[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
To search for imaging characteristics distinguishing patients with successful from those with futile microbiological pathogen detection by CT-guided biopsy in suspected spondylodiscitis.
34 consecutive patients with suspected spondylodiscitis underwent CT-guided biopsy for pathogen detection. MR-images were assessed for inflammatory infiltration of disks, adjacent vertebrae, epidural and paravertebral space. CT-images were reviewed for arrosion of adjacent end plates and reduced disk height. Biopsy samples were sent for microbiological examination in 34/34 patients, and for additional histological analysis in 28/34 patients.
Paravertebral infiltration was present in all 10/10 patients with positive microbiology and occurred in only 12/24 patients with negative microbiology, resulting in a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 50% for pathogen detection. Despite its limited sensitivities, epidural infiltration and paravertebral abscesses showed considerably higher specificities of 83.3% and 90.9%, respectively. Paravertebral infiltration was more extensive in patients with positive as compared to negative microbiology (p = 0.002). Even though sensitivities for pathogen detection were also high in case of vertebral and disk infiltration, or end plate arrosion, specificities remained below 10%.
Inflammatory infiltration of the paravertebral space indicated successful pathogen detection by CT-guided biopsy. Specificity was increased by the additional occurrence of epidural infiltration or paravertebral abscesses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We introduce a generative probabilistic model for segmentation of brain lesions in multi-dimensional images that generalizes the EM segmenter, a common approach for modelling brain images using Gaussian mixtures and a probabilistic tissue atlas that employs expectation-maximization (EM) to estimate the label map for a new image. Our model augments the probabilistic atlas of the healthy tissues with a latent atlas of the lesion. We derive an estimation algorithm with closed-form EM update equations. The method extracts a latent atlas prior distribution and the lesion posterior distributions jointly from the image data. It delineates lesion areas individually in each channel, allowing for differences in lesion appearance across modalities, an important feature of many brain tumor imaging sequences. We also propose discriminative model extensions to map the output of the generative model to arbitrary labels with semantic and biological meaning, such as "tumor core" or "fluid-filled structure", but without a one-to-one correspondence to the hypoor hyper-intense lesion areas identified by the generative model. We test the approach in two image sets: the publicly available BRATS set of glioma patient scans, and multimodal brain images of patients with acute and subacute ischemic stroke. We find the generative model that has been designed for tumor lesions to generalize well to stroke images, and the generativediscriminative model to be one of the top ranking methods in the BRATS evaluation.
Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Digital plain radiography (DR) examinations of the pelvis are frequently performed in infants with hip dysplasia.
The purpose was to reduce the radiation dose and to determine objective quality control criteria to ensure accurate assessment. This seems feasible because of higher quantum efficiency of DR and easy assessable anatomical structures for most orthopaedic measurements.
Materials and methods:
Institutional review board approval was obtained. In this prospective randomized study, 264 patients underwent X-ray examination of the pelvis with standard and reduced dose. The evaluation of the plain-radiographs was conducted using the following criteria: acetabular and center edge angle, closing of the epiphyseal plates and maturation of the femoral head. Two radiologists evaluated these criteria using a score ranging from 1 (definitely assessable) to 4 (not assessable). If a single criterion had been evaluated with a score of 3 or more points or more than 2 criteria with 2 points, the radiograph was scored as "not assessable". The statistical analysis was conducted as non-inferiority-trial.
Five (1.9%) examined X-rays were scored as not assessable. There was no statistical inferiority between the examinations with standard (4.57μSv) or reduced dose (3.06μSv). Also, the individual evaluation of the defined criteria was dose-independent.
The adequate evaluation of hip dysplasia in children and young adults on pelvic radiographs is possible with reduced radiation dose, by simple using an exposure class of 800 instead of 400.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · European journal of radiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the clinical success and costs of computed tomography (CT)-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of osteoblastoma (OB) and spinal osteoid osteoma (OO).
Nineteen patients with OB and eight patients with spinal OO were treated with CT-guided RFA. The OBs were localized in the extremities (n = 10), the vertebral column (n = 2), and (juxta-)articular (n = 7). Dedicated procedural techniques included three-dimensional CT-guided access planning in all cases, overlapping RFA needle positions (median, two positions; range, 1-6 RF-electrode positions) within the OB nidus (multiple ablation technique, n = 15), and thermal protection in case of adjacent neural structure in four spinal OO. The data of eight operated OB and ten operated spinal OO patients were used for comparison. Long-term success was assessed by clinical examination and using a questionnaire sent to all operated and RFA-treated patients including visual analogue scales (VAS) regarding the effect of RFA on severity of pain and limitations of daily activities (0-10, with 0 = no pain/limitation up to 10 = maximum or most imaginable pain/limitation).
