Jennifer Wiley

University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States

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Publications (70)95.88 Total impact

  • Andrew F. Jarosz · Olga Goldenberg · Jennifer Wiley
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    ABSTRACT: Learning-by-invention is an alternative approach to teaching statistics where students are tasked with attempting to solve a problem before being taught the canonical formula for solving it, often resulting in increased understanding of material compared to traditional instruction. The first study, conducted in a college statistics classroom with mixed-skill groups, extended previous work showing an advantage for learning-by-invention activities compared to a lecture-first control. A second study explored group interactions that led to benefits from learning-by-invention activities. Successful groups were more likely to propose solutions, and less likely to propose arbitrary formulas or highlight group members’ math skill. The features of small group interactions that may help or harm learning during invention activities are discussed.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Discourse Processes
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    ABSTRACT: A novel experimental paradigm that measured theory change and confidence in participants' theories was used in three experiments to test the effects of anomalous evidence. Experiment 1 varied the amount of anomalous evidence to see if “dose size” made incremental changes in confidence toward theory change. Experiment 2 varied whether anomalous evidence was convergent (of multiple types) or replicating (similar finding repeated). Experiment 3 varied whether participants were provided with an alternative theory that explained the anomalous evidence. All experiments showed that participants' confidence changes were commensurate with the amount of anomalous evidence presented, and that larger decreases in confidence predicted theory changes. Convergent evidence and the presentation of an alternative theory led to larger confidence change. Convergent evidence also caused more theory changes. Even when people do not change theories, factors pertinent to the evidence and alternative theories decrease their confidence in their current theory and move them incrementally closer to theory change.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Cognitive Science A Multidisciplinary Journal
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    Allison J. Jaeger · Jennifer Wiley
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    ABSTRACT: This study explored students’ ability to evaluate their learning from a multimedia inquiry unit about the causes of global climate change. Participants were 90 sixth grade students from four science classrooms. Students were provided with a text describing the causes of climate change as well as graphs showing average global temperature changes. Half of the students also received an analogy to help support their understanding of the topic. Results indicated that overall students were over-confident about how much they learned and how well they understood the topic. Further, the presence of an analogy led to higher levels of over-confidence. Results also indicated that students with better graph interpretation skills were less over-confident even when the analogy was present. These results suggest that the presence of graphs and analogies can negatively affect students’ abilities to accurately judge their own level of understanding and may lead to an illusion of comprehension.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Discourse Processes
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    Allison J. Jaeger · Jennifer Wiley
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    ABSTRACT: The present research examined the effect of illustrations on readers' metacomprehension accuracy for expository science text. In two experiments, students read non-illustrated texts, or the same texts illustrated with either conceptual or decorative images; were asked to judge how well they understood each text; and then took tests for each topic. Metacomprehension accuracy was computed as the intra-individual correlation between judgments and inference test performance. Results from both studies showed that the presence of decorative images can lead to poor metacomprehension accuracy. In the second study, an analysis of the cues that students reported using to make their judgments revealed that students who used comprehension-relevant cues showed more accurate metacomprehension. A self-explanation instruction did not alter either comprehension-relevant cue use or metacomprehension accuracy, although some advantages were seen when readers were prompted to self-explain from texts illustrated with conceptual images. These results suggest that students may need more explicit instruction or support to promote the use of valid cues when engaging in comprehension monitoring with illustrated text, and that seductive information such as decorative images may undermine comprehension monitoring.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Learning and Instruction
