[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several common alleles have been shown to be associated with breast and/or ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Recent genome-wide association studies of breast cancer have identified eight additional breast cancer susceptibility loci: rs1011970 (9p21, CDKN2A/B), rs10995190 (ZNF365), rs704010 (ZMIZ1), rs2380205 (10p15), rs614367 (11q13), rs1292011 (12q24), rs10771399 (12p11 near PTHLH) and rs865686 (9q31.2).
To evaluate whether these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers, we genotyped these SNPs in 12,599 BRCA1 and 7,132 BRCA2 mutation carriers and analysed the associations with breast cancer risk within a retrospective likelihood framework.
Only SNP rs10771399 near PTHLH was associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers (per-allele hazard ratio (HR) = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.81 to 0.94, P-trend = 3 × 10-4). The association was restricted to mutations proven or predicted to lead to absence of protein expression (HR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.74 to 0.90, P-trend = 3.1 × 10-5, P-difference = 0.03). Four SNPs were associated with the risk of breast cancer for BRCA2 mutation carriers: rs10995190, P-trend = 0.015; rs1011970, P-trend = 0.048; rs865686, 2df-P = 0.007; rs1292011 2df-P = 0.03. rs10771399 (PTHLH) was predominantly associated with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer for BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.74 to 0.90, P-trend = 4 × 10-5) and there was marginal evidence of association with ER-negative breast cancer for BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.62 to 1.00, P-trend = 0.049).
The present findings, in combination with previously identified modifiers of risk, will ultimately lead to more accurate risk prediction and an improved understanding of the disease etiology in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Breast cancer research: BCR
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our current understanding of breast cancer susceptibility involves mutations in the 2 major genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, found in about 25% of high-risk families, as well as few other low penetrance genes such as ATM and CHEK2. Approximately two-thirds of the multiple cases families remain to be explained by mutations in still unknown genes. In a candidate gene approach to identify new genes potentially involved in breast cancer susceptibility, we analyzed genomic variants in the ZBRK1 gene, a co-repressor implicated in BRCA1-mediated repression of GADD45. Direct sequencing of ZBRK1 entire coding region in affected breast cancer individuals from 97 high-risk French Canadian breast/ovarian cancer families and 94 healthy controls led to the identification of 18 genomic variants. Haplotype analyses, using PHASE, COCAPHASE and HaploStats programs, put in evidence 3 specific haplotypes which could potentially modulate breast cancer risk, and among which 2 that are associated with a potential protective effect (p = 0.01135 and p = 0.00268), while another haplotype is over-represented in the case group (p = 0.00143). Further analyses of these haplotypes indicated that a strong component of the observed difference between both groups emerge from the first 5 variants (out of 12 used for haplotype determination). The present study also permitted to determine a set of tagging SNPs that could be useful for subsequent analyses in large scale association studies. Additional studies in large cohorts and other populations will however be needed to further evaluate if common and/or rare ZBRK1 sequence variants and haplotypes could be associated with a modest/intermediate breast cancer risk.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2008 · International Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cowden syndrome is a disease associated with an increase in breast cancer susceptibility. Alleles in PTEN and other breast cancer susceptibility genes would be responsible for approximately 25% of the familial component of breast cancer risk, BRCA1 and BRCA2 being the two major genes responsible for this inherited risk. In order to evaluate the proportion of high-risk French Canadian non-BRCA1/BRCA2 breast/ovarian cancer families potentially harboring a PTEN germline mutation, the whole coding and flanking intronic sequences were analyzed in a series of 98 breast cancer cases. Although no germline mutation has been identified in the coding region, our study led to the identification of four intronic variants. Further investigations were performed to analyze the effect of these variants, alone and/or in combination, on splicing and PTEN protein levels. Despite suggestive evidence emerging from in silico analyses, the presence of these intronic variants do not seem to alter RNA splicing or PTEN protein levels. In addition, as loss of PTEN or part of it has been reported, Western blot analysis has also been performed. No major deletion could be identified in our cohort. Therefore, assuming a Poisson distribution for the frequency of deleterious mutation in our cohort, if the frequency of such deleterious mutation was 2%, we would have had a 90% or greater chance of observing at least one such mutation. These results suggest that PTEN germline mutations are rare and are unlikely to account for a significant proportion of familial breast cancer cases in the French Canadian population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In clinical settings with fixed resources allocated to predictive genetic testing for high-risk cancer predisposition genes, optimal strategies for mutation screening programmes are critically important. These depend on the mutation spectrum found in the population under consideration and the frequency of mutations detected as a function of the personal and family history of cancer, which are both affected by the presence of founder mutations and demographic characteristics of the underlying population. The results of multistep genetic testing for mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 in a large series of families with breast cancer in the French-Canadian population of Quebec, Canada are reported.