All patients had a clear and persistent pain reduction until the end of follow-up. The mean VAS score for all spinal OO patients and all OB patients treated either with RFA or with surgical excision significantly decreased for severity of pain at night, severity of pain during the day, and both for limitations of daily and of sports activities.
RFA is an efficient method for treating OB and spinal OO and should be regarded as the first-line therapy after interdisciplinary individual case discussion.
No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Skeletal Radiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Digital plain radiographs of the full leg are frequently performed examinations of children and young adults. Thus, the objective of this work was to reduce the radiation exposure dependent on specific indications, and to determine objective quality-control criteria to ensure accurate assessment.
Institutional review board approval and informed consent of all participants were obtained. In this prospective, randomized controlled, blinded, two-armed single-center study, 288 evaluable patients underwent plain radiography of the full leg with standard and reduced doses. The evaluation of the plain radiographs was conducted using the following criteria: mechanical axis, leg length, and maturation of the epiphyseal plate. Two blinded radiologists evaluated these criteria using a score ranging from 1 (definitely assessable) to 4 (not assessable). If a single criterion had been evaluated with a score of 3 or more points or all criteria with 2 points, the radiograph was scored as "not assessable". The study was designed as a non-inferiority trial.
Eleven (3.8 %) examined X-rays were scored as not assessable. The rate of non-assessable radiographs with 33 % reduced dose was significantly not inferior to the rate of non-assessable radiographs with standard dose. The evaluation of the quality criteria was dose independent.
Full-leg plain radiography in patients with knee malalignment can be performed at 33 % reduced dose without loss of relevant diagnostic information.
No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Skeletal Radiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
To compare sensitivity of whole-body Computed Tomography (wb-CT) and whole-body Magnetic Resonance Imaging (wb-MRI) with Projection Radiography (PR) regarding each method's ability to detect osteolyses in patients with monoclonal plasma cell disease.
Patients and Methods
The bone status of 171 patients was evaluated. All patients presented with multiple myeloma (MM) of all stages, monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS) or solitary plasmacytoma. Two groups were formed. Group A consisted of 52 patients (26 females, 26 males) with an average age of 62 years (range, 45-89 years) who received, both, PR and wb-CT as part of their diagnostic work-up. Group B comprised 119 patients (58 females, 61 males) averaging 57 years of age (range 20-80 years) who received, both, PR and wb-MRI. Two experienced radiologists were blinded regarding the disease status and assessed the number and location of osteolyses in consensus. A distinction was made between axial and extra-axial lesions.
In group A, wb-CT revealed osteolyses in 12 patients (23%) that were not detected in PR. CT was superior in detecting lesions in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis. Compared with PR, wb-CT was significantly more sensitive in detecting osteolyses than PR (p < 0.001). This was particularly true for axial lesions. Additionally, CT revealed clinically relevant incidental findings in 33 patients (63%). In group B, wb-MRI revealed lesions in 19 patients (16%) that were not detected in PR. All lesions detected by PR were also detected by wb-MRI and wb-CT. Wb-MRI and wb-CT are each superior to PR in detecting axial lesions.
Wb-CT can detect 23% more focal lesions than PR, especially in the axial skeleton. Therefore, this imaging method should be preferred over PR in the diagnostic work-up and staging of patients with monoclonal plasma cell disease.
No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · European journal of radiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
To determine the accuracy and reliability of three-dimensional (3D) T1- and proton density (PD)-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts using different flip-angle evolution (SPACE) compared with conventional 2D sequences in assessment of the shoulder-joint.
Materials and methods:
Ninety-three subjects were examined on a 3-T MRI system with both conventional 2D-TSE sequences in T1-, T2- and PD-weighting and 3D SPACE sequences in T1- and PD-weighting. All examinations were assessed independently by two reviewers for common pathologies of the shoulder-joint. Agreement between 2D- and 3D-sequences and inter-observer-agreement was evaluated using kappa-statistics.
Using conventional 2D TSE sequences as standard of reference, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy values of 3D SPACE were 81.8%, 95.1%, and 93.5% for injuries of the supraspinatus-tendon (SSP), 81.3%, 93.5%, and 91.4% for the cartilage layer and 82.4%, 98.5%, and 97.5% for the long biceps tendon. Concordance between 2D and 3D was almost perfect for tendinopathies of the SSP (κ=0.85), osteoarthritis (κ=1), luxation of the biceps tendon (κ=1) and adjacent bone marrow (κ=0.92). Inter-observer-agreement was generally higher for conventional 2D TSE sequences (κ, 0.23-1.0), when compared to 3D SPACE sequences (κ, -0.33 to 1.0) except for disorders of the long biceps tendon and supraspinatus tendon rupture.
