[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our previous study showed that a single lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment to neonatal rats could induce a long-lasting neuroinflammatory response and dopaminergic system injury late in life. This is evidenced by a sustained activation of microglia and elevated interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels, as well as reduced tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in the substantia nigra (SN) of P70 rat brain. The object of the current study was to test whether co-administration of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) protects against LPS-induced neurological dysfunction later in life. LPS (1 mg/kg) with or without IL-1ra (0.1 mg/kg), or sterile saline was injected intracerebrally into postnatal day 5 (P5) Sprague-Dawley male rat pups. Motor behavioral tests were carried out from P7 to P70 with subsequent examination of brain injury. Our results showed that neonatal administration of IL-1ra significantly attenuated LPS-induced motor behavioral deficits, loss of TH immunoreactive neurons, as well as microglia activation in the SN of P70 rats. These data suggest that IL-1β may play a pivotal role in mediating a chronic neuroinflammation status by a single LPS exposure in early postnatal life, and blockadingIL-1β might be a novel approach to protect the dopaminergic system against perinatal infection/inflammation exposure.
Preview · Article · Apr 2015 · International Journal of Molecular Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously reported that neonatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure resulted in an increase in interleukin-1β (IL-1β) content, injury to the hippocampus, and cognitive deficits in juvenile male and female rats, as well as female adult rats. The present study aimed to determine whether an anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), protects against the neonatal LPS exposure-induced inflammatory responses, hippocampal injury, and long-lasting learning deficits in adult rats. LPS (1 mg/kg) or LPS plus IL-1ra (0.1 mg/kg) was injected intracerebrally to Sprague-Dawley male rat pups at postnatal day 5 (P5). Neurobehavioral tests were carried out on P21, P49, and P70, while neuropathological studies were conducted on P71. Our results showed that neonatal LPS exposure resulted in learning deficits in rats at both developmental and adult ages, as demonstrated by a significantly impaired performance in the passive avoidance task (P21, P49, and P70), reduced hippocampal volume, and reduced number of Nissl+ cells in the CA1 region of the middle dorsal hippocampus of P71 rat brain. Those neuropathological and neurobehavioral alterations by LPS exposure were associated with a sustained inflammatory response in the P71 rat hippocampus, indicated by increased number of activated microglia as well as elevated levels of IL-1β. Neonatal administration of IL-1ra significantly attenuated LPS-induced long-lasting learning deficits, hippocampal injury, and sustained inflammatory responses in P71 rats. Our study demonstrates that neonatal LPS exposure leads to a persistent injury to the hippocampus, resulting in long-lasting learning disabilities related to chronic inflammation in rats, and these effects can be attenuated with an IL-1 receptor antagonist.
No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Toxicology Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our previous study showed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced brain injury in the neonatal rat is associated with nitrosative and oxidative stress. The present study was conducted to examine whether melatonin, an endogenous molecule with antioxidant properties, reduces systemic LPS-induced nitrosative and oxidative damage in the neonatal rat brain. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of LPS (2 mg/kg) was administered to Sprague-Dawley rat pups on postnatal day 5 (P5), and i.p. administration of melatonin (20 mg/kg) or vehicle was performed 5 minutes after LPS injection. Sensorimotor behavioral tests were performed 24 h after LPS exposure, and brain injury was examined after these tests. The results show that systemic LPS exposure resulted in impaired sensorimotor behavioral performance, and acute brain injury, as indicated by the loss of oligodendrocyte immunoreactivity and a decrease in mitochondrial activity in the neonatal rat brain. Melatonin treatment significantly reduced LPS-induced neurobehavioral disturbances and brain damage in neonatal rats. The neuroprotective effect of melatonin was associated with attenuation of LPS-induced nitrosative and oxidative stress, as indicated by the decreased nitrotyrosine- and 4-hydroxynonenal-positive staining in the brain following melatonin and LPS exposure in neonatal rats. Further, melatonin significantly attenuated LPS-induced increases in the number of activated microglia in the neonatal rat brain. The protection provided by melatonin was also associated with a reduced number of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)+ cells, which were double-labeled with ED1 (microglia). Our results show that melatonin prevents the brain injury and neurobehavioral disturbances induced by systemic LPS exposure in neonatal rats, and its neuroprotective effects are associated with its impact on nitrosative and oxidative stress.