[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the possible influence of 86 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), known to associate with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), on overall survival and time to recurrence (TTR) in 733 Italian CRC patients followed up for up to 84 months after surgery. In the Cox multivariate analysis, adjusted for gender, age, pathological stage and adjuvant chemotherapy (yes/no), the risk of death significantly increased by rare allele count (P<0.05) for rs1801133 (MTHFR), rs4939827 (SMAD7), rs2306283 (SLCO1B1) and rs12898159 (BMP4), whereas for rs736775 (GPX3) the opposite was observed. Two additional SNPs associated with TTR, namely rs16892766 (downstream of EIF3H) and rs10749971 (COLCA2). Our findings show that some genetic variants previously found to associate with CRC risk are also associated with survival after treatment. The identification of alleles defining subgroups of patients with worse clinical outcome may have application in developing pharmacogenetic strategies aimed at personalizing CRC treatment.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 12 May 2015; doi:10.1038/tpj.2015.35.
Full-text · Article · May 2015 · The Pharmacogenomics Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulmonary adenoma susceptibility 1 (Pas1) is the major locus responsible for lung tumor susceptibility in mice; among the six genes mapping in this locus, Kras is considered the best candidate for Pas1 function although how it determines tumor susceptibility remains unknown. In an (A/J×C57BL/6)F4 intercross population treated with urethane to induce lung tumors, Pas1 not only modulated tumor susceptibility (LOD score = 48, 69% of phenotypic variance explained) but also acted, in lung tumor tissue, as an expression quantitative trait locus (QTL) for Kras-4A, one of two alternatively spliced Kras transcripts, but not Kras-4B. Additionally, Kras-4A showed differential allelic expression in lung tumor tissue of (A/J×C57BL/6)F4 heterozygous mice, with significantly higher expression from the A/J-derived allele; these results suggest that cis-acting elements control Kras-4A expression. In normal lung tissue from untreated mice of the same cross, Kras-4A levels were also highly linked to the Pas1 locus (LOD score = 23.2, 62% of phenotypic variance explained) and preferentially generated from the A/J-derived allele, indicating that Pas1 is an expression QTL in normal lung tissue as well. Overall, the present findings shed new light on the genetic mechanism by which Pas1 modulates the susceptibility to lung tumorigenesis, through the fine control of Kras isoform levels.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIRmax (maximal inflammation) and AIRmin (minimal inflammation) mice show distinct susceptibilities to pristane-induced arthritis (PIA). The Slc11a1 gene, which regulates macrophage and neutrophil activity, is involved in this infirmity. AIRmax (SS) mice homozygous for the non-functional Slc11a1 S (gly169asp) allele obtained by genotype-assisted crosses from AIRmax and AIRmin mice are more susceptible than mice homozygous for the Slc11a1 resistant (R) allele. The present work sought to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTL) regulating PIA and to examine the interactions of these QTL with Slc11a1 alleles in modulating PIA. Mice were given two ip injections of 0.5 mL pristane at 60 day intervals, and the incidence and severity of PIA was scored up to 160 days. Genome-wide linkage studies were performed to search for arthritis QTL in an F2 (AIRmax × AIRmin, n = 290) population. Significant arthritis QTL (LODscore>4) were detected on chromosomes 5 and 8, and suggestive QTL on chromosomes 7, 17 and 19. Global gene expression analyses performed on Affymetrix mouse 1.0 ST bioarrays (27k genes) using RNA from arthritic or control mice paws showed 419 differentially expressed genes between AIRmax and AIRmin mice and demonstrated significantly (P<0.001) over-represented genes related to inflammatory responses and chemotaxis. Up-regulation of the chemokine genes Cxcl1, Cxcl9, Cxcl5, Cxcl13 on chromosome 5 was higher in AIRmax (SS) than in the other lines. Macrophage scavenger receptor 1 and hemeoxigenase (decycling) 1 genes on chromosome 8 were also expressed at higher levels in AIRmax (SS) mice. Our results show that the gene expression profiles of the two arthritis QTL (on chromosomes 5 and 8) correlate with Slc11a1 alleles, resulting in enhanced AIRmax (SS) mice susceptibility to PIA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genetic basis of susceptibility to renal tumorigenesis has not yet been established in mouse strains. Mouse lines derived by bidirectional phenotypic selection on the basis of their maximal (AIRmax) or minimal (AIRmin) acute inflammatory responsiveness differ widely in susceptibility to spontaneous and urethane-induced renal tumorigenesis. To map the functional loci modulating renal tumor susceptibility in these mice, we carried out a genome-wide genetic linkage study, using SNP arrays, in an (AIRmax x AIRmin)F2 intercross population treated with a single urethane dose at 1 week of age and phenotyped for renal tumors at 35 weeks of age.
