liver. Together, these data show that, even though the majority of HP 13CO2 derived from HP [1-13C]pyruvate in livers exposed to fatty acids reflects decarboxylation of [4-13C]oxaloacetate (PEPCK) or [4-13C]malate (malic enzyme), the intensity of the HP 13CO2 signal is not proportional to glucose production because the amount of pyruvate returned to the TCA cycle via PEPCK and pyruvate kinase is variable, depending upon available substrates.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Metabolomics
  • Jimin Ren · A Dean Sherry · Craig R Malloy
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to amplify the effects of magnetization exchange between γ-adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) for evaluation of ATP synthesis rates in human skeletal muscle. The strategy works by simultaneously inverting the (31) P resonances of phosphocreatine (PCr) and ATP using a wide bandwidth, adiabatic inversion radiofrequency pulse followed by observing dynamic changes in intensity of the noninverted Pi signal versus the delay time between the inversion and observation pulses. This band inversion technique significantly delays recovery of γ-ATP magnetization; consequently, the exchange reaction, Pi ↔ γ-ATP, is readily detected and easily analyzed. The ATP synthesis rate measured from high-quality spectral data using this method was 0.073 ± 0.011 s(-1) in resting human skeletal muscle (N = 10). The T1 of Pi was 6.93 ± 1.90 s, consistent with the intrinsic T1 of Pi at this field. The apparent T1 of γ-ATP was 4.07 ± 0.32 s, about two-fold longer than its intrinsic T1 due to storage of magnetization in PCr. Band inversion provides an effective method to amplify the effects of magnetization transfer between γ-ATP and Pi. The resulting data can be easily analyzed to obtain the ATP synthesis rate using a two-site exchange model. Magn Reson Med, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: The heart requires a continuous supply of energy but has little capacity for energy storage and thus relies on exogenous metabolic sources. We previously showed that cardiac MED13 modulates systemic energy homeostasis in mice. Here, we sought to define the extra-cardiac tissue(s) that respond to cardiac MED13 signaling. We show that cardiac overexpression of MED13 in transgenic (MED13cTg) mice confers a lean phenotype that is associated with increased lipid uptake, beta-oxidation and mitochondrial content in white adipose tissue (WAT) and liver. Cardiac expression of MED13 decreases metabolic gene expression in the heart but enhances them in WAT. Although exhibiting increased energy expenditure in the fed state, MED13cTg mice metabolically adapt to fasting. Furthermore, MED13cTg hearts oxidize fuel that is readily available, rendering them more efficient in the fed state. Parabiosis experiments in which circulations of wild-type and MED13cTg mice are joined, reveal that circulating factor(s) in MED13cTg mice promote enhanced metabolism and leanness. These findings demonstrate that MED13 acts within the heart to promote systemic energy expenditure in extra-cardiac energy depots and point to an unexplored metabolic communication system between the heart and other tissues. © 2014 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · EMBO Molecular Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: PurposeTo enable high spatial and temporal breast imaging resolution via combined use of high field MRI, array coils, and forced current excitation (FCE) multi channel transmit. Materials and MethodsA unilateral 16-channel receive array insert was designed for use in a transmit volume coil optimized for quadrature operation with dual-transmit RF shimming at 7T. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) maps, g-factor maps, and high spatial and temporal resolution in vivo images were acquired to demonstrate the utility of the coil architecture. ResultsThe dual-transmit FCE coil provided homogeneous excitation and the array provided an increase in average SNR of 3.3 times (max 10.8, min 1.5) compared to the volume coil in transmit/receive mode. High resolution accelerated in vivo breast imaging demonstrated the ability to achieve isotropic spatial resolution of 0.5 mm within clinically relevant 90 s scan times, as well as the ability to perform 1.0 mm isotropic resolution imaging, 7 s per dynamics, with the use of bidirectional SENSE acceleration of up to R = 9. Conclusion The FCE design of the transmit coil easily accommodates the addition of a sixteen channel array coil. The improved spatial and temporal resolution provided by the high-field array coil with FCE dual-channel transmit will ultimately be beneficial in lesion detection and characterization.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: To demonstrate the use of forced current excitation (FCE) to create homogeneous excitation of the breast at 7 tesla, insensitive to the effects of asymmetries in the electrical environment. FCE was implemented on two breast coils: one for quadrature (1) H imaging and one for proton-decoupled (13) C spectroscopy. Both were a Helmholtz-saddle combination, with the saddle tuned to 298 MHz for imaging and 75 MHz for spectroscopy. Bench measurements were acquired to demonstrate the ability to force equal currents on elements in the presence of asymmetric loading to improve homogeneity. Modeling and temperature measurements were conducted per safety protocol. B1 mapping, imaging, and proton-decoupled (13) C spectroscopy were demonstrated in vivo. Using FCE to ensure balanced currents on elements enabled straightforward tuning and maintaining of isolation between quadrature elements of the coil. Modeling and bench measurements confirmed homogeneity of the field, which resulted in images with excellent fat suppression and in broadband proton-decoupled carbon-13 spectra. FCE is a straightforward approach to ensure equal currents on multiple coil elements and a homogeneous excitation field, insensitive to the effects of asymmetries in the electrical environment. This enabled effective breast imaging and proton-decoupled carbon-13 spectroscopy at 7T. