Dario Conte

Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda - Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milano, Lombardy, Italy

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Publications (380)2195 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background/aim: Medical research is looking for alternative drug-based options to the gluten-free diet (GFD) for celiac disease. We aimed at evaluating the need for alternative therapies perceived by celiac patients. Methods: During the 2013 meeting of the Lombardy section of the Italian Celiac Patients Association, adult subjects were invited to fill in a questionnaire investigating their clinical profile in relation to compliance to the diet, quality of life (QOL) as well as their opinion on alternative therapies. Results: Three hundred and seventy two patients (76 m, mean age 41.7 ± 13.9 years) completed the questionnaire. Patients reported a significant improvement in health status (HS) and QOL after the diet was started (p < 0.001). The GFD was accepted by 88% patients, but the need for alternative therapies was reported by 65%. Subjects expressing the need for a drug-based therapy showed a lower increase in QOL (p = 0.003) and HS (p = 0.005) on GFD. The preferred option for an alternative therapy was the use of enzymes (145 subjects), followed by a vaccine (111 subjects). Conclusion: The GFD is favorably accepted by most celiac patients. Nevertheless, a proportion of patients pronounce themselves in favor of the development of alternative drugs.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Digestion
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    ABSTRACT: Changes in the distribution and products of enteroendocrine cells may play a role in immune activation and regulation of gut inflammation. This review aims at critically evaluate the main enteroendocrine markers in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). A narrative review was performed by searching of inflammatory bowel diseases and enteroendocrine biomarkers in Pubmed. Relevant modifications of some enteroendocrine markers, such as Chromogranin A, and their correlation with disease activity have been reported in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. Even if data about neuroendocrine markers are sometimes contrasting, they may be potentially useful for the diagnosis and clinical management of these patients.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Neuropeptides
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    ABSTRACT: and Aim . Nonceliac gluten sensitivity is syndrome characterized by symptoms disappearing after a gluten-free diet. Its existence is still argument of discussion among specialists. Our aim was to evaluate the knowledge about nonceliac gluten sensitivity among gastroenterology specialists. Methods . During October 2013 a questionnaire was sent through a medical newsletter to Italian gastroenterologists. Twelve questions investigated their knowledge on nonceliac gluten sensitivity, including their diagnostic and therapeutic approach. Results . A total of 212 gastroenterologists filled in the questionnaire. The 98.6% were aware of the existence of a syndrome called “nonceliac gluten sensitivity” and 77% believe in its existence. However, only 56% gave a correct definition of the term. The majority of specialists diagnosed gluten sensitive patients and the number of diagnoses was not statistically different from that of celiac disease. Moreover, a gluten-free diet was prescribed by 64% of the specialists and among them the 73% noted an increase of gluten sensitive patients attending their outpatient services. Conclusions . Our study indicated that most of the specialists recognize nonceliac gluten sensitivity and prescribe gluten-free diet, although 44% of the specialists are not able to give its correct definition; underlining the necessity of medical education on this topic is needed.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015
  • Roberta E. Rossi · Dario Conte · Sara Massironi
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    ABSTRACT: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic progressive disease, usually associated with underlying inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), with a prevalence of 60-80% in western countries. Herein, we review the current knowledge about the association between PSC and IBD in terms of clinical approach and long-term patient management. A PubMed search was conducted for English-language publications from 2000 through 2015 using the following keywords: primary sclerosing cholangitis, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, diagnosis, therapy, follow-up, and epidemiology. In terms of diagnosis, liver function tests and histology are currently used. The medical treatment options for PSC associated with IBD do not differ from the cases of PSC alone, and include ursodeoxycholic acid and immunosuppressive agents. These treatments do not seem to improve survival, even if ursodeoxycholic acid given at low doses may be chemopreventive against colorectal cancer (CRC). Liver transplantation is the only potential curative therapy for PSC with reported survival rates of 85 and 70% at 5 and 10 years after transplant; however, there is a risk for PSC recurrence, worsening of IBD activity, and de-novo IBD occurrence after liver transplantation. PSC-IBD represents an important public health concern, especially in view of the increased risk for malignancy, including CRC. Long-life annual surveillance colonoscopy is usually recommended, although the exact timescale is still unclear. Further studies are required both to clarify whether annual colonoscopy is cost-effective, especially in younger patients, and to identify potential pharmaceutical agents and genetic targets that may retard disease progression and protect against CRC.