  • Travis Rex Ricks · Jennifer Wiley
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    ABSTRACT: Does having more knowledge or interest in the topics used in example problems facilitate or hinder learning in statistics? Undergraduates enrolled in Introductory Psychology received a lesson on central tendency. Following the lesson, half of the students completed a worksheet with a baseball cover story while the other half received a weather cover story. Learning was assessed using a quiz that contained two kinds of items: computation and explanation. Measures of baseball knowledge and interest in baseball were collected. The results indicated that overall the students performed better on computation items than explanation items. The weather example led to better performance on the explanation items than the baseball example. No differences were seen in performance on the quiz as a function of gender, prior knowledge, or interest. If anything, the results indicated that interest in baseball seemed to hinder learning in the baseball condition. Possible reasons for differences in performance due to the cover story are discussed.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Problem Solving
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    Andrew F. Jarosz · Jennifer Wiley
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to provide an easy template for the inclusion of the Bayes factor in reporting experimental results, particularly as a recommendation for articles in the Journal of Problem Solving. The Bayes factor provides information with a similar purpose to the p-value—to allow the researcher to make statistical inferences from data provided by experiments. While the p-value is widely used, the Bayes factor provides several advantages, particularly in that it allows the researcher to make a statement about the alternative hypothesis, rather than just the null hypothesis. In addition, it provides a clearer estimate of the amount of evidence present in the data. Building on previous work by authors such as Wagenmakers (2007), Rouder et al. (2009), and Masson (2011), this article provides a short introduction to Bayes factors, before providing a practical guide to their computation using examples from published work on problem solving.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Problem Solving
  • Christopher A. Sanchez · Jennifer Wiley
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    ABSTRACT: The current experiment investigated the effects of a dynamic spatial ability on comprehension of a geoscience text on plate tectonics and the causes of volcanic activity. 162 undergraduates (54% female) from a large public university who had little prior knowledge of this science content area were asked to learn about plate tectonics. Measures of spatial ability and working memory capacity were used to predict comprehension from a text that contained either no images, static images, or animated versions of the static images. Only the dynamic spatial ability measure interacted with the type of illustrations contained in the text, and was shown to be especially relevant for comprehension when readers did not receive animations. These results demonstrate a novel influence of individual differences in dynamic spatial ability on comprehension of text describing dynamic spatial phenomena.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Learning and Instruction

  • No preview · Chapter · Jan 2014
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    Benjamin D Jee · Jennifer Wiley
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Previous research on category learning has found that classification tasks produce representations that are skewed toward diagnostic feature dimensions, whereas feature inference tasks lead to richer representations of within-category structure (e.g., Markman & Ross, 2003; Sakamoto & Love, 2010). Yet, prior studies often measure category knowledge through tasks that involve identifying only the typical features of a category. This neglects an important aspect of a category's internal structure: how typical and atypical features are distributed within a category. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that inference learning results in richer knowledge of internal category structure than classification learning. We introduced several new measures to probe learners' representations of within-category structure. Experiment 1 found that participants in the inference condition learned and used a wider range of feature dimensions than classification learners. Classification learners, however, were more sensitive to the presence of atypical features within categories. Experiment 2 provided converging evidence that classification learners were more likely to incorporate atypical features into their representations. Inference learners were less likely to encode atypical category features, even in a "partial inference" condition that focused learners' attention on the feature dimensions relevant to classification. Overall, these results are contrary to the hypothesis that inference learning produces superior knowledge of within-category structure. Although inference learning promoted representations that included a broad range of category-typical features, classification learning promoted greater sensitivity to the distribution of typical and atypical features within categories.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Quarterly journal of experimental psychology (2006)
