[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Essential thrombocytosis (ET) and FV Leiden heterozygosity represent an acquired and hereditable hypercoagulable state, respectively. An uncommon case of coexistence of ET and FV Leiden heterozygosity in a 36-year-old pregnant woman and her successful pregnancy outcome is described. She was considered to be at high risk of thrombosis during her pregnancy and she was treated with both prophylactic dose of LMWH and aspirin daily throughout her pregnancy and for a 6-week period postpartum. The efficacy of the anticoagulation treatment was monitored in various time points not only by measuring anti-Xa levels and D-Dimers but also with new coagulation methods such as rotation thromboelastometry and multiplate. Global assessment of coagulation using additional newer laboratory tests might prove useful in monitoring coagulation pregnancies at high risk for thrombosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Cancer and hypercoagulability are two of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Their relationship was first reported in the mid 1800s, but it is only during the last 30 years that its mechanism has started to be elucidated. The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) among cancer patients is 4-6 times higher than among non-cancer patients and the likelihood of thrombosis is associated with parameters related to the patient and to the disease and its treatment. Malignancy affects all the parameters of the Virchow's triad: Blood-flow, coagulation procedure and endothelium. Cancer cells induce a hypercoagulant state by secreting procoagulant, antifibrinolytic and proaggregational factors and inflammatory mediators. Tissue factor production leads via coagulation-dependent and -independent pathways, to the creation of a vicious circle by which malignancy induces a thrombophilic state and thrombophilia, in turn, promotes tumor growth and metastasis. The spectrum of clinical and laboratory manifestations of cancer-related thrombosis is wide. In recent years efforts have been made to set up prognostic models to identify cancer patients at high risk for developing VTE, for whom the use οf thromboprophylaxis would be beneficial. Meanwhile, guidelines on thromboprophylaxis and the treatment of cancer-related thrombosis are being drawn up, and the use of anticoagulants as antineoplasmatic agents is under investigation.
Full-text Article · Apr 2014 · Archives of Hellenic Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The effect of hydroxyethyl starches (HES) on blood coagulation is affected by their molecular weight, their molar substitution and the C2/C6 ratio. The solutions of 6% HES 130/0.4 and 6% HES 130/0.42 have similar molecular weight and molar substitution but different C2/C6 ratio and plant origin. In the present study, the comparative effect of 6% HES 130/0.4 versus 6% HES 130/0.42 on blood coagulation was investigated in vitro. Thirty milliliter of blood was obtained from 10 healthy volunteers and was diluted by 10, 30 and 50% using either 6% HES 130/0.4 or HES 130/0.42, respectively. Blood coagulation was assessed using thrombelastography measurements (clotting time, clot formation time, maximal clot firmness and alpha-angle). The assessment of platelet function was performed with whole blood aggregometry after adding thrombin-receptor-activating protein. No differences were noted between respective dilutions of the two HES. Both colloids produced significant reductions below the reference values range in clotting time at 10, 30 and 50% dilutions. The 50% dilution of both colloids resulted in significant reduction of maximal clot firmness, alpha-angle and platelet aggregation. The present study showed that the corn-derived 6% HES 130/0.4 and the potato-derived 6% HES 130/0.42 have the same effect on blood coagulation in vitro.
Article · Apr 2010 · Blood coagulation & fibrinolysis: an international journal in haemostasis and thrombosis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: We herein report a 56-year-old man who presented with abdominal pain, diarrhea and a 22-kg-weight loss over 4 months. He was on acenocoumarol treatment because of portal, splenic and mesenteric vein thrombosis (PSMVT) 3 months before, with admission international normalized ratio (INR):1.6. Doppler ultrasonography and helical computerized tomographic scan of the abdomen showed complete thrombosis of the extrahepatic portal vein extending into the superior mesenteric vein and splenic vein. The manifestation of thrombosis was in the absence of provocative stimuli or local cause. The patient had a negative history of venous thromboembolism. Thrombophilia workup revealed double heterozygosity for factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutation. He was immediately started with intravenous unfractionated heparin, followed by oral anticoagulation with target INR 2-3. Five days after a Doppler examination showed significant improvement in the flow within the portal vein, and a computerized tomographic scan of the abdomen 1 month later showed extensive recanalization of the portal venous system. The patient is now 36 months out from the second PSMVT episode and is doing well although maintaining oral lifelong anticoagulation. The case is of particular interest in that PSMVT was the first manifestation of this combined disorder. We conclude that all patients presenting with unexplained PSMVT should be investigated for the presence of a hypercoagulable state. Anticoagulation should be considered in all patients with this diagnosis and should be a lifelong therapy in those with an underlying thrombophilia.
