M Kanerva

University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland

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Publications (24)71.77 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In Finland, occurrence of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-KP) has previously been sporadic and related to travel. We describe the first outbreak of colonisation with KPC-KP strain ST512; it affected nine patients in a 137-bed primary care hospital. The index case was detected by chance when a non-prescribed urine culture was taken from an asymptomatic patient with suprapubic urinary catheter in June 2013. Thereafter, all patients on the 38-bed ward were screened until two screening rounds were negative and extensive control measures were performed. Eight additional KPC-KP-carriers were found, and the highest prevalence of carriers on the ward was nine of 38. All other patients hospitalised on the outbreak ward between 1 May and 10 June and 101 former roommates of KPC-KP carriers since January had negative screening results. Two screening rounds on the hospital's other wards were negative. No link to travel abroad was detected. Compared with non-carriers, but without statistical significance, KPC-KP carriers were older (83 vs 76 years) and had more often received antimicrobial treatment within the three months before screening (9/9 vs 90/133). No clinical infections occurred during the six-month follow-up. Early detection, prompt control measures and repetitive screening were crucial in controlling the outbreak.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Eurosurveillance: bulletin europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In January 2008, laboratory-based surveillance of Clostridium difficile was initiated as a part of the Finnish National Infectious Disease Register (NIDR) and enhanced surveillance of hospitalized patients with C. difficile-associated infections (CDI) by the Finnish Hospital Infection Programme (SIRO). AIM: To present data from the first three years. METHODS: All laboratories reported C. difficile findings positive for toxin production from stools to NIDR. Surveillance of hospitalized patients with CDI was conducted using the interim case definitions of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control for CDI, origin and severe case of CDI. In all, 16 acute care hospitals from 10 of the 21 healthcare districts (HDs) participated in SIRO during 2008-2010. Clinical microbiology laboratories were asked to send isolates from severe cases and persistent outbreaks to the national reference laboratory for genotyping. FINDINGS: The annual incidence rate of CDIs decreased by 24%, from 119 per 100,000 population in 2008 to 90 per 100,000 in 2010. The decrease occurred in 13/21 (62%) HDs (range of decrease by HD: 2-51%). The nosocomial rate decreased 26%, from 0.31 to 0.23 per 1000 patient-days, and occurred in about half of the hospitals that participated in SIRO. During 2008-2010, 17 HDs sent C. difficile specimens for typing. Ribotype 027 was found in eight HDs, all showing values above the mean or increasing population-based incidence rates of CDIs. CONCLUSIONS: Population-based surveillance of CDIs and enhanced surveillance of nosocomial cases showed reduction in CDIs, but success in controlling the disease varied between regions.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · The Journal of hospital infection
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    N. Agthe · E. Mattila · T. Purmonen · M. Kanerva

    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Value in Health
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyse the Finnish European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC) nursing home (NH) point prevalence surveys' (PPSs) data in detail, i.e. to evaluate the variability in the prevalence of antimicrobial prescription between NHs and its relationship to resident characteristics. Methods: All residents present in NHs for ≥ 24 h and receiving systemic antimicrobials on the day of the survey were included. Data on antimicrobials and their indications (prophylaxis or treatment, type of infection) were collected. Results: Three PPSs were performed: eight NHs participated in April and November 2009 and nine in May-September 2010. In total, there were 5,691 eligible residents (range by survey, 1,706-2,320; range by NH, 60-688), 716 (12.6 %; range by NH, 3.2-33.3 %) of which received at least one antimicrobial and 40 residents received two. The most common indication was prophylaxis (487/5,691, 8.6 %), mainly for urinary tract infection (UTI) (460/487, 94.5 %). Of the residents, 269/5,691 (4.7 %, range by NH, 1.5-6.0 %) were on antimicrobial treatment. UTI (119/269; 44.2 %) was the most common indication for treatment. Methenamine (306/756, 40.5 %) was the most commonly used antimicrobial, followed by trimethoprim (13.6 %) and pivmecillinam (11.0 %). In the eight NHs participating in all three surveys, the prevalence of residents receiving antimicrobials decreased from 16.6 to 9.7 %. Conclusions: Antimicrobial use was common in NHs in Finland and most were used for UTI prophylaxis and treatment. The usage, however, varied among NHs and tended to decrease during the surveys. NHs may benefit from antimicrobial stewardship interventions focused on UTI.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Infection
  • M. Kanerva · J. Ollgren · O. Lyytikäinen