Because of substantial and almost perfect concordance with conventional 2D TSE sequences for common shoulder pathologies, MRI examination-time can be reduced by nearly 40% (up to 11 min) using 3D-SPACE without loss of information.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · European Journal of Radiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability to ascertain information pertaining to peripheral perfusion through the analysis of tissues' temporal reaction to the inflow of contrast agent (CA) was first recognized in the early 1990's. Similar to other functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques such as arterial spin labeling (ASL) and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MRI, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) was at first restricted to studies of the brain. Over the last two decades the spectrum of ailments, which have been studied with DCE-MRI, has been extensively broadened and has come to include pathologies of the heart notably infarction, stroke and further cerebral afflictions, a wide range of neoplasms with an emphasis on antiangiogenic treatment and early detection, as well as investigations of the peripheral vascular and musculoskeletal systems.
DCE-MRI possesses an unparalleled capacity to quantitatively measure not only perfusion but also other diverse microvascular parameters such as vessel permeability and fluid volume fractions. More over the method is capable of not only assessing blood flowing through an organ, but in contrast to other noninvasive methods, the actual tissue perfusion. These unique features have recently found growing application in the study of the peripheral vascular system and most notably in the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD).
The first part of this review will elucidate the fundamentals of data acquisition and interpretation of DCE-MRI, two areas that often remain baffling to the clinical and investigating physician because of their complexity. The second part will discuss developments and exciting perspectives of DCE-MRI regarding the assessment of perfusion in the extremities. Emerging clinical applications of DCE-MRI will be reviewed with a special focus on investigation of physiology and pathophysiology of the microvascular and vascular systems of the extremities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
To implement chlorine 35 ((35)Cl) magnetic resonance (MR) at a 7-T whole-body MR system and evaluate its feasibility for imaging humans.
Materials and methods:
All examinations were performed with ethical review board approval; written informed consent was obtained from all volunteers. Seven examinations each of brain and muscle in healthy volunteers and four examinations of patients were performed. Two patients with histologically confirmed glioblastoma multiforme underwent brain imaging. (35)Cl MR and (35)Cl inversion-recovery (IR) MR were performed. Two patients with genetically confirmed hypokalemic periodic paralysis underwent calf muscle imaging. Seven multiecho sequences (acquisition time, 5 minutes; voxel dimension, 11 mm(3)) were applied to determine transverse relaxation time as affected by magnetic field heterogeneity (T2*) and chlorine concentration. (35)Cl and sodium 23 ((23)Na) MR were conducted with a 7-T whole-body MR system. (35)Cl longitudinal relaxation time (T1) and T2* of healthy human brain and muscle were determined with a three-dimensional density-adapted-projection reconstruction technique to achieve short echo times and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) efficiency. A nonlinear least squares routine and mono- (T1) and biexponential (T2*) models were used for curve fitting.
Phantom imaging revealed 15-fold lower SNR and much shorter relaxation times for (35)Cl than (23)Na. In vivo T2* was biexponential and extremely short. Monoexponential fits of T1 revealed 9.2 and 4.0 milliseconds ± 0.7 (standard deviation) for brain and muscle, respectively. In glioblastoma tissue, increased Cl(-) concentrations and increased Cl(-) IR signal intensities were detected. Voxel dimension and acquisition time, respectively, were 6 mm(3) and 9 minutes 45 seconds ((35)Cl MR) and 10 mm(3) and 10 minutes ((35)Cl IR MR). In patients with hypokalemic periodic paralysis versus healthy volunteers, Cl(-) and Na(+) concentrations were increased. Cl(-) concentration of muscle could be determined (voxel size, 11 mm(3); total acquisition time, 35 minutes).
MR at 7 T enables in vivo imaging of (35)Cl in human brain and muscle in clinically feasible acquisition times (10-35 minutes) and voxel volumes (0.2-1.3 cm(3)). Pathophysiological changes of Cl(-) homeostasis due to cancer or muscular ion channel disease can be visualized.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE
To quantitatively and qualitatively compare both image quality and diagnostic performance of 2D and 3D sequences for dedicated wrist imaging.