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Coeliac disease is characterised by villous atrophy, which usually normalises after gluten withdrawal. Sometimes the revaluation of duodenal histology is required during follow-up, even if the methodology for comparing duodenal histology before and after introducing a gluten-free diet is not yet established. Our aim was to evaluate a novel criterion to compare duodenal histology in coeliac disease before and after gluten withdrawal. Methods: Duodenal biopsies from coeliac patients were retrospectively reviewed to compare duodenal histology at diagnosis and after at least one year on a gluten-free diet. Two different methods were used: the first was represented by the classical Marsh-Oberhuber score, the second compared the areas covered by each Marsh-Oberhuber grade and expressed as percentages, the final grade being calculated from the analysis of ten power fields per duodenal biopsy. Results: Sixty-nine patients (17 males 52 females, age at diagnosis 36±15 years) who underwent duodenal biopsies, were considered. According to the classical Marsh-Oberhuber scale, 32 patients did not present atrophy during follow-up while 37 showed duodenal atrophy, among whom 26 improved the grade of severity and 11 retained the same one. Of these latter, according to the second method, eight patients were considered improved, two showed a worsened duodenal damage and only one remained unchanged; the evaluation changed in 91 % of cases. Conclusions: The proposed semi-quantitative approach (i.e. the second method) for the evaluation of histology at follow-up provides additional information about the progression/regression of the mucosal damage.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · BMC Gastroenterology
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) represent a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, which include functioning and non-functioning forms. Somatostatin analogues (SSAs) play a key role in the management of these tumours. Herein, we aimed at reviewing the current evidence about the role of SSAs in the treatment of gastro-entero-pancreatic (GEP)-NETs. Material and methods: An extensive bibliographical search was performed in PubMed using the following keywords: gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours, somatostatin analogues, octreotide, lanreotide, in order to identify all the pertinent English-written articles published between 1990 and 2015. Results: SSAs have shown to help the symptomatic and biochemical improvement of patients with NETs and to exhibit a good safety profile. Recent studies have also reported a role for SSAs in tumour growth control, although the results are less impressive and the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Conclusions: SSAs are well known as a symptomatic and, to lesser extent, anti-proliferative treatment in GEP-NETs. However, some issues, including optimal dosage, benefits and adverse events of combination with other molecules, and the role of new analogues, remain to be elucidated in further randomised studies.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Patients with chronic autoimmune atrophic gastritis (CAAG) often refer digestive symptoms and are prescribed antisecretory medications. Aims were to investigate: (i) gastro-esophageal reflux (GER), (ii) psychopathological profile, (iii) frequency of use and clinical benefit of antisecretory drugs. Methods: Prospective observational study on 41 CAAG patients who underwent: 24 h multichannel intra-luminal impedance-pH (MII-pH) monitoring off-therapy, standardized medical interview and psychological questionnaire (i.e., SCL-90R). The medical interview was repeated at least 1 month after MII-pH in patients who were using antisecretory drugs. Statistical analysis was performed calculating median (10th-90th percentiles) and risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence interval. Key results: Median intra-gastric pH was 6.2 (4.6-7.0). One patient had acid reflux (AC) associated with symptoms, five had increased total reflux number and four had symptoms associated to non-acid reflux (NA) (patients referred as 'GER positive'). Using patients 'GER negative' with normal SCL-90R as reference, the RR of being symptomatic in patients GER positive was 2.1 (1.1-4.1) if SCL-90R was normal and 0.9 (0.5-1.7) if it was altered (difference in RR significant being p = 0.04). Seventeen/28 (61%) symptomatic patients were on antisecretory drugs, which were stopped in 16 of them according to results of MII-pH and clinical evaluation after 574 days (48-796) showed that symptoms were unchanged. Conclusions & inferences: In patients with CAAG (i) AC reflux rarely occurred whereas increased NA reflux was not infrequent both being related to symptoms in some patients, (ii) psychopathological profile has a role in symptoms' occurrence, (iii) antisecretory drugs were generally inappropriately used and clinically ineffective.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Neurogastroenterology and Motility
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Indications to double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) are not standardized in celiac disease (CD). GOALS: To evaluate the clinical usefulness of DBE in complicated CD. STUDY: DBE findings in celiac patients with suspected small bowel (SB) complications were retrospectively evaluated in 2 tertiary referral centers (Milan and Sheffield). Demographic data of the studied cohort were compared with a database of 1000 noncomplicated CD patients. RESULTS: Twenty-four CD cases (12 males, P=0.01 vs. controls) were reviewed. Mean age at CD diagnosis (y±SD) was 37±20 versus 27±18 and at SB evaluation 47±15 versus 38±13 (P<0.01 compared with controls). Indications for DBE were refractory CD (#9), gastrointestinal symptoms (#6), severe iron-deficiency anemia (#6), and long standing poor dietary adherence (#3). Two jejunal adenocarcinomas and an ileal neuroendocrine tumor were detected in presence of iron-deficiency anemia. Three type I and 3 type II refractory CD patients showed jejunal ulcerations; 2 of type II presented small white raised patches. Patchy atrophy was observed in nonadherent patients and in 2 on a gluten-free diet for a short time. Therapy was planned in 33% of patients after DBE. No adverse events were detected at follow-up [21 mo (range, 0 to 60 mo)]. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest international study on the outcomes of DBE in CD demonstrating its usefulness to exclude/confirm malignant or premalignant conditions, associated with even minor lesions. Studies are needed to understand the clinical relevance of the SB endoscopic features and to optimize DBE indications.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