AIRmax mice did not develop renal tumors spontaneously nor in response to urethane, whereas in AIRmin mice renal tumors formed spontaneously (in 52% of animals) and after urethane induction (89%). The tumors had a papillary morphology and were positive for alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase and negative for CD10. By analysis of 879 informative SNPs in 662 mice, we mapped a single quantitative trait locus modulating the incidence of renal tumors in the (AIRmax x AIRmin)F2 intercross population. This locus, which we named Renal tumor modifier QTL 1 (Rtm1), mapped to chromosome 17 at 23.4 Mb (LOD score = 15.8), with SNPs rs3696835 and rs3719497 flanking the LOD score peak. The A allele of rs3719497 from AIRmin mice was associated with a 2.5-fold increased odds ratio for renal tumor development. The LOD score peak included the Tuberous sclerosis 2 (Tsc2) gene which has already been implicated in kidney disease: loss of function by germline retroviral insertion is associated with spontaneous renal tumorigenesis in the Eker rat, and heterozygous-null Tsc2(+/-) mice develop renal cystadenomas.
We mapped Rtm1 as a single major locus modulating renal tumorigenesis in a murine intercross population. Thus, the AIR mouse lines can be considered a new genetic model for studying the role of germline and somatic molecular alterations in kidney neoplastic disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Selective breeding for the acute inflammatory response (AIR) generated two mouse lines characterized by maximum (AIRmax) and minimum (AIRmin) responses, explained by the additive effect of alleles differentially fixed in quantitative trait loci (QTLs). These mice also differ in their susceptibility to lung tumorigenesis, raising the possibility that the same loci are involved in the control of both phenotypes. To map the QTLs responsible for the different phenotypes, we carried out a genome-wide linkage analysis using single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays in a pedigree consisting of 802 mice, including 693 (AIRmax × AIRmin)F2 intercross mice treated with urethane and phenotyped for AIR and lung tumor multiplicity. We mapped five loci on chromosomes 4, 6, 7, 11 and 13 linked to AIR (logarithm of odds (LOD)=3.56, 3.52, 15.74, 7.74 and 3.34, respectively) and two loci linked to lung tumor multiplicity, on chromosomes 6 and 18 (LOD=12.18 and 4.69, respectively). The known pulmonary adenoma susceptibility 1 (Pas1) locus on chromosome 6 was the only locus linked to both phenotypes, suggesting that alleles of this locus were differentially fixed during breeding and selection of AIR mice. These results represent a step toward understanding the link between inflammation and cancer.Genes and Immunity advance online publication, 26 September 2013; doi:10.1038/gene.2013.49.
