P G Aitken

Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States

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Publications (49)132.74 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Intrinsic optical signals (IOSs) induced by synaptic stimulation and moderate hypotonic swelling in brain tissue slices consist of reduced light scattering and are usually attributed to cell swelling. During spreading depression (SD), however, light-scattering increases even though SD has been shown to cause strong cell swelling. To understand this phenomenon, we recorded extracellular voltage, light transmission (LT), which is inversely related to light scattering, and interstitial volume (ISV) simultaneously from the same site (stratum radiatum of CA1) in both interface and submerged hippocampal slices. As expected, moderate lowering of bath osmolarity caused concentration-dependent shrinkage of ISV and increase in LT, while increased osmolarity induced opposite changes in both variables. During severe hypotonia, however, after an initial increase of LT, the direction of the IOS reversed to a progressive decrease in spite of continuing ISV shrinkage. SD caused by hypotonia, by microinjection of high-K(+) solution, or by hypoxia, was associated with a pronounced LT decrease, during which ISV shrinkage indicated maximal cell swelling. If most of the extracellular Cl(-) was substituted by the impermeant anion methylsulfate and also in strongly hypertonic medium, the SD-related decrease in LT was suppressed and replaced by a monotonic increase. Nevertheless, the degree of ISV shrinkage was similar in low and in normal Cl(-) conditions. The optical signals and ISV changes were qualitatively identical in interface and submerged slices. We conclude that there are at least two mechanisms that underlie reversible optical responses in hippocampal slices. The first mechanism underlies light-scattering decrease (hence enhancing LT) when ISV shrinks (cell swelling) under synaptic stimulation and mild hypotonia. Similarly, as result of this mechanism, expansion of ISV (cell shrinkage) during mild hypertonia leads to an increased light scattering (and decreased LT). Thus optical signals associated with this first mechanism show expected cell-volume changes and are linked to either cell swelling or shrinkage. A different mechanism causes the light-scattering increase (leading to a LT decrease) during severe hypotonia and various forms of SD but with a severely decreased ISV. This second mechanism may be due to organelle swelling or dendritic beading but not to cell-volume increase. These two mechanisms can summate, indicating that they are independent in origin. Suppression of the SD-related light-scattering increase by lowering [Cl(-)](o) or severe hypertonia unmasks the underlying swelling-related scattering decrease. The simultaneous IOS and ISV measurements clearly distinguish these two mechanisms of optical signal generation.
    No preview · Article · May 2002 · Journal of Neurophysiology
  • S Bahar · D Fayuk · G G Somjen · P G Aitken · DA Turner
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    ABSTRACT: During hypoxia in the CA1 region of the rat hippocampus, spreading-depression-like depolarization (hypoxic spreading depression or HSD) is accompanied by both a negative shift of the extracellular DC potential (DeltaV(o)), and a sharp decrease in light transmittance (intrinsic optical signal or IOS). To investigate alterations in mitochondrial function during HSD and normoxic spreading depression (SD), we simultaneously imaged mitochondrial depolarization, using rhodamine-123 (R123) fluorescence, and IOS while monitoring extracellular voltage. Three major phases of the R123 signal were observed during hypoxia: a gradual, diffuse fluorescence increase, a sharp increase in fluorescence coincident with the HSD-related DeltaV(o), primarily in the CA1 region, and a plateau-like phase if reoxygenation is delayed after HSD onset, persisting until reoxygenation occurs. Two phases occurred following re-oxygenation: an abrupt and then slow decrease in fluorescence to near baseline and a slow secondary increase to slightly above baseline and a late recovery. Parallel phases of the IOS response during hypoxia were also observed though delayed compared with the R123 responses: an initial increase, a large decrease coincident with the HSD-related DeltaV(o), and a trough following HSD. After reoxygenation, there occurred a delayed increase in transmittance and then a slow decrease, returning to near baseline. When Ca(2+) was removed from the external medium, resulting in complete synaptic blockade, the mitochondrial response to hypoxia did not significantly differ from control (normal Ca(2+)) conditions. In slices maintained in low-chloride (2.4 mM) medium, a dramatic reversal in the direction of the IOS signal associated with HSD occurred, and the R123 signal during HSD was severely attenuated. Normoxic SD induced by micro-injection of KCl was also associated with a decrease in light transmittance and a sharp increase in R123 fluorescence but both responses were less pronounced than during HSD. Our results show two mitochondrial responses to hypoxia: an initial depolarization that appears to be caused by depressed electron transport due to lack of oxygen and a later, sudden, sharp depolarization linked to HSD. The depression of the second, sharp depolarization and the inversion of the IOS in low-chloride media suggest a role of Cl(-)-dependent mitochondrial swelling. Lack of effect of Ca(2+)-free medium on the R123 and IOS responses suggests that the protection against hypoxic damage by low Ca(2+) is not due to the prevention of mitochondrial depolarization.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2000 · Journal of Neurophysiology