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    ABSTRACT: Ultrasound imaging is used to assess bowel abnormalities in gastrointestinal diseases. We aimed to assess the rate of predefined bowel ultrasound signs and their relationship with gastrointestinal symptoms and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) genotype in cystic fibrosis patients in regular follow-up.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Optimal management and treatment of type-1 gastric carcinoids is under debate. This prospective study evaluates the outcome of patients with recurrent type-1 gastric carcinoids treated with somatostatin analogues. From 2000 to 2013, among a population of 107 chronic atrophic gastritis patients, 25 (20% males, median age 62 years) developed type-1 gastric carcinoids and underwent regular clinical and endoscopic follow-up (median 77 months, range 6-165) after the initial treatment. Those patients showing recurrent disease were treated with somatostatin analogues until carcinoid disappearance. 12/25 patients (33% males, median age 65 years) showed recurrent gastric carcinoids and were treated with somatostatin analogues for a median duration of 12 months. Median gastrin and chromogranin A levels, which were 802pg/mL and 33U/L, respectively, decreased to 299pg/mL (p=0.002) and 15.6U/L (p=0.001) at the end of the treatment. Gastric carcinoids disappeared after a median length of treatment of 12 months. After a median time of 19.5 months from somatostatin analogues discontinuation, 4/12 patients (25% males, median age 56 years) showed a further recurrence. A new cycle of treatment was performed successfully. This study confirms that type-1 gastric carcinoids are a recurring disease and somatostatin analogues, administered on 12-month cycles, represent an effective treatment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Digestive and Liver Disease
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    ABSTRACT: Because a traditional rendezvous (RV) technique implies stretching of the papilla, possibly leading to post-ERCP pancreatitis, an alternative duodenal RV technique was evaluated. The aim was to assess the effectiveness, safety, and amount of time spent performing duodenal RV versus traditional RV cannulation in orthotopic liver transplantation patients with a T-tube. We retrospectively reviewed data from a prospective ERCP database held by our university hospital. Twenty patients with a T-tube who had undergone ERCP for biliary adverse events after orthotopic liver transplantation were included. The successful cannulation rate, the amount of time spent performing cannulation, the post-ERCP pancreatitis rate, and hyperamylasemia 24 hours after the procedure were recorded. Successful cannulation was achieved by the duodenal RV technique in 9 of 10 patients (90%), taking 146 seconds (interquartile range 63-341 seconds) with a short learning curve effect. An unsuccessful duodenal RV procedure occurred because of the angulation of the hydrophilic tip of the guidewire while crossing the papilla, thus preventing cannulation. Successful cannulation was achieved by the traditional RV technique in all cases (N = 11), including the failed duodenal RV technique, taking 374 seconds (interquartile range 320-410 seconds) (P < .05 vs duodenal RV). However, no post-ERCP pancreatitis occurred after using the duodenal RV technique compared with 2 episodes of mild pancreatitis after using the traditional RV technique. Twenty-four hours after the procedure, the median amylasemia level was 84 IU/L (interquartile range 49-105 IU/L) and 265 IU/L (interquartile range 73-2945 IU/L) for the duodenal versus traditional RV techniques, respectively (P = not significant). In patients with a T-tube after liver transplantation, the duodenal RV technique was not associated with post-ERCP pancreatitis, presumably because of the reduction of stress on the major papilla. Cannulation by using the duodenal RV technique was faster compared with the traditional RV technique. These preliminary data point out the use of the duodenal RV technique as the first option to choose in case of failed cannulation before attempting the traditional RV technique. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Gastrointestinal endoscopy