No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Genes and immunity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lung adenocarcinoma patients of similar clinical stage and undergoing the same treatments often have marked inter-individual variations in prognosis. These clinical discrepancies may be due to the genetic background modulating an individual's predisposition to fighting cancer. Herein, we hypothesized that the lung microenvironment, as reflected by its expression profile, may affect lung adenocarcinoma patients' survival. The transcriptome of non-involved lung tissue, excised from a discovery series of 204 lung adenocarcinoma patients, was evaluated using whole-genome expression microarrays (with probes corresponding to 28,688 well-annotated coding sequences). Genes associated with survival status at 60 months were identified by Cox regression analysis (adjusted for gender, age and clinical stage) and retested in a validation series of 78 additional cases. RNA-Seq analysis from non-involved lung tissue of 12 patients was performed to characterize the different isoforms of candidate genes. Ten genes for which the loge-transformed hazard ratios expressed the same direction of effect in the discovery (P<1.0 x 10-3) and validation series comprised the gene expression signature associated with survival: CNTNAP1, PKNOX1, FAM156A, FRMD8, GALNTL1, TXNDC12, SNTB1, PPP3R1, SNX10, and SERPINH1. RNA sequencing highlighted the complex expression pattern of these genes in non-involved lung tissue from different patients, and permitted the detection of a read-through gene fusion between PPP3R1 and the flanking gene (CNRIP1) as well as a novel isoform of CNTNAP1. Our findings support the hypothesis that individual genetic characteristics, evidenced by the expression pattern of non-involved tissue, influence the outcome of lung adenocarcinoma patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Risk factors for lung cancer, such as cigarette smoking, environmental pollution, asbestos, and genetic determinants, are well-known, whereas involvement of the human papillomavirus (HPV) is still unclear.
We examined a series of 100 lung cancer patients from Italy and the UK for the presence of HPV DNA in both lung tumor specimens and adjacent non-tumoral specimens from the same patients. Thirty-five of the most clinically relevant HPV types were assayed using PCR amplification of the highly conserved L1 region of the viral genome followed by hybridization with specific probes.
No HPV was detected in tumor specimens nor in normal lung tissue of any patient.
These data indicate that, in this Western series, HPV is not associated with the risk of lung cancer. Our findings will help refine estimates of lung cancer risk in patients affected by a common viral infection involved in other types of human cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alleles derived from skin tumor-resistant Car-R mice provide resistance to both skin and lung tumorigenesis over the susceptibility of the SWR/J strain. In an effort to map tumor modifier loci affecting both tumor types, we carried out a genetic linkage analysis in backcross SWR/J x (SWR/J x Car-R) mice and identified a locus (Lsktm1) on chromosome 1 linked to both skin (LOD score = 3.93) and lung (LOD score = 8.74) tumorigenesis. Two genes, Igfbp5 and Igfbp2, residing in this locus and belonging to the insulin-like growth factor binding protein family were expressed at significantly greater levels in normal lung tissue from cancer-resistant Car-R mice than in cancer-susceptible SWR/J mice. Overexpression of the recombinant Igfbp5 and Igfbp2 genes in two lung cancer cell lines significantly inhibited clonogenicity (P < 0.0001). Collectively, we have identified a single polymorphic locus that affects skin and lung tumorigenesis and identify Igfbp5 and Igfbp2 as candidate modifier genes of lung tumorigenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Associations between clinical outcome of cancer patients and the gene expression signature in primary tumors at time of diagnosis have been reported. To test whether gene expression patterns in noninvolved lung tissue might correlate with clinical stage in lung adenocarcinoma (ADCA) patients, we compared the transcriptome of noninvolved lung samples from 60 ADCA smoker patients of clinical stage I versus 60 patients with stage>I. Quantitative PCR of 10 genes with the most significant differential expression confirmed the statistical association with clinical stage in eight genes, six of which were downregulated in high-stage patients. Five of these six genes were also downregulated in lung ADCA tissue as compared to noninvolved tissue. Studies in vitro indicated that four of the genes (SLC14A1, SMAD6, TMEM100 and TXNIP) inhibited colony formation of lung cancer cell lines transfected to overexpress the genes, suggesting their potential tumor-suppressor activity. Our findings suggest that individual variations in the transcriptional profile of noninvolved lung tissue may reflect the lung ADCA patient's predisposition to tumor aggressiveness.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · International Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The European Pharmacogenetic Opioid Study (EPOS) of a large series of European cancer patients treated with opioids was carried out to assess the influence of genetics on cancer pain relief. As response to opioid therapy was associated with the patients' country of origin, we tested whether population stratification might represent a confounding factor in the analysis of genetic control of response to opioid therapy. From the whole EPOS series representing 2294 patients' genotypes for 379 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we extracted 117 autosomal SNPs with minor allele frequency>0.28 to obtain highly informative genetic markers, and analyzed the SNPs in 1724 individuals showing <20% missing genotypes. Use of the AWclust program to detect clusters of genetically related individuals in the EPOS series showed that the 117-SNP panel distinguished four main European subgroups statistically associated with ethnicity, but not with country of origin or with the pain relief phenotype. Subethnic European groups of genetically related individuals exist that can be correctly identified using an ∼100-SNP panel. Such genetic clustering may control for admixture in association studies and may allow discrimination between genetic and environmental effects on phenotypes showing association with country of origin, as in the case of pain relief.