Full-text Article · Oct 2009 · Blood coagulation & fibrinolysis: an international journal in haemostasis and thrombosis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: There are limited and controversial data regarding the impact of 4G/5G polymorphism of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene in the pathogenesis of premature myocardial infarction (MI). We explored whether 4G/5G polymorphism of the PAI-1 gene is associated with the development of MI <or= 35 years of age. We recruited 201 consecutive patients who had survived their first acute MI <or= 35 years of age (mean age = 32.2 +/- 3.4 years). The control group consisted of 140 healthy individuals matched with cases for age and sex, without a family history of premature coronary heart disease. 4G/5G polymorphism of PAI-1 was tested with polymerase chain reaction and reverse hybridization. 4G allele carriers (4G/4G and 4G/5G genotypes) of PAI-1 were less frequent in patients than in controls (69.6 vs. 83.6%, P = 0.007). 4G carriership of the polymorphism of PAI-1 was associated with lower risk for acute MI (odds ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.23-0.88, P = 0.02) after adjusting for major cardiovascular risk factors. Patients possessing the 4G allele had higher PAI-1 plasma levels (32.2 +/- 25 vs. 22.2 +/- 11.3 ng/ml, P = 0.006) but lower lipoprotein(a) levels (10.1 [2.1-29.9] vs. 15.3 [8.2-57.1] mg/dl, P = 0.03) compared to 5G/5G homozygotes. Our data indicate that the 4G allele of the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism is less frequent among survivors of MI at very young age compared with matched controls.
Full-text Article · Oct 2009 · Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Acenocoumarol is mainly catabolized by CYP2C9 isoform of cytochrome P450 (CYP) liver complex and exerts its anticoagulant effect through the inhibition of Vitamin K Epoxide Reductase (VKOR). The most important genetic polymorphisms which lead to an impaired enzymatic activity and therefore predispose to acenocoumarol sensitivity, are considered to be CYP2C9*2 (Arg144Cys), CYP2C9*3 (Ile359Leu) and VKORC1-1639G>A, respectively. In this study we compared the results of the PGXThrombo StripAssay kit (ViennaLab Diagnostics,Vienna, Austria) with direct DNA sequencing and in house Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLP) for the detection of the aforementioned Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs). The reverse hybridization StripAssay was found to be equally effective with RFLP and direct DNA sequencing for the detection of CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 polymorphisms, respectively. The comparison of the RFLP reference method with the reverse hybridization StripAssay for the detection of VKORC1-1639 G>A polymorphism showed that the reverse hybridization StripAsssay might misclassify some A/A homozygotes as heterozygotes. Optimization of the hybridization procedures may eliminate the extra low signal band observed in some samples at the reverse hybridization StripAssay and improve its diagnostic value.
Article · Jun 2009 · The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine: the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of several polymorphisms in genes that are involved in several pathways such as hemostasis, fibrinolysis, platelet membrane receptor activity, endothelial integrity and function, lipid metabolism, and regulation of blood pressure in healthy subjects of Greek origin. Most of these polymorphisms are mainly associated with conditions such as venous thromboembolism and atherothrombosis, and their prevalence has not been studied yet in Greece. We tested 140 healthy individuals for factor V (FV)1691G/A, FV4070G/A, FII 20210G/A, factor XIII (FXIII) exon 2G/T, fibrinogen beta-455G/A, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)-675 4G/5G, human platelet antigens 1 (HPA1) a/b, apolipoprotein B (ApoB) 10708 G/A, apolipoprotein E (ApoE) E2, E3, and E4, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) D/I, 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C/T, and MTHFR 1298A/C polymorphisms using a PCR and reverse hybridization technique that detects all of them simultaneously. The allele frequencies observed are in accordance with those reported in other Caucasian populations and almost identical to those of East Mediterranean populations. This first report from Greece may serve as a baseline for planning further investigations of these polymorphisms in association with several clinical entities and for launching guidelines for patient testing of various disease settings in this population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To identify the frequencies of the polymorphisms CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3 and VKORC1-1639 G>A in the Greek population and investigate whether these polymorphisms and patient demographics (age, sex and comedication) could explain the interindividual variability of acenocoumarol dose requirements for efficient anticoagulation.
CYP2C9*2 (Arg144Cys), CYP2C9*3 (Ile359Leu) and VKORC1-1639G>A allelic variants were analyzed in 98 patients treated with acenocoumarol.
Allelic frequencies of CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3 and VKORC1A were found to be 0.155, 0.075 and 0.485, respectively. Carriership of at least one CYP2C9*3 allele led to the most pronounced reduction in the required mean dose (p<0.0001). In contrast, the CYP2C9*2 allele played a minor role (p=0.3). VKORC1 A/A patients needed approximately a third of the dose required by wild-type patients to achieve the target INR (p<0.0001). Age was the only demographical factor significantly affecting acenocoumarol dose (p<0.0001). In a multivariable regression model, CYP2C9, VKORC1 genotypes and age explained 55% of acenocoumarol dosing variability.
VKORC1-1639G>A, CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 polymorphisms were found to predispose to acenocoumarol sensitivity in Greeks. Other hereditary and nongenetic parameters must be incorporated in an individualized dosing algorithm to achieve a safer anticoagulant effect.