METHOD AND MATERIALS
16 healthy volunteers (mean age, 26.4 years) and 18 patients (mean age, 36.2 years) with wrist pain were examined using an 8-channel wrist-coil at 3 Tesla MRI. The imaging protocol consisted of 2D-proton-density fat-saturated (PDfs), isotropic 3D MEDIC, 3D-TrueFISP and 3D-PDfs-SPACE sequences. Signal-to-noise-ratios (SNR) and contrast-to-noise-ratios (CNR) of cartilage/bone/muscle/fluid and mean overall SNR/CNR were calculated using region-of-interest analysis. Qualitative analysis included overall image quality (OIQ), visibility of important structures and degree of artifacts rated on a five-point scale (0-4). ANOVA and adjusted Wilcoxon-signed-rank tests were applied. The study was approved by the institutional review board and all patients gave informed consent prior to inclusion.
Mean overall SNR/CNR for 2dPDfs; 3D-PDfs-SPACE; 3D-TrueFISP; 3D-MEDIC was 96/73; 43/28; 61/53; 77/45. SNR and CNR were higher (p<0.01) for 2D-PDfs and 3D-MEDIC for all single items except fluid and fluid/cartilage contrast, where 2D-PDfs and 3D-TrueFISP were superior. 3D-PDfs-SPACE was inferior (p<0.05) in all comparisons. In volunteers OIQ was not different between 3D-TrueFISP (3.5), 3D-MEDIC (3.4) and 2D-PDfs (3.3), but all were superior to 3D-SPACE (2.2, p<0.01). The best sequence for cartilage was the 3D-TrueFISP (3.6), for ligaments/TFCC the 2D-PDfs (3.2/3.4) and the 3D-MEDIC (3.1/3.2). In 18/20 items image quality measures were worse in the patient group (mean, 0.3) with 3D-TrueFISP having the strongest decrease (mean, 0.5), and 2D-PDfs the lowest (mean, 0.1). Overall artifacts were most pronounced in 3D-TrueFISP (mean, 2.3) compared to 2D-PDfs (3.3), 3D PDfs-SPACE (3.4), and 3D-MEDIC (3.3).
Standard 2D-PDfs sequence provides high SNR/CNR, image quality and robustness when compared to 3D sequences. Isotropic 3D-TrueFISP (cartilage) and 3D-MEDIC (ligaments/TFCC) exhibit additional advantages, while 3D-PDfs-SPACE is currently not advantageous.
When imaging the wrist at 3 Tesla, the sequence protocol should include 2D-PDfs. An additional 3D-TrueFISP sequence can be recommended for assessing cartilage and a 3D-MEDIC for ligaments and TFCC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied a two-generation family presenting with conditions that included progressive permanent weakness, myopathic myopathy, exercise-induced contracture before normokalaemic periodic paralysis or, if localized to the tibial anterior muscle group, transient compartment-like syndrome (painful acute oedema with neuronal compression and drop foot). (23)Na and (1)H magnetic resonance imaging displayed myoplasmic sodium overload, and oedema. We identified a novel familial Cav1.1 calcium channel mutation, R1242G, localized to the third positive charge of the domain IV voltage sensor. Functional expression of R1242G in the muscular dysgenesis mouse cell line GLT revealed a 28% reduced central pore inward current and a -20 mV shift of the steady-state inactivation curve. Both changes may be at least partially explained by an outward omega (gating pore) current at positive potentials. Moreover, this outward omega current of 27.5 nS/nF may cause the reduction of the overshoot by 13 mV and slowing of the upstroke of action potentials by 36% that are associated with muscle hypoexcitability (permanent weakness and myopathic myopathy). In addition to the outward omega current, we identified an inward omega pore current of 95 nS/nF at negative membrane potentials after long depolarizing pulses that shifts the R1242G residue above the omega pore constriction. A simulation reveals that the inward current might depolarize the fibre sufficiently to trigger calcium release in the absence of an action potential and therefore cause an electrically silent depolarization-induced muscle contracture. Additionally, evidence of the inward current can be found in (23)Na magnetic resonance imaging-detected sodium accumulation and (1)H magnetic resonance imaging-detected oedema. We hypothesize that the episodes are normokalaemic because of depolarization-induced compensatory outward potassium flux through both delayed rectifiers and omega pore. We conclude that the position of the R1242G residue before elicitation of the omega current is decisive for its conductance: if the residue is located below the gating pore as in the resting state then outward currents are observed; if the residue is above the gating pore because of depolarization, as in the inactivated state, then inward currents are observed. This study shows for the first time that functional characterization of omega pore currents is possible using a cultured cell line expressing mutant Cav1.1 channels. Likewise, it is the first calcium channel mutation for complicated normokalaemic periodic paralysis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To prospectively evaluate whether dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI can assess vascularity within non-unions and predicts clinical outcome in combination with the clinical Non-Union Scoring System (NUSS).