No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · The Pharmacogenomics Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The MFSD2A gene maps within a linkage disequilibrium block containing the MYCL1-EcoRI polymorphism associated with prognosis and survival in lung cancer patients. Survival discrepancies between Asians and Caucasians point to ethnic differences in allelic frequencies of the functional genetic variations.
Analysis of three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mapping in the MFSD2A 5'-regulatory region using a luciferase reporter system showed that SNP rs12072037, in linkage disequilibrium with the MYCL1-EcoRI polymorphism and polymorphic in Asians but not in Caucasians, modulated transcriptional activity of the MFSD2A promoter in cell lines expressing AHR and ARNT transcription factors, which potentially bind to the SNP site.
SNP rs12072037 modulates MFSD2A promoter activity and thus might affect MFSD2A levels in normal lung and in lung tumors, representing a candidate ethnically specific genetic factor underlying the association between the MYCL1 locus and lung cancer patients' survival.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients treated with opioid drugs for cancer pain experience different relief responses, raising the possibility that genetic factors play a role in opioid therapy outcome. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that genetic variations may control individual response to opioid drugs in cancer patients.
We tested 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in European cancer patients, selected in a first series, for extremely poor (pain relief ≤40%; n = 145) or good (pain relief ≥90%; n = 293) responses to opioid therapy using a DNA-pooling approach. Candidate SNPs identified by SNP-array were genotyped in individual samples constituting DNA pools as well as in a second series of 570 patients.
Association analysis in 1,008 cancer patients identified eight SNPs significantly associated with pain relief at a statistical threshold of P < 1.0 × 10⁻³, with rs12948783, upstream of the RHBDF2 gene, showing the best statistical association (P = 8.1 × 10⁻⁹). Functional annotation analysis of SNP-tagged genes suggested the involvement of genes acting on processes of the neurologic system.
Our results indicate that the identified SNP panel can modulate the response of cancer patients to opioid therapy and may provide a new tool for personalized therapy of cancer pain.
Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Clinical Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The main prognostic factor of lung cancer patient outcome is clinical stage, a parameter of tumor aggressiveness. Our study was conducted to test whether germ line variations modulate individual differences in clinical stage.
We conducted a case-only genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a 620,901 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array in a first series of 600 lung adenocarcinoma (ADCA) patients and in a replication series of 317 lung ADCA patients.
GWAS identified 54 putatively associated SNPs, 3 of which were confirmed in the replication series. Joint analysis of the two series pointed to 22 statistically associated (P < 0.01) genetic variants that together explained about 20% of the phenotypic variation in clinical staging (P < 2 × 10(-16)) and showed a statistically significant difference in overall survival (P = 8.0 × 10(-8)). The strongest statistical association was observed at rs10278557 (P = 1.1 × 10(-5)), located in the mesenchyme homeobox 2 (MEOX2) gene.
These data point to the role of germ line variations involving multiple loci in modulating clinical stage and, therefore, prognosis in lung ADCA patients.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · Clinical Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We tested the possibility to map loci affecting the acute inflammatory response (AIR) in an (AIRmax × AIRmin) F2 intercross mouse population derived from non-inbred parents, by association analysis in the absence of pedigree information. Using 1064 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we clustered the intercross population into 12 groups of genetically related individuals. Association analysis adjusted for genetic clusters allowed to identify two loci, inflammatory response modulator 1 (Irm1) on chromosome 7 previously detected by genetic linkage analysis in the F2 mice, and a new locus on chromosome 5 (Irm2), linked to the number of infiltrating cells in subcutaneous inflammatory exudates (Irm1: P=6.3 × 10(-7); Irm2: P=8.2 × 10(-5)) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) production (Irm1: P=1.9 × 10(-16); Irm2: P=1.1 × 10(-6)). Use of a polygenic model based on additive effects of the rare alleles of 15 or 18 SNPs associated at suggestive genome-wide statistical threshold (P<3.4 × 10(-3)) with the number of infiltrating cells or IL-1β production, respectively, allowed prediction of the inflammatory response of progenitor AIR mice. Our findings suggest the usefulness of association analysis in combination with genetic clustering to map loci affecting complex phenotypes in non-inbred animal species.
No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Genes and immunity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chromosomal locus 15q25, implicated in lung cancer risk and nicotine dependence, shows extensive linkage disequilibrium that complicates identification of causal variation. Cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha5 (CHRNA5) has been identified as a lung cancer risk factor. We identified by sequence analysis three haplotypes (delTTC, insATC, and insTGG) in the 5' promoter region and three at the 3'-untranslated region of CHRNA5. Linkage disequilibrium analysis of the 5' variants showed that the insTGG haplotype is associated with three tightly linked risk alleles (nicotine dependence, lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). The three CHRNA5 promoter haplotypes were statistically significantly associated with lung CHRNA5 transcript levels, determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. In nontumor lung parenchyma from 68 patients who underwent lung lobectomy, the delTTC haplotype was associated with the highest CHRNA5 transcript levels (relative quantification units = 1.82), whereas the insTGG haplotype was associated with the lowest (0.88 units, P(diff) < .001, Welch t test; all statistical tests were two-sided). Luciferase reporter assays in human lung cancer cell lines A549, H460, H520, and H596 also showed that the 5' region haplotypes were statistically significantly associated with changes in CHRNA5 promoter activity, whereas the 3'-untranslated region variants were not.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2010 · Journal of the National Cancer Institute
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genome-wide linkage analysis using single nucleotide polymorphism arrays was carried out in pedigrees of mice differing in the extent of acute inflammatory response (AIRmax or AIRmin). The AIR phenotype was determined by quantifying the number of infiltrating cells in the 24-h exudate induced by Biogel P-100 s.c. injection and by ex vivo IL-1beta production by leukocytes stimulated with LPS and ATP. We mapped the major inflammatory response modulator 1 locus on chromosome 7, at the 1-logarithm of odds (LOD) confidence interval from 116.75 to 139.75 Mb, linked to the number of infiltrating cells (LOD = 3.61) through the production of IL-1beta (LOD = 9.35). Of several interesting candidate genes mapping to the inflammatory response modulator 1 locus, 28 of these were differentially expressed in the bone marrow of AIRmax and AIRmin mice. These findings represent a step toward the identification of the genes underlying this complex phenotype.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using population-based designs have identified many genetic loci associated with risk of a range of complex diseases including cancer; however, each locus exerts a very small effect and most heritability remains unexplained. Family-based pedigree studies have also suggested tentative loci linked to increased cancer risk, often characterized by pedigree-specificity. However, comparison between the results of population- and family-based studies shows little concordance. Explanations for this unidentified genetic 'dark matter' of cancer include phenotype ascertainment issues, limited power, gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, population heterogeneity, parent-of-origin-specific effects, and rare and unexplored variants. Many of these reasons converge towards the concept of genetic heterogeneity that might implicate hundreds of genetic variants in regulating cancer risk. Dissecting the dark matter is a challenging task. Further insights can be gained from both population association and pedigree studies.