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    ABSTRACT: Glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis are sensitive to nutritional state and the net direction of flux is controlled by multiple enzymatic steps. This delicate balance in the liver is disrupted by a variety of pathological states including cancer and diabetes mellitus. Hyperpolarized (HP) carbon-13 magnetic resonance (MR) is a new metabolic imaging technique that can probe intermediary metabolism nondestructively. There are currently no methods to rapidly distinguish livers in a gluconeogenic from glycogenolytic state. Here we use the gluconeogenic precursor dihydroxyacetone (DHA) to deliver hyperpolarized carbon-13 to the perfused mouse liver. DHA enters gluconeogenesis at the level of the trioses. Perfusion conditions were designed to establish either a gluconeogenic or glycogenolytic state. Unexpectedly we found that [2-(13)C]DHA was metabolized within a few seconds to the common intermediates and end-products of both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis under both conditions, including [2,5-(13)C]glucose, [2-(13)C]glycerol-3-phosphate, [2-(13)C]phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), [2-(13)C]pyruvate, [2-(13)C]alanine, and [2-(13)C]lactate. [2-(13)C]Phosphoenolpyruvate, a key branch point in gluconeogenesis and glycolysis was monitored in functioning tissue for the first time. Observation of [2-(13)C]PEP was not anticipated as the free energy difference between PEP and pyruvate is large. Pyruvate kinase is the only regulatory step of the common glycolytic - gluconeogenic pathway that appears to exert significant control over the kinetics of any metabolites of DHA. A ratio of glycolytic to gluconeogenic products distinguished the gluconeogenic from glycogenolytic state in these functioning livers.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Flux through pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) in the heart may be reduced by various forms of injury to the myocardium, or by oxidation of alternative substrates in normal heart tissue. It is important to distinguish these two mechanisms because imaging of flux through PDH based on the appearance of hyperpolarized (HP) [(13)C]bicarbonate derived from HP [1-(13)C]pyruvate has been proposed as a method for identifying viable myocardium. The efficacy of propionate for increasing PDH flux in the setting of PDH inhibition by an alternative substrate was studied using isotopomer analysis paired with exams using HP [1-(13)C]pyruvate. Hearts from C57/bl6 mice were supplied with acetate (2 mM) and glucose (8.25 mM). (13)C NMR spectra were acquired in a cryogenically cooled probe at 14.1 Tesla. After addition of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate, (13)C NMR signals from lactate, alanine, malate, and aspartate were easily detected, in addition to small signals from bicarbonate and CO2. The addition of propionate (2 mM) increased appearance of HP [(13)C]bicarbonate >30-fold without change in O2 consumption. Isotopomer analysis of extracts from the freeze-clamped hearts indicated that acetate was the preferred substrate for energy production, glucose contribution to energy production was minimal, and anaplerosis was stimulated in the presence of propionate. Under conditions where production of acetyl-CoA is dominated by the availability of an alternative substrate, acetate, propionate markedly stimulated PDH flux as detected by the appearance of hyperpolarized [(13)C]bicarbonate from metabolism of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology

Publication Stats

8k Citations
1,192.88 Total Impact Points


  • 1988-2016
    • University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
      • • Research Center for Advanced Imaging
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Division of Cardiology
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      • • Department of Radiology
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Division of General Internal Medicine
      Dallas, Texas, United States
    • University of Oxford
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Oxford, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1987-2015
    • University of Texas at Dallas
      • Chemistry
      Richardson, Texas, United States
  • 2000
    • University of Coimbra
      • Center for Neurosciences and Cell Biology
      Coímbra, Coimbra, Portugal
  • 1993
    • United States Department of Veterans Affairs
      Бедфорд, Massachusetts, United States
    • University of Dallas
      • Department of Chemistry
      Irving, Texas, United States
  • 1985-1988
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler
      Tyler, Texas, United States