    No preview · Article · Oct 2010
  • M Kanerva · J Ollgren · O Lyytikäinen
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    ABSTRACT: A prevalence survey is a time-saving and useful tool for obtaining an overview of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) either in a single hospital or nationally. Direct comparison of prevalence rates is difficult. We evaluated the impact of case-mix adjustment on hospital-specific prevalences. All five tertiary care, all 15 secondary care and 10 (25% of 40) other acute care hospitals took part in the first national prevalence survey in Finland in 2005. US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria served to define HCAI. The information collected included demographic characteristics, severity of the underlying disease, use of catheters and a respirator, and previous surgery. Patients with HCAI related to another hospital were excluded. Case-mix-adjusted HCAI prevalences were calculated by using a multivariate logistic regression model for HCAI risk and an indirect standardisation method. Altogether, 587 (7.2%) of 8118 adult patients had at least one infection; hospital-specific prevalences ranged between 1.9% and 12.6%. Risk factors for HCAI that were previously known or identified by univariate analysis (age, male gender, intensive care, high Charlson comorbidity and McCabe indices, respirator, central venous or urinary catheters, and surgery during stay) were included in the multivariate analysis for standardisation. Case-mix-adjusted prevalences varied between 2.6% and 17.0%, and ranked the hospitals differently from the observed rates. In 11 (38%) hospitals, the observed prevalence rank was lower than predicted by the case-mix-adjusted figure. Case-mix should be taken into consideration in the interhospital comparison of prevalence rates.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · The Journal of hospital infection
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    ABSTRACT: Puumala virus (PUUV) causes mild haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, a rodent-borne zoonosis. To evaluate the disease burden of PUUV infections in Finland, we analysed data reported by laboratories to the National Infectious Disease Registry during 1995-2008 and compared these with data from other national registries (death, 1998-2007; hospital discharge, 1996-2007; occupational diseases, 1995-2006). A total of 22,681 cases were reported (average annual incidence 31/100,000 population); 85% were in persons aged 20-64 years and 62% were males. There was an increasing trend in incidence, and the rates varied widely by season and region. We observed 13 deaths attributable to PUUV infection (case-fatality proportion 0.08%). Of all cases, 9599 (52%) were hospitalized. Only 590 cases (3%) were registered as occupational disease, of which most were related to farming and forestry. The wide seasonal and geographical variation is probably related to rodent density and human behaviour.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · Epidemiology and Infection