A total of 256 high-risk families were ascertained from regional familial cancer clinics throughout the province of Quebec. Initially, families were tested for a panel of specific mutations known to occur in this population. Families in which no mutation was identified were then comprehensively tested. Three algorithms to predict the presence of mutations were evaluated, including the prevalence tables provided by Myriad Genetics Laboratories, the Manchester Scoring System and a logistic regression approach based on the data from this study.
8 of the 15 distinct mutations found in 62 BRCA1/BRCA2-positive families had never been previously reported in this population, whereas 82% carried 1 of the 4 mutations currently observed in > or =2 families. In the subset of 191 families in which at least 1 affected individual was tested, 29% carried a mutation. Of these 27 BRCA1-positive and 29 BRCA2-positive families, 48 (86%) were found to harbour a mutation detected by the initial test. Among the remaining 143 inconclusive families, all 8 families found to have a mutation after complete sequencing had Manchester Scores > or =18. The logistic regression and Manchester Scores provided equal predictive power, and both were significantly better than the Myriad Genetics Laboratories prevalence tables (p<0.001). A threshold of Manchester Score > or =18 provided an overall sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 82%, with a positive predictive value of 66% in this population.
In this population, a testing strategy with an initial test using a panel of reported recurrent mutations, followed by full sequencing in families with Manchester Scores > or =18, represents an efficient test in terms of overall cost and sensitivity.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2007 · Journal of Medical Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Today it is common to conduct research in collaboration with colleagues from different disciplines and institutions. The INterdisciplinary HEalth Research International Team on BReast CAncer susceptibility (INHERIT BRCAs), involves Canadian and international experts from diverse fields working with health service providers, patients and collaborators from the World Health Organization and other European networks. Evidence-based information and knowledge transfer drive our efforts to advance genomic research to understand the genetic basis of cancer susceptibility and treatment response. Several goals reveal the interdisciplinary team approach: (a) to estimate the prevalence and penetrance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations and their deleterious impact upon different populations; (b) to pinpoint novel breast cancer susceptibility loci; (c) to assess the efficacy of clinical interventions; (d) to address changes in quality of life and health-related behaviour from the decision to undergo genetics testing and during follow-up; (e) to evaluate legal, social and ethical implications; and, finally; (f) to promote professional and public education by facilitating the transfer of research findings to clinical practice and informing policy makers. The lessons learned by the INHERIT research team and future challenges are presented.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The discovery of deleterious mutations in the breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, has facilitated the identification of individuals at particularly high risk of these diseases. There is a wide variation between populations in the prevalence and related risks of various types of BRCA1/2 mutations, so estimates cannot be extrapolated to Canadians, especially not founder populations such as French- Canadians. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods were used to detect the majority of these mutations. These approaches usually failed to detect large DNA rearrangements, which have been claimed to be involved in other populations in 5% to up to 36% of BRCA1-positive families. There is very little information about the contribution of this type of mutation in BRCA2-positive families. To investigate if our available mutation spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in high-risk French-Canadian breast/ovarian cancer families has been biased by PCR-based direct sequencing methods, we first used Southern blot analysis to test DNA samples from 61 affected/obligate carrier individuals from 58 families in which no BRCA1/2 deleterious mutation was found. Finally, 154 individuals from 135 BRCA1/2 nonconclusive families, including all those tested previously by Southern blot analysis, were tested with the new multiplex ligation probe amplification (MLPA) technique. These approaches failed to detect any rearrangement. Moreover, if the frequency of MLPA-detectable rearrangements in our cohort of 135 BRCA1/2 nonconclusive families was 2.2% or higher, we would have had a 95% or greater chance of observing at least one such rearrangement. As no rearrangements were identified, such large rearrangements must be quite rare in our population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated and Rad3-related (ATR) is a member of the PIK-related family which plays, along with ATM, a central role in cell-cycle regulation. ATR has been shown to phosphorylate several tumor suppressors like BRCA1, CHEK1 and TP53. ATR appears as a good candidate breast cancer susceptibility gene and the current study was designed to screen for ATR germline mutations potentially involved in breast cancer predisposition.
ATR direct sequencing was performed using a fluorescent method while widely available programs were used for linkage disequilibrium (LD), haplotype analyses, and tagging SNP (tSNP) identification. Expression analyses were carried out using real-time PCR.