  • Jason L. G. Braasch · Susan R. Goldman · Jennifer Wiley
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    ABSTRACT: Three experiments examined conceptual change from reading refutational texts and how such learning interacted with prior knowledge organization. Prior to reading, 3 groups of learners were identified on the basis of their prior knowledge of the targeted concept: 2 groups held misconceptions; 1 group was generally accurate. Experiment 1 tested learning from a text that contrasted a misconception and the correct conception of the phenomenon of airflow against learning from a text that repeated the correct scientific description twice. The 2 reader groups learned from both types of texts about equally. Experiment 2 contrasted a more traditional refutational text to the “repetition” text. Learning was better with the refutational than the repetition text for both misconception groups on both measures. Experiment 3 demonstrated that learners who held largely accurate conceptions prior to reading texts that presented misconceptions preserved their largely accurate performance. Overall, the results suggest that the inclusion of an explicit refutation of the misconception is critical for instigating knowledge revision when readers possess inaccurate prior conceptions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Journal of Educational Psychology
  • Gregory J H Colflesh · Jennifer Wiley
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    ABSTRACT: Alcohol use has long been assumed to alter cognition via attentional processes. To better understand the cognitive consequences of intoxication, the present study tested the effects of moderate intoxication (average BAC between .071 and .082) on attentional processing using complex working memory capacity (WMC) span tasks and a change blindness task. Intoxicated and sober participants were matched on baseline WMC performance, and intoxication significantly decreased performance on the complex span tasks. Surprisingly, intoxication improved performance on the change blindness task. The results are interpreted as evidence that intoxication decreases attentional control, causing either a shift towards more passive processing and/or a more diffuse attentional state. This may result in decreased performance on tasks where attentional control or focus are required, but may actually facilitate performance in some contexts.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Consciousness and Cognition
  • Thomas D. Griffin · Jennifer Wiley · Carlos R. Salas
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    ABSTRACT: This chapter explicates an empirically grounded and detailed theoretical framework for understanding the various components of self-regulated learning. A key distinction is articulated between metacognitive knowledge and metacognitive monitoring. It is argued that it is the accurate monitoring of learning experiences that is critical for effective self-regulation during learning, and that various accuracy measures for judgments of learning differ in how well they assess this construct of monitoring accuracy. Particular emphasis is placed on the importance of improving the relative accuracy of metacognitive monitoring skills, and that typical instruction in study strategies may not be sufficient to improve monitoring. The results of studies and manipulations that have resulted in superior monitoring accuracy are reviewed, and the implications for the development of learning technologies are discussed. A key observation is that in order to provide the opportunity for the development of effective regulatory skills, learning environments need to be careful not to deprive students of the opportunity to engage in self-regulation or monitoring of their own understanding.
    No preview · Chapter · Jan 2013
  • Jennifer Wiley · AF Jarosz
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    ABSTRACT: Working memory capacity (WMC) is important for many cognitive processes including problem solving. This chapter compiles the current literature regarding WMC and problem solving, and discusses the various ways in which WMC can help and hinder people as they go about solving problems of varying types. In particular, three types of problem solving are examined: mathematical problem solving, problem solving as it relates to the Raven Progressive Matrices (RPM), and creative problem solving. One of the main benefits across both math and RPM problem solving seems to be that WMC helps solvers to focus their attention, resist distraction, or narrow their search through a problem space. Conversely, several lines of evidence are now showing that too much focus can actually harm performance on creative or insightful problem-solving tasks. It is suggested that in order to account for the differing relationships between WMC and different types of problem solving, a dual-process, analytical/insightful model of problem solving is required.