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    ABSTRACT: When deprived of oxygen, hippocampal tissue undergoes a spreading-depression-like depolarization (hypoxic spreading depression, or HSD), accompanied by a sharp decrease in light transmittance through the slice (intrinsic optical signal, or IOS). In order to correlate these hypoxia-related changes with disturbances in mitochondrial metabolism, we imaged mitochondrial depolarization, using the fluorescent dye rhodamine-123 (R123), simultaneously with measurements of the IOS, in rat hippocampal slices. We find that a slow, gradual and diffuse increase in R123 fluorescence occurs throughout most of the slice prior to the onset of HSD, followed by a sharp increase in R123 fluorescence, indicating a sharp rise in mitochondrial depolarization, coincident with the measured extracellular depolarization and the drop in IOS. However, in some slices, we have observed a sharp rise in mitochondrial depolarization in regions of the tissue (such as CA3) which do not undergo a drop in light transmittance.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2000
  • Maurizio Balestrino · Jacob Young · Peter Aitken
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    ABSTRACT: We used ouabain (100 microM) to block Na+,K(+)ATPase of in vitro rat hippocampal slices. This treatment was sufficient to cause the sudden depolarization that is the hallmark of both spreading depression (SD) and of the SD-like anoxic depolarization (AD). This depolarization was accompanied by a large and sudden increase in [K](o), also reminiscent of that observed during both SD and AD. Ouabain-induced SD did not require a complete inactivation of Na+,K(+)ATPase, as it occurred when the enzyme was still capable of providing recovery of both V(o) and [K](o). The data indicate that functional inactivation of Na+,K(+)ATPase per se initiates events that lead to an SD-like AD. This ouabain-induced depolarization was not affected by block of synaptic transmission, instead it was abolished by hyperosmolarity of the extracellular space. The possible relevance of these findings to the pathophysiology of AD is discussed.
    No preview · Article · Sep 1999 · Brain Research
  • P G Aitken · D Fayuk · G G Somjen · D.A. Turner
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    ABSTRACT: Optical imaging techniques have the potential to bring a combination of high spatial and temporal resolution to studies of brain function. Many optical techniques require the addition of a dye or fluorescent marker to the tissue, and such methods have proven extremely valuable. It is also known that the intrinsic optical properties of neural tissue are affected by certain physiological changes and that these intrinsic optical signals can provide information not available by other means. Most authors attribute the intrinsic optical change to alterations in cell volume and concomitant change in the concentration of the cytosol. In this article we review the literature on intrinsic optical signals, covering both the mechanisms of the optical change and its use in various branches of neurophysiology. We also discuss technical aspects of the technique as used with hippocampal slices, including illumination methods, cameras, experimental methods, and data collection and analysis procedures. Finally we present data from investigations in which we used intrinsic optical signals in hippocampal slices to study the extent of spread of synaptic activation, propagation of spreading depression, extent and severity of the response to hypoxia, and tissue response to osmotic challenges. We conclude that (1) at least two processes generate intrinsic optical signals in hippocampal slices, one of which causes light scattering to change inversely with cell volume and is related to dilution of the cytoplasm, while the other, opposite in sign, may be due to mitochondrial swelling; and (2) the intrinsic optical signal can be a useful tool for spatial mapping of relatively slow events, but is not suitable for study of fast physiological processes.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1999 · Methods
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    ABSTRACT: The degree to which osmotic stress changes the volume of mammalian central neurons has not previously been determined. We isolated CA1 pyramidal cells and measured cell volume in four different ways. Extracellular osmolarity (pio) was lowered by omitting varying amounts of NaCl and raised by adding mannitol; the extremes of pio tested ranged from 134 to 396 mosm/kg. When pio was reduced, cell swelling varied widely. We distinguished three types of cells according to their response: "yielding cells" whose volume began to increase immediately; "delayed response cells" which swelled after a latent period of 2 min or more; and "resistant cells" whose volume did not change during exposure to hypo-osmotic solution. When pio was raised, most cells shrank slowly, reaching minimal volume in 15-20 min. We observed neither a regulatory volume decrease nor an increase. We conclude that the water permeability of the membrane of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons is low compared to that of other cell types. The mechanical support of the plasma membrane given by the cytoskeleton may contribute to the resistance to swelling and protect neurons against swelling-induced damage.