The complete sequence of all exons and flanking intronic sequences were analyzed in DNA samples from 54 individuals affected with breast cancer from non-BRCA1/2 high-risk French Canadian breast/ovarian families. Although no germline mutation has been identified in the coding region, we identified 41 sequence variants, including 16 coding variants, 3 of which are not reported in public databases. SNP haplotypes were established and tSNPs were identified in 73 healthy unrelated French Canadians, providing a valuable tool for further association studies involving the ATR gene, using large cohorts. Our analyses led to the identification of two novel alternative splice transcripts. In contrast to the transcript generated by an alternative splicing site in the intron 41, the one resulting from a deletion of 121 nucleotides in exon 33 is widely expressed, at significant but relatively low levels, in both normal and tumoral cells including normal breast and ovarian tissue.
Although no deleterious mutations were identified in the ATR gene, the current study provides an haplotype analysis of the ATR gene polymorphisms, which allowed the identification of a set of SNPs that could be used as tSNPs for large-scale association studies. In addition, our study led to the characterization of a novel Delta33 splice form, which could generate a putative truncated protein lacking several functional domains. Additional studies in large cohorts and other populations will be needed to further evaluate if common and/or rare ATR sequence variants can be associated with a modest or intermediate breast cancer risk.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The breast/ovarian cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1 interact with multiple protein complexes involved in cellular mechanisms, such as DNA repair, transcription, homologous recombination and cell cycle regulation. Extensive analyses over the past decade led to the detection of several BRCA1 alternative splice variants. Here, we identify the first BRCA1 alternative splice variant containing an additional in-frame exon. This previously unknown exon 13A-containing transcript is generated by the insertion of 66 nucleotides between exons 13 and 14, due to alternative splicing in intron 13 (IVS13-2786-2720). Furthermore, exon 13A-containing transcript was detectable in total RNA samples from 12 normal tissues and several breast and other cancer cell lines. As revealed by real-time PCR analysis, this transcript corresponds to 20 to 25% of the total BRCA1 mRNA expression levels in leukocytes, brain and cerebellum tissues, whereas its relative level of expression is less than 5% in other tested tissues and cancer cell lines. This novel alternative transcript adds 22 amino acids after residue 1452, thus modifying the primary structure of the trans-activation domain 1 (AD1) and the protein-protein interacting domain of BRCA1 with BRCA2, AR and MSH2. No sequence variant has been detected by direct genomic sequencing of exon 13A in individuals originating from high-risk breast/ovarian cancer families.
No preview · Article · Nov 2005 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The predictive value of topoisomerase-II alpha (topo-II) has been evaluated in advanced breast cancer patients randomly treated with single-agent doxorubicin or docetaxel.
Primary tumor samples from patients enrolled in a randomized, phase III clinical trial comparing single-agent doxorubicin (75 mg/m(2) q3wks) with docetaxel (100 mg/m(2) q3wks) were collected and topo-II status was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (clone KiS1).
Topo-II status was evaluated in 108 samples, 55 (51%) in the doxorubicin arm and 53 (49%) in the docetaxel arm. An increment of 10% in cells expressing topo-II is associated with a statistically significant odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval) of 1.09 (1.03-1.15; P = 0.002) for overall response to doxorubicin versus 1.002 (0.94-1.07; P = 0.95) in the docetaxel arm. With increasing topo-II, the favorable OR for overall response to docetaxel compared with doxorubicin decreases to become not significant in patients with topo-II tumor content >10%. In a multivariate analysis, (a) HER-2 status seems positively correlated with overall response to chemotherapy (OR, 2.34; 95% confidence interval, 0.87-6.27; P = 0.09). (b) Overall response to doxorubicin is significantly lower than overall response to docetaxel (OR, 0.17; 95% confidence interval, 0.04-0.64; P = 0.009) but with a significant interaction term for doxorubicin-treated patients with topo-II tumor content >10% (OR, 8.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.86-37.03; P = 0.05).
(a) Topo-II overexpression confers a higher probability of response in the doxorubicin arm only. (b) Despite being a small retrospective study, this study is in line with previously reported studies and the hypotheses raised are now being tested in a prospective neoadjuvant trial.
No preview · Article · Nov 2004 · Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the predictive value of HER-2 in a population of advanced breast cancer patients randomly treated either with single-agent doxorubicin (A) or with single-agent docetaxel (T).
Patients from this study participated in a phase III clinical trial in which doxorubicin or docetaxel was administered for advanced disease. HER-2 was evaluated by IHC. In all positive cases, FISH was used to confirm the HER-2 positive status. The different cohorts of patients identified by HER-2 were examined to assess a possible relationship between HER-2 status and treatment effect.