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    ABSTRACT: Bowel wall fibrosis is associated with a complicated disease behavior in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). The quantitative assessment of fibrosis severity in CD-affected bowel can help clinical decision making. Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility, reliability, and reproducibility of ultrasound elasticity imaging (UEI) toward the assessment of ileal fibrosis in CD patients. Twenty-three consecutive patients with ileal or ileocolonic CD, elected for surgical resection of the terminal ileum, underwent bowel ultrasound and UEI. Twenty inflammatory CD patients without complications were enrolled as controls. Bowel wall stiffness was evaluated with UEI by means of color scale and quantitative strain ratio measurement. The severity of bowel wall fibrosis and inflammation were evaluated on histological sections by semiquantitative and quantitative image analysis and used as a reference standard. The UEI strain ratio measurement was significantly correlated with the severity of bowel fibrosis at both semiquantitative and quantitative histological image analysis: it was characterized by an excellent discriminatory ability for severe bowel fibrosis (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.917; 95% confidence interval, 0.788-1.000). UEI strain ratio measurements were characterized by an excellent interrater agreement. At multivariate analysis, bowel wall fibrosis proved the only independent determinant of the strain ratio. The ileal strain ratio of inflammatory CD patients was significantly lower than in operated CD patients with severe fibrosis. UEI can be used to assess ileal fibrosis in CD patients.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Present case report refers to a 48-year-old man with genetic haemochromatosis (C282Y mut/mut) diagnosed at the age of 26. After aggressive iron depleting regimen carried out up to normalization of iron-related indexes, he received a maintenance regimen based on regular phlebotomies for about 20 years. In 2014, a marked reduction of both serum ferritin and transferrin saturation percent, without concomitant anaemia, was noted on two different occasions at 5-month interval. An obscure occult GI bleeding was suspected, but both upper and lower GI tract endoscopy were negative for abnormal findings, as also was a detailed abdominal US scan. The persistence of low iron-related indexes prompted the physicians to perform a videocapsule endoscopy, which showed an ulcerative bleeding lesion in the small bowel, not confirmed however by both anterograde and retrograde double-balloon enteroscopy. Further MRI and PET allowed the identification of a 3.5 cm large lesion, located outside the small bowel wall, suspected to be a gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST). A further laparoscopic procedure allowed the resection of 10 cm of midileum, which included the mass, fully consistent with GIST at pathology.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Internal and Emergency Medicine

  • No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of cystic fibrosis: official journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
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    ABSTRACT: Celiac disease (CD) is treated by life-long gluten-free diet (GFD). Novel therapies are under development. Willingness of CD children's parents to alternative therapies and GFD impact were evaluated. Parents of celiac children on GFD were investigated on need and preference for novel CD therapies, children's enrolment in trials, compliance to and personal judgment on GFD, health status (HS) and quality of life (QoL). About 59.5% surveyed parents expressed the need for alternative therapies with a preference for vaccine-based strategy (39.9%). About 37.7% would accept enrollment in an ad hoc trial, 20.3% would agree to endoscopy during the trial. GFD compliance was 97.4% and well accepted by 93.8%. HS and QoL significantly improved during GFD (p < 0.001). The introduction of novel therapies for CD is desirable for over half of parents, with preference for vaccines. Parents frown upon enrolment in new clinical trials and the subsequent need for additional endoscopy.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
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    ABSTRACT: Noncoeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) has gained attention as an emerging clinical entity. Data regarding the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and management of NCGS are scattered in view of the diagnostic uncertainty surrounding the disorder. We aim to provide a current perspective of NCGS and its associated controversies. NCGS consists of a spectrum of intestinal and extraintestinal symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food, yet in the absence of coeliac disease or wheat allergy. To date, no specific biomarker exists for NCGS, thereby leaving the diagnosis to be confirmed by dietary elimination followed by double-blind placebo-controlled gluten-based rechallenges. Unfortunately, this technique is cumbersome, not readily-available in routine clinical practise, and can still leave the diagnosis of NCGS open to debate as to whether the effects demonstrated can be specifically attributed to the gluten-protein per se or rather coexisting nongluten components, such as fermentable carbohydrates and amylase-trypsin inhibitors. Physicians are increasingly being posed with the dilemma of patients presenting with self-reported NCGS. However, this appears to be the tip of the iceberg and future studies are in need of delineating which gluten-based component is responsible for each individual patient's complaint.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015
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    Sara Massironi · Alessandra Zilli · Dario Conte