    No preview · Article · Dec 1998 · Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology
  • P G Aitken · G C Tombaugh · DA Turner · G G Somjen
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    ABSTRACT: Neuron membrane changes and ion redistribution during normoxic spreading depression (SD) induced, for example, by potassium injection, closely resemble those that occur during hypoxic SD-like depolarization (HSD) induced by oxygen withdrawal, but the degree to which the two phenomena are related is controversial. We used extracellular electrical recording and imaging of intrinsic optical signals in hippocampal tissue slices to compare 1) initiation and spread of these two phenomena and 2) the effects of putative gap junction blocking agents, heptanol and octanol. Both events arose focally, after which a clear advancing wave front of increased reflectance and DC shift spread along the CA1 stratum radiatum and s. oriens. The rate of spread was similar: conduction velocity of normoxic SD was 8.73 +/- 0.92 mm/min (mean +/- SE) measured electrically and 5.84 +/- 0.63 mm/min measured optically, whereas HSD showed values of 7.22 +/- 1.60 mm/min (electrical) and 6.79 +/- 0.42 mm/min (optical). When initiated in CA1, normoxic SD consistently failed to enter the CA3 region (7/7 slices) and could not be initiated by direct KC1 injection in the CA3 region (n = 3). Likewise, the hypoxic SD-like optical signal showed onset in the CA1 region and halted at the CA1/CA3 boundary (9/9 slices), but in some (4/9) slices the dentate gyrus region showed a separate onset of signal changes. Microinjection into CA1 stratum radiatum of octanol (1 mM), which when bath applied arrests the spread of normoxic SD, created a small focus that appeared to be protected from hypoxic depolarization. However, bath application of heptanol (3 mM) or octanol (2 mM) did not prevent the spread of HSD, although the onset was delayed. This suggests that, although gap junctions may be essential for the spread of normoxic SD, they may play a less important role in the spread of HSD.
    No preview · Article · Oct 1998 · Journal of Neurophysiology
  • C Largo · G C Tombaugh · P G Aitken · O Herreras · G G Somjen
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated whether heptanol and other long-chain alcohols that are known to block gap junctions interfere with the generation or the propagation of spreading depression (SD). Waves of SD were triggered by micro-injection of concentrated KCl solution in stratum (s.) radiatum of CA1 of rat hippocampal tissue slices. DC-coupled recordings of extracellular potential (V0) were made at the injection and at a second site approximately 1 mm distant in st. radiatum and sometimes also in st. pyramidale. Extracellular excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were evoked by stimulation of the Schaffer collateral bundle; in some experiments, antidromic population spikes were evoked by stimulation of the alveus. Bath application of 3 mM heptanol or 5 mM hexanol completely and reversibly prevented the propagation of the SD-related potential shift (delta V0) without abolishing the delta V0 at the injection site. Octanol (1 mM) had a similar but less reliably reversible effect. fEPSPs were depressed by approximately 30% by heptanol and octanol, 65% by hexanol. Antidromic population spikes were depressed by 30%. In isolated, patchclamped CA1 pyramidal neurons, heptanol partially and reversibly depressed voltage-dependent Na currents possibly explaining the slight depression of antidromic spikes and, by acting on presynaptic action potentials, also the depression of fEPSPs. Fluoroacetate (FAc), a putative selective blocker of glial metabolism, first induced multiple spike firing in response to single afferent volleys and then severely suppressed synaptic transmission (confirming earlier reports) without depressing the antidromic population spike. FAc did not inhibit SD propagation. The effect of alkyl alcohols is compatible with the idea that the opening of normally closed neuronal gap junctions is required for SD propagation. Alternative possible explanations include interference with the lipid phase of neuron membranes. The absence of SD inhibition by FAc confirms that synaptic transmission is not necessary for the propagation of SD, and it suggests that normally functioning glial cells are not essential for SD generation or propagation.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1997 · Journal of Neurophysiology
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    Rong Huang · Peter G. Aitken · George G. Somjen
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    ABSTRACT: Treatments that postpone hypoxic spreading depression (SD)-like depolarization (also called anoxic depolarization) facilitate recovery of function after transient cerebral hypoxia. Hypertonia reduces cerebral excitability, and we tested whether it also offers protection against SD-like depolarization and hypoxia. Oxygen was withdrawn from hippocampal slices bathed in normal artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) and, simultaneously, from slices cut from the same hippocampus but bathed in strongly hypertonic ACSF. Extracellular osmolarity (pi(o)) was increased by adding 100 mM mannitol or fructose to ACSF. Slices in normal pi(o) underwent SD-like negative extracellular voltage shift (delta Vo). The hypertonic slices usually showed no SD-like delta Vo but only a small, gradual negative voltage shift. Hypertonia also prevented the precipitate drop of interstitial calcium level ([Ca2+]o). When oxygenation and normal osmolarity were restored, synaptic transmission in the previously hypertonic slices recovered completely, but 3 h after reoxygenation orthodromically transmitted population spikes of the control slices recovered only 25.1% of the initial control amplitude. We conclude that hypertonic treatment during hypoxia improves subsequent recovery of synaptic function. The protection is probably due to the prevention of calcium uptake by blocking the SD-like depolarization, with the prevention of hypoxic cell swelling playing a lesser role.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 1996 · Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism
  • S.R. Chebabo · M.A. Hester · P.G. Aitken · G.G. Somjen
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    ABSTRACT: Low extracellular osmotic pressure (pi o) is known to enhance CNS responsiveness and the chance of seizures, but the mechanism of the hyperexcitability is not clear. We recorded evoked potentials in st. radiatum and st. pyramidale of CA1. Tissue electrical resistance (Ro) was determined from the voltage drop (VRo) evoked by constant current pulses. Lowering of pi o by reducing [NaCl] caused a concentration-dependent increase of amplitude and duration of extracellular excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs). fEPSPs increased much more than did VRo, but antidromic population spikes increased in proportion to VRo. fEPSP increased also in isosmotic low NaCl (fructose or mannitol substituted) solutions, but not as much as in low pi o. In moderately hypotonic solutions orthodromic population spikes increased as expected from the augmented fEPSP, but in strong hypotonia input-output curves shifted to the left and single stimuli evoked multiple population spikes, indicating lowering of threshold of postsynaptic neurons. Blocking N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors did not diminish the enhancement of fEPSP amplitude. Spreading depression (SD) erupted in most slices in very low pi o, but not in isoosmotic low [NaCl] solutions. We conclude that the hypotonic enhancement of EPSPs depends, in part, on the lowering of [Na+]o and/or of [Cl-]o, and it may be augmented by dendritic swelling favoring electrotonic spread of EPSPs from dendrites to somata, and buildup of transmitter concentration due to swelling of perisynaptic glia. SD can be initiated by cell swelling, but the depolarization associated with SD is probably not caused by the opening of stretch-gated ion channels.
    No preview · Article · Nov 1995 · Brain Research
  • R Huang · P.G. Aitken · G.G. Somjen
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate whether prolonged severe swelling would cause irreversible injury to neurons, we exposed hippocampal tissue slices to hypotonic solutions (142 mosmol/kg) and followed the recovery of evoked responses for 5 h. Orthodromically evoked responses increased during hypotonia, except during recurrent waves of spreading depression (SD). After restoring normal osmotic pressure (pi o), evoked potentials became profoundly depressed. Following 30 min exposure, nearly maximal orthodromic responses recovered completely but responses to submaximal stimuli remained depressed, indicating elevated threshold. Following 60 min exposure, orthodromic transmission remained depressed. In slices from young animals, antidromic population spikes recovered completely, but in slices from older rats they remained partly depressed. Withdrawing calcium and raising magnesium concentration before and during hypotonic exposure resulted in modest but significant improvement of the recovery of synaptically transmitted responses, but made no difference for antidromic responses. With [Ca2+]o reduced and [Mg2+]o elevated, electrographic seizures replaced the episodes of SD during low pi o treatment. We conclude that even 60 min of severe hypotonic swelling did not kill CA1 pyramidal cells in tissue from young rats, but in its aftermath synaptic transmission was disrupted. Uptake of calcium may have played a minor role in the impairment of synaptic transmission. We propose hypothetically that post-hypotonic shrinkage of dendrites disrupted the integrity of excitatory synapses.
    No preview · Article · Nov 1995 · Brain Research
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    S R Chebabo · M A Hester · J Jing · P G Aitken · G G Somjen
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    ABSTRACT: 1. The degree to which mammalian brain cells swell in hypotonic environments has not previously been determined. We exposed hippocampal tissue slices prepared from anaesthetized rats to artificial cerebrospinal fluid from which varying amounts of NaCl had been deleted. Interstitial volume (ISV) change was determined from the volume of dilution of the marker ions tetramethylammonium (TMA+) or tetraethylammonium (TEA+). Tissue electrical resistance was measured as the voltage generated by constant current pulses. 2. ISV decreased as a function of lowered extracellular osmolality (osmotic pressure, pi o), indicating cell swelling. After reaching a minimum, ISV recovered partially, suggesting regulatory volume decrease of cells. After restoring normal pi o the ISV expanded, indicating post-hypotonic cell shrinkage. The electrical resistance of the tissue (Ro) increased when pi o was lowered, due to the reduced ionic strength, as well as restricted ISV. 3. To control for low NaCl concentration, reduced NaCl was replaced by mannitol or fructose. In isosmotic, NaCl-deficient solution, ISV showed inconsistent change, and Ro corrected for ionic strength tended to decrease. 4. Extracellular K+ concentration decreased slightly in low pi o except when spreading depression caused it to increase. Extracellular Ca2+ concentration decreased substantially, consistently and reversibly. Administration of isosmotic low-NaCl concentration solutions caused a similar decrease in extracellular Ca2+ concentrations. We propose that low Na+ concentration in extracellular fluid impaired the extrusion of Ca2+. 5. In severely hypotonic solution, ISV was reduced to 25% of its control volume, corresponding to a mean cell volume increase of at least 11%, probably more. From plotting relative changes in ISV against osmolarity we concluded that, within the range tested, hypotonic cell swelling was not opposed by the close approach of plasma membranes of neighbouring cells.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 1995 · The Journal of Physiology
  • Dennis A. Turner · Peter G. Aitken · George G. Somjen
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    ABSTRACT: We have evaluated the effects of hypoxia on changes in light transmittance () in rat hippocampal interface slices at 36°C, using a digital imaging system. Slice translucence increased only slightly ( in CA1; control 2.27%) during brief hypoxia in which hypoxic spreading depression-like depolarization was not induced. If hypoxia duration was sufficient to trigger spreading depression in CAI, slice translucence increased rapidly in CAI () and smaller, delayed changes were noted in other regions. These spreading depression-induced changes reversed slowly to control levels upon reoxygenation. Measurement of intrinsic optical signals revealed both spatial and temporal patterns of cell volume changes associated with hypoxia and spreading depression in hippocampus.
    No preview · Article · Sep 1995 · Neuroscience Letters
  • Peter G. Aitken · Tim Sauer · Steven J. Schiff
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    ABSTRACT: Many signals measured from the nervous system exhibit apparently random variability that is usually considered to be noise. The development of chaos theory has revealed that such random appearing variability may not, in fact, be random, but rather may be deterministic behavior that can reveal important information about the system's underlying mechanisms. We present some new methods for distinguishing determinism from randomness in experimental data, and we apply these methods to population neural responses recorded from hippocampal tissue slices.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1995 · Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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    ABSTRACT: Criteria for slice health and factors that affect slice health were discussed by many of the participants in the conference. In addition to the standard parameters of slice health (energy metabolism, morphology, electrophysiological responsiveness) more subtle but possibly equally important manifestations of slice health were discussed. These included protein synthesis, and more subtle changes, of which we are becoming increasingly aware. The latter include synthesis of stress-related proteins, altered levels of phosphorylation, altered levels of proteolysis. These last were only touched on, but it is becoming apparent they do in fact constitute important manifestations of differences between the slice preparation and the in vivo tissue. They may well lead to quite different responses in slices from those that occur in vivo. While many ways of optimizing slice wellness were discussed, there was a fair consensus that certain adjustments will optimize the most widely measured aspects of cell function. These include the following, wherever possible. Use of young animals, use of the interface chamber, preparing slices with the vibratome, pre-treating animals with ice-cold cardiac perfusion before sacrificing, using pre-incubation media which reduce NMDA receptor activation, free radical formation and cell swelling. When possible these treatments should perhaps be continued into the normal incubation. This being said, many viewpoints were actually expressed in the Discussion, and it should be read to get a feel for the usefulness of the different approaches.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 1995 · Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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    Full-text · Article · Jun 1995 · Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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    S J Schiff · K Jerger · T Chang · T Sauer · P G Aitken