Tumor samples were available for 176 of the 326 patients entered in the clinical trial (54%). HER-2 positivity was observed in 20% of the study population. A statistically significant interaction was found between response rates to the study drugs and HER-2 status, with HER-2 positive patients deriving the highest benefit from the use of T (odds ratio for HER-2 positive patients treated with T = 3.12 (95% CI 1.11-8.80), p = 0.03). The interaction between HER-2 and response rates to A and T was also confirmed by a multivariate analysis. No statistically significant interaction was found between HER-2 and drugs efficacy evaluated in terms of time to progression and overall survival, although in the HER-2 negative cohort A was at least as effective as T in term of overall survival.
These results suggest that in HER-2 positive breast cancer patients docetaxel might be more active than doxorubicin, while in HER-2 negative patients doxorubicin might be at least as effective as docetaxel. Although the present results cannot have an impact on current practice, they allow us to formulate the hypothesis that HER-2 positive breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with regard to sensitivity to anthracyclines and taxanes, and that this might be dependent upon other molecular markers including the p-53 and topoisomerase II alpha genes. This hypothesis is currently being tested prospectively in two different 'bench to bed-side' clinical trials.
No preview · Article · Sep 2004 · Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of tirofiban (a glycoprotein IIb-IIIa inhibitor) in preventing streptokinase-induced, antibody-mediated platelet aggregation after administration of streptokinase or development of a streptococcal infection.
Research center of a Canadian hospital.
Forty-five healthy volunteers, 45 patients who had received streptokinase within the past 3 years, and 13 patients who had a severe streptococcal infection also within the past 3 years.
Blood samples were drawn to measure the extent of inhibition of streptokinase-induced, antibody-mediated platelet activation and aggregation by tirofiban.
Platelet aggregation was measured by using a turbidimetric method. The extent of inhibition by tirofiban was measured by incubating tirofiban for 2 minutes before adding streptokinase 5000 U/ml. Also, tirofiban was added 2 minutes before adding adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) 2 microM/L into the last tube as a comparison. Strepto-kinase-induced, antibody-mediated platelet aggregation was observed in 10 (22%) of the 45 patients treated with streptokinase, in 3 (23%) of the 13 patients with streptococcal infection, and in none of the 45 healthy volunteers. Tirofiban inhibited streptokinase-induced, antibody-mediated platelet aggregation by 89 +/- 14% (p<0.001). Similarly, ADP-induced platelet aggregation was inhibited by 92 +/- 6% (p<0.001) with tirofiban.
Streptokinase-induced, antibody-mediated platelet aggregation occurred in 13 (22%) of 58 patients who received streptokinase or were exposed to a streptococcal infection in the past 3 years. Such patients may not benefit from streptokinase therapy. In these patients, tirofiban significantly decreased the extent of antistreptokinase antibody-mediated platelet aggregation. Hence, patients undergoing streptokinase therapy may benefit from tirofiban as adjunctive therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Streptokinase use, in acute myocardial infarction, is hindered by failure to reperfuse (60%) and early reocclusion (16%). This phenomenon may, among other causes, be due to systemic inactivation of streptokinase, as well as streptokinase-induced platelet aggregation and clot propagation from antibodies to streptokinase produced after streptokinase administration or streptococcal infections. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of streptokinase-induced, antibody-mediated, platelet activation and aggregation after administration of SK or development of a streptococcal infection.
We included 45 normal volunteers (Control group), as well as 45 patients who had received streptokinase (Streptokinase group) and 13 who had suffered a severe streptococcal infection (Streptococcal infection group) within the past 3 years. Extent of streptokinase-induced, antibody-mediated, platelet activation and aggregation, as well as anti-streptokinase antibody and streptokinase resistance titers (lowest streptokinase concentration to cause clot lysis within 10 min) were measured.
Whereas streptokinase-induced, antibody-mediated, platelet activation was observed in 49% of streptokinase patients and in only 17% and 15% of streptococcal infection patients and normal volunteers (p<0.05 Streptokinase vs. Control and Streptokinase vs. Streptococcal infection), streptokinase-induced platelet aggregation was observed in 23% of streptokinase patients and streptococcal infection patients, and in none of the control patients (p<0.05).
Streptokinase-induced, antibody-mediated, platelet activation and aggregation occur in patients with high titers of anti-streptokinase antibody and may play a role in failure of streptokinase therapy. Streptococcal infection patients behave like streptokinase patients in terms of the reactivity of their platelets to subsequent streptokinase dose in vitro.
No preview · Article · Feb 2003 · Thrombosis Research