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Journal of Hospital Infection
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    ABSTRACT: Norovirus outbreaks are difficult to control in hospitals. Cohorting and contact isolation, disinfective surface cleaning and hand hygiene are key elements in outbreak control. A new norovirus variant, GII.4.-2006b, spreading across many continents, caused an exceptionally long epidemic period in Finland, from November 2006 to June 2007. Here, we describe the clinical and molecular characteristics of a norovirus outbreak in a large tertiary care hospital in Finland. Altogether 240 (18%) patients and 205 (19%) healthcare workers fell ill in the 504 bedded main building of Helsinki University Central Hospital during December 2006 to May 2007. The epidemic curve had three peaks in January, February and April, and different wards were affected each time. During the outbreak, 502 patient stool specimens were tested for norovirus RNA, 181 (36%) of which were positive. Molecular analysis of 48 positive specimens revealed three main subvariants of GII.4.-2006b circulating temporally within distinct wards. Of all microbiologically confirmed cases, 121 (67%) were nosocomial and nine (5%) died within 30 days of diagnosis. Molecular analysis suggested that the three main GII.4-2006b subvariants entered the hospital with gastroenteritis patients, and the nosocomial spread within wards coincided with the epidemic peaks. Active control measures, including temporary closure of the wards, ultimately confined the single-ward outbreaks. A prolonged outbreak in the community was probably the source for the prolonged outbreak period in the hospital.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Journal of Hospital Infection
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated risk factors for death among hospitalised patients with healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) using the McCabe classification and Charlson index to predict mortality. The study consisted of a cohort of 703 patients with HCAIs and 7531 patients without HCAI in acute care hospitals participating in the Finnish national prevalence survey in 2005. We used Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definitions for HCAIs and recorded the McCabe classification for comorbidity. We used the date from the prevalence survey and the patient's national identity code in order to retrieve data from the National Hospital Discharge Registry on discharge diagnoses (International Classification of Diseases-10 codes) for the Charlson index and the dates of death from the National Population Information System. Of all inpatients, 425 (5.2%) died within 28 days from the prevalence survey date; the death rate was higher in HCAI patients than in those without HCAI (9.8% vs 4.7%, P<0.001). In the multivariate regression analysis age >65 years, intensive care, McCabe classification and Charlson index, gastrointestinal system infection and pneumonia/other lower respiratory tract infections were independent predictors for death. The survival analysis, when adjusted by McCabe class or Charlson index, showed that HCAI reduced survival only among patients without severe underlying diseases. Certain types of HCAI increased the risk of death. The McCabe classification had advantages over the Charlson index as a predictor of death, because it was easier to collect from a prevalence survey.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2008 · Journal of Hospital Infection
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    O Lyytikäinen · M Kanerva · N Agthe · T Möttönen · P Ruutu
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives of the first national prevalence survey on healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in Finland were to assess the extent of HAI, distribution of HAI types, causative organisms, prevalence of predisposing factors and use of antimicrobial agents. The voluntary survey was performed during February-March 2005 in 30 hospitals, including tertiary and secondary care hospitals and 10 (25%) other acute care hospitals in the country. The overall prevalence of HAI was 8.5% (703/8234). Surgical site infection was the most common HAI (29%), followed by urinary tract infection (19%) and primary bloodstream infection or clinical sepsis (17%). HAI prevalence was higher in males, among intensive care and surgical patients, and increased with age and severity of underlying illness. The most common causative organisms, identified in 56% (398/703) of patients with HAIs, were Escherichia coli (13%), Staphylococcus aureus (10%) and Enterococcus faecalis (9%). HAIs caused by multi-resistant microbes were rare (N = 6). A total of 122 patients were treated in contact isolation due to the carriage of multi-resistant microbes. At the time of the survey, 19% of patients had a urinary catheter, 6% central venous line and 1% were ventilated. Antimicrobial treatment was given to 39% of patients. These results can be used for prioritising infection control measures and planning more detailed incidence surveillance of HAI. The survey was a useful tool to increase the awareness of HAI in participating hospitals and to train infection control staff in diagnosing HAIs.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2008 · Journal of Hospital Infection

  • No preview · Article · Dec 2007 · Eurosurveillance: bulletin europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin
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    ABSTRACT: An outbreak of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) occurred in surgical and internal medicine units of a 1752-bed Finnish tertiary care hospital during 2003-2004. In order to analyse the costs of this 14-month outbreak, patients were categorized as follows: patients with MRSA infections; patients with MRSA colonization; patients exposed to MRSA but whose MRSA status remained inconclusive; and exposed patients who were negative for MRSA. We reviewed a sample of patients' charts to determine the types of clinical infections and interviewed staff about the practical implementation of control measures. The number of patients and patient-days involved in the outbreak were identified from the hospital's databases, with the administrative database supplying unit costs of work and materials. Loss of income due to closed beds was analysed. A total of 266 MRSA-positive patients (114 with infections and 152 colonized) and 797 patients exposed to MRSA were identified (11,744 contact isolation days). There were 1240 patients negative after screening (9880 contact isolation days). Total additional costs of MRSA were 386,062 euro (70% for screening and 25% for contact isolation). Costs due to meticillin resistance in treatment of MRSA infections were 16,000 euro. The income loss for this hospital due to closed beds was 1,183,808 euro. The high cost of MRSA screening underlines the importance of appropriate screening methods. Our model of analysing costs might be useful for other hospitals after adapting variables such as local control measures.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2007 · Journal of Hospital Infection
  • M. Kanerva · O. Lyytikainen · T. Möttönen · N. Agthe

    No preview · Article · Dec 2006 · Journal of Hospital Infection

  • No preview · Article · Dec 2006 · Journal of Hospital Infection
  • M Kanerva · O Vapalahti · A Vaheri