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    ABSTRACT: Long time series of Schaffer collateral to CA1 pyramidal cell presynaptic volleys (stratum radiatum) and population spikes (stratum pyramidale) were evoked (driven) in rat hippocampal slices. From the driven CA1 region in normal [K+] perfusate, both population spike amplitude and an input-output function consisting of population spike amplitude divided by the presynaptic volley amplitude were analyzed. Raising [K+] in the perfusion medium to 8.5 mM, slices were induced to spontaneously burst fire in CA3 and long time series of inter-burst intervals were recorded. Three tests for determinism were applied to these series: a discrete adaptation of a local flow approach, a local dispersion approach, and nonlinear prediction. Surrogate data were generated to serve as mathematical and statistical controls. All of the population spike (6/6) and input-output (6/6) time series from the normal [K+] driven circuitry were stochastic by all three methods. Although most of the time series (5/6) from the autonomously bursting high [K+] state failed to demonstrate evidence of determinism, one (1/6) of these time series did demonstrate significant determinism. This single instance of predictability could not be accounted for by the linear correlation in these data.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 1994 · Biophysical Journal
  • J Jing · P G Aitken · G G Somjen
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    ABSTRACT: 1. Relative interstitial volume (ISV) was estimated from the concentration changes of iontophoretically administered tetramethyl- and tetraethylammonium (TMA+ and TEA+). Spreading depression (SD) was provoked by high K+, and hypoxic SD-like depolarization (HSD) was induced by withdrawing oxygen. 2. Probe ion concentrations increased dramatically and about equally during SD and HSD, except that in a few hypoxic trials signals became transiently smaller than control. Interstitial volume appeared to decrease on the average by approximately 70%. 3. The ISV that remains patent in CA1 region at the height of SD is < 4% of total tissue volume. Probe ions may occasionally have passed through cell membranes for a short time during hypoxic SD.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1994 · Journal of Neurophysiology
  • P.G. Aitken · T SAUER · S.J. Schiff

    No preview · Article · Apr 1994 · Journal of Neuroscience Methods
  • Gabor Czéh · Peter G. Aitken · George G. Somjen
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    ABSTRACT: We used the patch clamp technique in whole-cell configuration to investigate the membrane current and membrane resistance of neurons in rat hippocampal tissue slices during spreading depression (SD) induced by high K+ solution or electrical stimulation and during SD-like depolarization caused by hypoxia. The potential of the patch pipette was referred to an extracellular micropipette electrode to ensure control of the true membrane potential during large shifts of extracellular potential, delta Vo. During both hypoxic and normoxic SD, increase of holding current indicated a large inward current which reached a mean maximum of about 1.75 nA. This virtual inward current started and ended at the same time as the extracellularly recorded negative delta Vo shift, but the trajectories of the two differed. When the membrane was clamped at strongly positive potential, the current during SD was outward. The average apparent reversal potential of the current during SD was near zero but in individual cases varied from -26 mV to + 12 mV. During SD the input resistance decreased on the average to 43% of the resting control value. The decrease of the input resistance was not voltage dependent. The increase of holding current and decrease of resistance occurred with both Cs- and K-gluconate recording pipettes and was not suppressed by 2 mM intracellular QX-314. Voltage-gated currents disappeared during SD; a small, Cs(+)-resistant outward rectifying current was the last to be lost. During recovery, reversal potential and input resistant overshot the control level and then returned to normal within about 5 min. The data are consistent with change of both driving potential and conductance for several ions, but the decrease of overall membrane resistance was less than earlier estimates with other methods had suggested. Normoxic SD and hypoxic SD-like depolarization could not be distinguished by these tests.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1994 · Brain Research

Publication Stats

2k Citations
132.74 Total Impact Points


  • 1992-2000
    • Duke University
      • Department of Physics
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 1985-1999
    • Duke University Medical Center
      • Department of Cell Biology
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 1994
    • Children's National Medical Center
      • Division of Neurosurgery
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States