    No preview · Chapter · Dec 2012
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    ABSTRACT: Readers increasingly attempt to understand and learn from information sources they find on the Internet. Doing so highlights the crucial role that evaluative processes play in selecting and making sense of the information. In a prior study, Wiley et al. (2009, Experiment 1) asked undergraduates to perform a web-based inquiry task about volcanoes using multiple Internet sources. A major finding established a clear link between learning outcomes, source evaluations, and reading behaviors. The present study used think-aloud protocol methodology to better understand the processing that learners engaged in during this task: 10 better learners were contrasted with 11 poorer learners. Results indicate that better learners engaged in more sense-making, self-explanation, and comprehension-monitoring processes on reliable sites as compared with unreliable sites, and did so by a larger margin than did poorer learners. Better learners also engaged in more goal-directed navigation than poorer learners. Case studies of two better and two poorer learners further illustrate how evaluation processes contributed to navigation decisions. Findings suggest that multiple-source comprehension is a dynamic process that involves interplay among sense-making, monitoring, and evaluation processes, all of which promote strategic reading. 阅读者日益想要弄明白及学习他们从互联网上各种来源所找到的信息资料。他们这样做突显出在选择和弄明白这些信息时评价过程所起的重要作用。威立等人在以前一项研究(2009,实验1)中,参与研究的大学生要利用互联网多种资源来完成一项关于火山的網路探究式学习任务。该研究的一个主要结果是建立了学习成果、信息来源评价与阅读行为之间的明确联系。本研究则使用有声思维研究方法,以深入考查学习者在参与同一个学习任务时他们处理信息的过程,并以10名表现较好的与11名表现较差的学习者作比对。结果显示,对于可靠网站上的资料,表现较好的学习者较多致力于弄明白自我解释的过程和理解监控的过程,而对于不可靠网站上的资料,这种行为则较少;他们这种行为亦远多于表现较差的学习者。此外,表现较好的学习者比表现较差的学习者较多致力于有目标的网上浏览。两个表现较好及两个表现较差的学习者的案例研究,进一步说明评价过程如何有助于在网上浏览时所作的决定。本研究结果显示,理解多种来源的信息是一个动态的过程,其中涉及弄明白、监控和评价过程之间的相互作用,而这些过程均能促进策略性阅读。 Es cada vez más común que lectores intenten entender y aprender de fuentes de información del Internet. Esto demuestra el rol crucial que los procesos de evaluación tienen en seleccionar y sacar sentido de la información recibida. En un estudio anterior, Wiley et al. (2009, Experiment 1) les pidieron a subgraduados que hicieran una búsqueda en la red sobre volcanes usando múltiples fuentes del Internet. Un resultado clave estableció una conexión clara entre los resultados del aprendizaje, la evaluación de las fuentes, y la manera de leer. El presente estudio usó la metodología del protocolo de pensar en voz alta para mejor entender los procesos usados por los aprendices al cumplir dicha tarea: se compararon 10 aprendices mejores con 11 aprendices pobres. Los resultados señalan que los mejores aprendices buscaban sus propias explicaciones que hicieran sentido y procesos de monitoreo de comprensión en sitios confiables comparados con los sitios que no eran confiables, y lo hacían con un margen mayor que los aprendices pobres. Un estudio de casos de dos mejores y dos pobres aprendices ilustran aun más cómo los procesos de evaluación contribuían al proceso de navegación. Los resultados sugieren que la comprensión de múltiples fuentes es un proceso dinámico que requiere interacción entre los procesos de hacer sentido, monitoreo, y evaluación, todos de los cuales promulgan la lectura estratégica. يحاول القراء بشكل متزايد الفهم والتعلم من مصادر المعلومات التي يجدونها على شبكة الإنترنيت؛ وبذلك فهذا يسلط الضوء على الدور الحاسم الذي تلعبه عمليات التقييم في اختيار وإعطاء معنى للمعلومات. وفي دراسة سابقة طلب “وايلي” وآخرون (التجربة١،٢٠٠٩) من الطلبة الجامعيين إجراء بحث على شبكة الإنترنيت حول البراكين مستخدمين مصادر إنترنيت متعددة.تم التوصل إلى نتيجة رئيسية تقوم على أن هناك صلة واضحة بين التعلم وتقييمات المصدر وسلوكيات القراءة. استخدمت الدراسة الحالية منهجية بروتوكول التفكيير بصوت عال لفهم بشكل أفضل العمليات التي استخدمها المتعلمون أثناء هذه المهمة: تمت مقارنة ١٠من أفضل المتعلمين ب١١من أضعف المتعلمين. تشير النتائج إلى أن أفضل المتعلمين استخدموا عمليات أكثر في إعطاء معنى للتفسير الذاتي ومراقبة الفهم على مواقع موثوق بها بالمقارنة مع مواقع غير موثوق بها وفعلوا ذلك أكثر من أضعف المتعلمين. كما أن أفضل المتعلمين قد قاموا بالبحث على أهدافهم عبر الإنترنيت بصورة مباشرة. وتوضح كذلك دراسة الحالة لأفضل متعلميْن وأضعف متعلميْن كيف ساهمت عمليات التقييم في قرارات البحث عبر الإنترنيت. تشير النتائج إلى أن فهم المصادر المتعددة عملية فعالة تشمل التفاعل المتبادل بين إعطاء المعنى والمراقبة وعملية التقييم، وكل منها تنمّي القراءة الاستراتيجية. Читaющиe люди вce чaщe oбpaщaютcя к интepнeтy кaк к иcтoчникy инфopмaции. Oднaкo, для eeгpaмoтнoгo oтбopa ивocпpиятиякpaйнeвaжнo yмeть oцeнить эти иcтoчники. B paнee пpoвeдeнныx иccлeдoвaнияx (Wiley и дp., 2009, Экcпepимeнт 1) yчeныe пpeдлoжили cтyдeнтaм млaдшиx кypcoв пoиcкaть мaтepиaл o вyлкaнax пo paзличныминтepнeт-caйтaм. B итoгe выявилacь пpямaя cвязь мeждy peзyльтaтaми yчeбнoй дeятeльнocти, yмeниeм oцeнить иcтoчники и caмим пoвeдeниeм