    No preview · Article · Feb 2000 · Duodecim; lääketieteellinen aikakauskirja
  • M Kanerva · J Mustonen · A Vaheri
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    ABSTRACT: Hantaviruses are rodent/insectivore-borne negative-stranded RNA viruses which belong to the Bunyaviridae family. They do not cause any symptomatic disease in their adult carrier rodents, but in humans they are aetiologic agents of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), both associated with a significant mortality. In cell culture hantaviruses do not cause cytopathic effects and the mechanisms of disease in man are not well understood. Increased capillary permeability is a central phenomenon in the pathogenesis of hantavirus infections. Although the viruses have in vivo a predilection for endothelial cells, it is presumed that inflammatory mediators of the host immune response play a significant role in the capillary leak that may produce abrupt hypotension and shock in severely ill patients. Mediators released by activated macrophages including NO and TNF-alpha are considered important. The pathogenesis of renal failure in HFRS also awaits to be resolved. This review summarises what is known about these phenomena and discusses also the molecular basis of the putative virulence factors of hantaviruses. Finally, the genetic predisposition and HLA association with severe Puumala virus infection will be discussed. Copyright 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    No preview · Article · May 1998 · Reviews in Medical Virology
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    ABSTRACT: Both the severe course of nephropathia epidemica (NE) caused by Puumala hantavirus, and the fast progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease, are associated with the HLA B8 DRB1*0301 haplotype. As HLA B27, on the contrary, is associated with the slow progression of HIV disease, we wanted to test whether the same is true for NE. Only six (8%) NE patients, half the figure expected, had the HLA B27 allele in 74 randomly selected hospital-treated patients. All six had a benign overall clinical course of NE; none had any severe complications, the severity of renal failure was also mild, and the treatment time at the hospital was half that needed for HLA B27- patients (P = 0.004). Patients who were HLA B27 had maximal blood leucocyte count > 10.000 x 10(9)/L (P = 0.020) more often, probably reflecting differences in immune response. Thus, similar HLA associations can be found in both HIV infection and NE caused by Puumala virus.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 1998 · Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
  • M Kanerva · A Vaheri · J Mustonen · J Partanen
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    ABSTRACT: The biallelic polymorphisms in the tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) gene promoter region were studied in patients with nephropathia epidemica (NE). The rarer TNF2 allele, associated with a high TNF-alpha producer phenotype, was more frequently found in hospitalized NE patients (42%) than in healthy controls (15%; p=0.0064). The putative role of TNF2 as an independent risk factor for NE is discussed.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1998 · Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Reverse transcription-PCR was used to analyze specimens from 20 Finnish nephropathia epidemica (NE) patients hospitalized during the period from October 1994 to January 1995. Blood and/or urine sediment specimens from seven patients were found to be positive for the genome sequences of Puumala hantavirus (PUU). PCR positivity of the specimens from the patients correlated well with the HLA-DRB1*0301 and HLA B8 alleles, which previously were shown to associate with severe courses of NE. Genetic analysis of the partial M-and/or S-segment sequences obtained from three severely ill NE patients revealed three PUU strains related to but distinct from previously reported strains from Finland. The M-segment sequence of PUU from bank voles trapped near the probable site of infection for one of the patients showed 98.2% identity to that of the PUU strain obtained from the patient, suggesting a link between wild-type PUU from the natural focus and the NE case. The S-segment sequences from the patient and the bank voles, however, showed substantially lower identity (95.8%). As this difference in diversity for M and S genes (1.8 and 4.2%) is atypical for PUU genetic drift, one possibility is that the strain acquired at the putative place of infection is a reassortant one.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 1997 · Journal of Clinical Microbiology

Publication Stats

871 Citations
71.77 Total Impact Points


  • 1996-2015
    • University of Helsinki
      • • Department of Oral Medicine
      • • Department of Virology
      Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland
    • University of Tampere
      • Medical School
      Tammerfors, Pirkanmaa, Finland
  • 2007-2012
    • Helsinki University Central Hospital
      • Division of Infectious Diseases
      Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland
  • 2010
    • National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland
      • Department of Infectious Disease Surveillance and Control
      Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland
  • 2006
    • National Public Health Institute
      Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland