[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic variants of the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene affect the risk of type 2 diabetes in populations with multiple ethnic groups. However, a comprehensive survey of this gene has not been done for a Japanese population. Thus, we conducted this gene-based association study, in which the common genetic variants were analyzed. Using 24 Japanese type 2 diabetic subjects, we first screened a 9.5 kb region, which included the entire coding sequence, to assess potential functional variants of TCF7L2. Sequencing revealed a common coding variant (Pro477Thr) in exon 14 of TCF7L2 that was not enrolled in the public SNP database. Nineteen SNPs and the microsatellite DG10S478 were genotyped across the gene in 2,877 unrelated Japanese subjects. This independent screen identified the previously reported rs7903146 with a strongest association (allele P = 0.0001, odds ratio = 1.59 [95% confidence interval 1.25-2.01]), but there was no significant association between Pro477Thr and type 2 diabetes (allele P = 0.64). Expression of the Pro477Thr variant did not alter TCF7L2 expression in 30 lymphoblast cells. Although a genotypic effect of Pro477Thr on expression of TCF7L2 was not apparent, Pro477Thr was identified as a common variant of TCF7L2 in 2,877 Japanese subjects. Further functional studies are required to determine the possible effect of this coding variant on type 2 diabetes.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2008 · Journal of Human Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted population-based association tests for the four selected SNPs (rs2240340/padi4_94, rs7528684/fcrl3_3, rs3792876/slc2F2 and rs2268277/runx1) previously reported to be associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The study population consisted of 950 unrelated Japanese subjects with RA and 507 controls, none of whom had previously been tested for these variants. Only the SNP rs2240340/padi4_94 was modestly associated with RA [allele odds ratio (OR) 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.43, P=0.012]. The most significant association effect was found for genotype contrast between minor and major allele homozygotes (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.10-2.12, P=0.010). No other SNPs showed a statistically significant association with RA in our population. Meta-analysis of published studies and our new data confirmed a highly significant association between PADI4 gene SNPs and increased risk of RA in East Asian populations (allele fixed-effects summary OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.22-1.41, P<0.0001). We found some evidence for an association of either rs7528684/fcrl3_3 or rs3792876/slc2F2 with RA; however, because the magnitudes of effects were apparently much weaker than those reported in the initial positive reports, and there were substantial levels of inter-study OR heterogeneity, we concluded that additional studies are needed to fully understand the present results.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2008 · Journal of Human Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glutamine: fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase 1 (GFPT1) acts as a rate-limiting enzyme in the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, which is an alternative branch of glucose metabolism. To evaluate GFPT1 as a susceptibility gene to type 2 diabetes, we surveyed the polymorphisms related with the gene function of GFPT1 and assessed its contribution to type 2 diabetes with a case-control association study. Screening of the 5'-flanking and all coding regions of GFPT1 revealed eight polymorphisms, one in the 5'-flanking region, one synonymous polymorphism in exon 8, five in introns and one in 3'-UTR, but no mis-sense or non-sense polymorphism. With in silico simulation, a putative promoter region was apparently predicted between 1 kb upstream and 1 kb downstream of the start codon. In this region, +36T>C polymorphism was located on the GC box sequence in intron 1, and its functional effect on promoter activity was confirmed by luciferase reporter assay, introducing a new functional polymorphism of the GFPT1 gene. To examine its association with type 2 diabetes, we analyzed 2,763 Japanese (1,461 controls and 1,302 cases) and 330 Caucasians (190 controls and 140 cases). One possible association of +36T>C was observed in Caucasians, but no association of polymorphisms including +36T>C in intron 1 or haplotypes was observed in Japanese. Although we could not completely rule out a contribution to specific sub-groups or other populations, genetic variation of GFPT1 is unlikely to have a major role in the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in Japanese.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2006 · Journal of Human Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several previous linkage scans in type 2 diabetes (T2D) families indicated a putative susceptibility locus on chromosome 12q15-q22, while the underlying gene for T2D has not yet been identified. We performed a region-wide association analysis on 12q15-q22, using a dense set of >500 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), in 1492 unrelated Japanese individuals enrolled in this study. We identified an association between T2D and a haplotype block spanning 13.6 kb of genomic DNA that includes the entire SOCS2 gene. Evolutionary-based haplotype analysis of haplotype-tagging SNPs followed by a "sliding window" haplotypic analysis indicated SNPs that mapped to the 5' region of the SOCS2gene to be associated with T2D with high statistical significance. The SOCS2 gene was expressed ubiquitously in human and murine tissues, including pancreatic beta-cell lines. Adenovirus-mediated expression of the SOCS2 gene in MIN6 cells or isolated rat islets significantly suppressed glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Our data indicate that SOCS2 may play a role in susceptibility to T2D in the Japanese.