cтyдeнтoв-читaтeлeй. B нacтoящeмиccлeдoвaнии, чтoбы лyчшe пoнять, кaк пpoиcxoдит пpoцecc oцeнивaния, иcпoльзoвaлcя мeтoд “paзмышлeниe вcлyx”, и cpaвнивaлиcь paзмышлeния дecяти лyчшиx и дecяти нaибoлee cлaбыx yчaщиxcя. Peзyльтaты пoкaзывaют, чтo cильныe yчaщиecя знaчитeльнo чaщe paбoтaют c нaдeжными caйтaми, бoльшe зaнимaютcя aнaлизoм инфopмaции и кoнтpoлиpyют coбcтвeннoe ocмыcлeниe пpoчитaннoгo. Кpoмe тoгo, caм пpoцecc иx ceтeвoгo пoиcкa бoлee цeлeнaпpaвлeн, чeм дeятeльнocть cлaбыx yчaщиxcя. B кaчecтвe иллюcтpaции oпиcaн пpoцecc oцeнивaния иcтoчникoв и cooтвeтcтвyющaя eмy тpaeктopия пoиcкa для двyx cильныx и двyx cлaбыx yчaщиxcя. Aвтopы пoлaгaют, чтo вocпpиятиe инфopмaции из мнoжecтвa иcтoчникoв – динaмичный пpoцecc, кoтopый coчeтaeт в ceбe вoccoздaниe нoвыx для читaтeля cмыcлoв, a тaкжe мoнитopинг и oцeнивaниe пpoцeccoв пoзнaния, чтo в coвoкyпнocти paзвивaeт нaвыки cтpaтeгичecкoгo чтeния. Les lecteurs essaient de plus en plus de comprendre et d'apprendre au moyen de sources d'information qu'ils trouvent sur Internet. Cette pratique souligne le rôle crucial que jouent les processus d’évaluation lors de la sélection de l'information et du sens qu'on lui donne. Dans une étude précédente, Wiley et al. (2009, première expérience) ont demandé à des étudiants de premier cycle d'effectuer sur la Toile une recherche sur les volcans en utilisant plusieurs sources d'Internet. Des liens sont apparus clairement entre les résultats obtenus, les évaluations des sources et les comportements de lecture. L’étude présentée ici a utilisé la méthodologie du protocole consistant à penser à haute voix pour mieux comprendre la façon de procéder des lecteurs lors de cette tâche, ceci avec 10 élèves de bon niveau contrastés à 11 élèves de niveau faible. Les résultats montrent que les meilleurs élèves s'engagent dans des processus d'auto-explication de recherche du sens et de pilotage de la compréhension sur des sites plus fiables que d'autres, et qu'ils procèdent ainsi plus largement que les moins bons élèves. Les meilleurs élèves sont aussi plus engagés dans une navigation avec but que les moins bons élèves. L’étude de cas de deux bons élèves et de deux faibles permettant de mieux illustrer encore comment les processus d’évaluation contribuent aux décisions de navigation. Les résultats suggèrent que la compréhension de sources multiples est un processus dynamique qui implique des interactions entre l'attribution de sens, le pilotage, et les processus d’évaluation, tous ces éléments contribuant à une lecture stratégique.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Reading Research Quarterly
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    Andrew F. Jarosz · Jennifer Wiley
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    ABSTRACT: Current theories concerning individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) suggest that WMC reflects the ability to control the focus of attention and resist interference and distraction. The current set of experiments tested whether susceptibility to distraction is partially responsible for the established relationship between performance on complex span tasks and the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (RAPM). This hypothesis was examined by manipulating the level of distraction among the incorrect responses contained in RAPM problems, by varying whether the response bank included the most commonly selected incorrect response. When entered hierarchically into a regression predicting a composite score on span tasks, items with highly distracting incorrect answers significantly improved the predictive power of a model predicting an individual's WMC, compared to the model containing only items with less distracting incorrect responses. Additional analyses were performed examining the types of errors that were made. A second experiment used eye-tracking to demonstrate that these effects seem to be rooted in differences in susceptibility to distraction as well as strategy differences between high and low WMC individuals. Results are discussed in terms of current theories about the role of attentional control in performance on general fluid intelligence tasks.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Intelligence
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    ABSTRACT: We explored whether exposure to different kinds of comprehension tests during elementary years influenced metacomprehension accuracy among 7th and 8th graders. This research was conducted in a kindergarten through 8th grade charter school with an expeditionary learning curriculum. In literacy instruction, teachers emphasize reading for meaning and inference building, and they regularly assess deep comprehension with summarization, discussion, dialogic reasoning, and prediction activities throughout the elementary years. The school recently expanded, doubling enrollments in 7th and 8th grades. Thus, approximately half of the students had long-term exposure to the curriculum and the other half did not. In Study 1, metacomprehension accuracy measured with the standard relative accuracy paradigm was significantly better for long-time students than for newcomers. In Study 2, all students engaged in delayed-keyword generation before judging their comprehension of texts. Metacomprehension accuracy was again significantly better for long-time students than for newcomers. Further, the superior monitoring accuracy led to more effective regulation of study, as seen in better decisions about which texts to restudy, which led, in turn, to better comprehension. The results suggest the importance of early exposure to comprehension tests for developing skills in comprehension monitoring and self-regulated learning.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Journal of Educational Psychology