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    ABSTRACT: Gastric carcinoids (GCs) are classified as: type I, related to hypergastrinemia due to chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), type II, associated with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, and type III, which is normogastrinemic. The management of type-I gastric carcinoids (GC1s) is still debated, because of their relatively benign course. According to the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society guidelines endoscopic resection is indicated whenever possible; however, it is not often feasible because of the presence of a multifocal disease, large lesions, submucosal invasion or, rarely, lymph node involvement. Therefore, somatostatin analogs (SSAs) have been proposed as treatment for GC1s in view of their antisecretive, antiproliferative and antiangiogenic effects. However, in view of the high cost of this therapy, its possible side effects and the relatively benign course of the disease, SSAs should be reserved to specific subsets of "high risk patients", i.e., those patients with multifocal or recurrent GCs. Indeed, it is reasonable that, after the development of a gastric neuroendocrine neoplasm in patients with a chronic predisposing condition (such as CAG), other enterochromaffin-like cells can undergo neoplastic proliferation, being chronically stimulated by hypergastrinemia. Therefore, definite indications to SSAs treatment should be established in order to avoid the undertreatment or overtreatment of GCs.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · World Journal of Gastroenterology
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    ABSTRACT: Reporting on three cases of gastric neuroendocrine tumors (g-NETs) in patients taking long-term proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). These tumors are not classifiable considering current criteria. g-NETs are currently grouped as: types 1 and 2, related to hypergastrinemia due to chronic atrophic gastritis and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome respectively, and type 3, normogastrinemic and more aggressive. Although the g-NETs onset in patients taking PPIs is biologically plausible, only a few cases have been reported so far. From January 2005 to July 2014, 31 g-NETs were referred to our Unit: 24 (77%), one (3%) and three (10%) resulted types 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Three cases (10%) did not meet the current classification criteria. The three patients were administered long-term PPIs for gastro-esophageal reflux disease. Patient 1: a 78-year-old man, with a 4-mm well-differentiated g-NET (Ki-67<1%) and marked hypergastrinemia. Patient 2: a 58-year-old man affected by a 6-mm well-differentiated (Ki-67 = 4%) g-NET, with normal gastrin levels. Patients 3: a 67-year-old woman with an 18-mm well-differentiated g-NET (Ki-67 <2%), with mild hypergastrinemia. In the three patients, histology and pertinent blood tests excluded chronic atrophic gastritis, Helicobacter pylori infection or Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. The first two patients underwent endoscopic polypectomy; in the third case total gastrectomy was performed. Further clinical, endoscopic and imaging follow-up did not show any g-NET recurrence. The present data point to the existence and epidemiological relevance of g-NETs associated with PPIs intake. These neoplasms are not included in the current classification, thus their treatment and follow-up have not been established.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
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    ABSTRACT: Malnutrition is common in alcoholic liver disease and is associated with high rates of complications and mortality. In this article, the current literature was reviewed to highlight the relevance of proper nutritional management providing levels of evidence, when available. A PubMed search was performed for English-language publications from 1980 through 2014 with the keywords: alcoholic liver disease, nutritional deficiencies, nutritional support, enteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition, and protein-energy malnutrition. Manuscripts focused on nutritional approach in patients with alcoholic liver disease were selected. Although nutritional support for malnourished patients improves the outcome of hospitalization, surgery, transplantation and reduces the complications of liver disease and the length of hospital stay, specific guidelines are scanty. Both enteral and parenteral nutrition appear to improve nutritional parameters and liver function; however data on survival is often conflicting. As micronutrient depletion is common in alcoholic liver disease and each deficiency produces specific sequelae, all cirrhotic patients should be screened at baseline for deficiencies of micronutrient and supplemented as needed. In summary, protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrient depletion are clinical concerns in alcoholic liver disease. Nutritional therapy, including enteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition and micronutrient supplementation should be part of the multidisciplinary management of these patients. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Digestive and Liver Disease

Publication Stats

6k Citations
2,195.00 Total Impact Points


  • 2006-2015
    • Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda - Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico
      • • Endocrinology and Diabetology
      • • Gastroenterology 3
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
    • Azienda Ospedaliera Treviglio
      Treviglio, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1981-2015
    • University of Milan
      • • Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Istituto di Scienze Dermatologiche
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2002
    • Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2001-2002
    • Ospedali Riuniti di Bergamo
      Bérgamo, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2000
    • Università Politecnica delle Marche
      • Clinic of Pediatrics
      Ancona, The Marches, Italy
    • Ospedale Maggiore di Lodi
      Lodi, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1999
    • Ospedale di San Raffaele Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
    • Ospedale Maggiore Carlo Alberto Pizzardi di Bologna
      Bolonia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 1998
    • INO - Istituto Nazionale di Ottica
      Florens, Tuscany, Italy
  • 1985
    • University of Padova
      Padua, Veneto, Italy