Fifty-eight patients with non-unions of extremities on CT underwent 3-T DCE MRI. Signal intensity curves obtained from a region-of-interest analysis were subdivided into those with more intense contrast agent uptake within the non-union than in adjacent muscle (vascularised non-union) and those with similar or less contrast uptake. The pharmacokinetic parameters of the Tofts model K trans, K ep, iAUC and V e were correlated with union at CT 1 year later (n = 49).
Despite inserted osteosynthetic material, DCE parameters could be evaluated in 57 fractures. The sensitivity/specificity of vascularised non-unions as an indicator of good outcome was 83.9 %/50.0 % compared to 96.8 %/33.3 % using NUSS (n = 49). Logistic regression revealed a significant impact of NUSS on outcome (P = 0.04, odds ratio = 0.93). At first examination, median iAUC (initial area under the enhancement curve) for the ratio non-union/muscle was 10.28 in patients with good outcome compared with 3.77 in non-responders (P = 0.023). K trans, K ep and Ve within the non-union were not significantly different initially (n = 57) or 1 year later (n = 19).
DCE MRI can assess vascularity in fracture non-unions. A vascularised non-union correlates with good outcome.
• Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging can assess vascularity within bony non-unions. • Vascularised ununited fractures appear better at 1-year CT than poorly vascularised fractures. • Non-union healing after osteosynthesis or osteoinductive drugs fundamentally requires vascularity. • DCE MRI predicts treatment outcome better than the clinical Non-Union Scoring System. • DCE MRI is clinically feasible to predict treatment outcome in bony non-unions.
No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · European Radiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
To investigate muscular micro-perfusion by employing dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and performing transient arterial occlusion in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2).
Twenty DM-2 patients (mean age, 58 ± 8.6 years; duration of diabetes, 15.4 ± 12.1 years) and 20 healthy volunteers (mean age, 54 ± 5.4 years) participated. CEUS was applied to the calf, while 4.8 mL of SonoVue(®) was injected intravenously. At the thigh level, arterial occlusion (60 s) was performed. CEUS parameters (tmax, max, AUCpost and m) were evaluated and Pearson-product-moment correlation coefficients were computed.
A moderate negative correlation of HbA1c and max was established (-0.53). Max in patients with DM-2 >10 years was 79.89 ± 37.4. Max in patients with DM-2 duration <10 years was 137.62 ± 71.72 (p = 0.04). AUCpost in patients with DM-2 duration >10 years was 3924.01 ± 1630.52. AUCpost in patients with DM-2 duration <10 years was 6453.59 ± 3206.23 (p = 0.04).
Patients with long history of DM-2 present with impaired muscular perfusion. CEUS and transient arterial occlusion may provide appropriate methods for semi-quantitative evaluation of muscular micro-perfusion in patients with DM-2.
No preview · Article · May 2013 · Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
We aimed to retrospectively evaluate the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of patients with osteoid osteoma treated with CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) along with the clinical outcome and long-term success.
Materials and methods:
Seventy-three CT-guided RFA procedures were performed in 72 patients. The long-term success was assessed using a questionnaire including several visual analog scale scores. The CT evaluation included pre- and immediate postprocedural imaging of all 72 patients, and MRI was performed in 18 patients with follow-up imaging (mean, 3.4±2.2 months). The evaluation criteria included nidus morphology and a correlation with markers of clinical success.
The primary technique effectiveness rate was 71/72 (99%). One relapse was successfully retreated, leading to a secondary technique effectiveness rate of 72/72 (100%). The long-term follow-up (mean, 51.2±31.2 months; range, 3-109 months) revealed a highly significant reduction of all assessed limitation scores (P < 0.001). The CT morphology was typical in all cases and did not change during the short-term follow-up. The follow-up MRI patterns varied considerably, including persistent nidus contrast enhancement in one-third (6/18) and persistent marrow edema in half (9/18) of the patients. None of the investigated MRI and CT patterns correlated with the clinical outcome.
The long-term outcome of CT-guided RFA of osteoid osteoma is excellent. There is no correlation of the CT and MRI patterns with the clinical outcome. Thus, the treatment decisions should not be solely based on the imaging findings. Investigators should also be aware of the variety of imaging patterns after RFA.
Preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Diagnostic and interventional radiology (Ankara, Turkey)