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    Jennifer Wiley · Andrew F. Jarosz
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    ABSTRACT: Attentional focus is important for many cognitive processes, including problem solving. In this article, we discuss working memory capacity (WMC), a construct related to the ability to focus attention, and its differential effects on analytic and creative problem solving. One of the main ways in which WMC benefits analytic problem solving seems to be that it helps problem solvers to control their attention, resist distraction, and narrow their search through a problem space. Conversely, several lines of recent evidence have shown that too much focus can actually harm performance on creative problem-solving tasks.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Current Directions in Psychological Science
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    ABSTRACT: Two experiments explored concept map construction as a useful intervention to improve metacomprehension accuracy among 7th grade students. In the first experiment, metacomprehension was marginally better for a concept mapping group than for a rereading group. In the second experiment, metacomprehension accuracy was significantly greater for a concept mapping group than for a control group—a group of students who were given already constructed concept maps had accuracy between these two groups. In both experiments, control groups had poor metacomprehension accuracy. That is, they performed worse on tests they predicted better performance and performed better on tests they predicted worse performance. Although constructing concept maps did not produce the same high level of accurate monitoring previously reported in the literature, it still reduced the illusion of knowing.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Learning and Instruction
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    Michael Wiedmann · Ryan C. Leach · Nikol Rummel · Jennifer Wiley
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    ABSTRACT: Schwartz and Martin (Cogn Instr 22:129–184, 2004) as well as Kapur (Instr Sci, this issue, 2012) have found that students can be better prepared to learn about mathematical formulas when they try to invent them in small groups before receiving the canonical formula from a lesson. The purpose of the present research was to investigate how the effectiveness of invention activities may be mediated by composition of the small groups in terms of their mathematical skills. In two studies, small groups of undergraduates engaged in an “inventing standard deviation” task. Results suggested that groups may need at least one member with high math ability to take advantage of “learning by invention”. Groups consisting of both high and low math ability members generated a broader range of solution attempts during the invention task, and this seemed to be related to better uptake of the standard deviation formula from a later lesson. KeywordsCollaborative learning–Collaborative problem solving–Learning by invention–Group composition–Mathematical ability
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Instructional Science
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    Ivan K. Ash · Benjamin D. Jee · Jennifer Wiley
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    ABSTRACT: Gestalt psychologists proposed two distinct learning mechanisms. Associative learning occurs gradually through the repeated co-occurrence of external stimuli or memories. Insight learning occurs suddenly when people discover new relationships within their prior knowledge as a result of reasoning or problem solving processes that re-organize or restructure that knowledge. While there has been a considerable amount of research on the type of problem solving processes described by the Gestalt psychologists, less has focused on the learning that results from these processes. This paper begins with a historical review of the Gestalt theory of insight learning. Next, the core assumptions of Gestalt insight learning theory are empirically tested with a study that investigated the relationships among problem difficulty, impasse, initial problem representations, and resolution effects. Finally, Gestalt insight learning theory is discussed in relation to modern information processing theories of comprehension and memory formation.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Journal of Problem Solving