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been known that methadone maintenance treatment is the standard treatment of choice for pregnant opiate addicts. However, there are few data on newborn outcomes especially in the cross talk with other addictive agents. The present study was to investigate the effect of prenatal exposure to methadone on methamphetamine (METH)-induced behavioral sensitization as an indicator of drug addiction in later life. Pregnant rats received saline or methadone (7mg/kg, s.c.) twice daily from E3 to E20. To induce behavioral sensitization, offspring (5 weeks old) were treated with METH (1mg/kg, i.p.) or saline once daily for 5 consecutive days. Ninety-six hours (day 9) after the 5th treatment with METH or saline, animals received a single dose of METH (1mg/kg, i.p.) or saline to induce the reinstated behavioral sensitization. Prenatal methadone treatment enhanced the level of development of locomotor behavioral sensitization to METH administration in adolescent rats. Prenatal methadone treatment also enhanced the reinstated locomotor behavioral sensitization in adolescent rats after the administration had ceased for ninety-six hours. These results indicate that prenatal methadone exposure produces a persistent lesion in the dopaminergic system, as indicated by enhanced METH-induced locomotor behavioral sensitization (before drug abstinence) and reinstated locomotor behavioral sensitization (after short term drug abstinence) in adolescent rats. These findings show that prenatal methadone exposure may enhance susceptibility to the development of drug addiction in later life. This could provide a reference for drug usage such as methamphetamine in their offspring of pregnant woman who are treating with methadone.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Behavioural brain research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oligodendrocyte (OL) development relies on many extracellular cues, most of which are secreted cytokines from neighboring neural cells. Although it is generally accepted that both astrocytes and microglia are beneficial for OL development, there is a lack of understanding regarding whether astrocytes and microglia play similar or distinct roles. The current study examined the effects of astrocytes and microglia on OL developmental phenotypes including cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, and myelination in vitro. Our data reveal that, although both astrocytes- and microglia-conditioned medium (ACDM and MCDM, respectively) protect OL progenitor cells (OPCs) against growth factor withdrawal-induced apoptosis, ACDM is significantly more effective than MCDM in supporting long-term OL survival. In contrast, MCDM preferentially promotes OL differentiation and myelination. These differential effects of ACDM and MCDM on OL development are highlighted by distinct pattern of cytokine/growth factors in the conditioned medium, which correlates with differentially activated intracellular signaling pathways in OPCs upon exposure to the conditioned medium.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Brain and Behavior
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brain inflammation in early life may enhance adult susceptibility to develop neurodegenerative disorders triggered by environmental toxins. Our previous studies show that perinatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure enhances adult susceptibility to rotenone-induced injury to the dopaminergic system in the substantia nigra (SN) of the adult rat brain. To further investigate the enhanced adult susceptibility by neonatal LPS exposure to rotenone neurotoxicity, we used our neonatal rat model of LPS exposure (1mg/kg, intracerebral injection in postnatal day 5, P5, neonatal rats) to examine the protein levels of α-synuclein and dopamine transporters (DAT) in the adult rat. By P70, rats from the saline- or LPS-exposed group were challenged with rotenone, a commonly used pesticide, through subcutaneous mini-pump infusion at a dose of 1.25mg/kg per day for 14 days. The accumulation of α-synuclein aggregation and increment of DAT protein content were found in the SN of LPS-exposed rats. Neonatal LPS exposure enhanced rotenone-stimulated accumulation of α-synuclein aggregation and increment in DAT protein expression in the cytoplasmic compartment of the SN, and in the synaptosomal compartment of the striatum of adult rats. Rotenone treatment also resulted in reduction of [(3)H]dopamine uptake and mitochondrial complex I activity in the striatum of rats with neonatal LPS exposure, but not in those without this exposure. The current study suggests possible roles of α-synuclein aggregate and DAT distribution in the cytoplasm and synaptosome triggered by environmental toxins in later life in the development of neurodegenerative disorders. Our model may be useful in studying mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of nonfamilial Parkinson's disease and for developing potential therapeutic treatments for this disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is induced in inflammatory cells in response to cytokines and pro-inflammatory molecules, suggesting that COX-2 has a role in the inflammatory process. The objective of the current study was to examine whether celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, could ameliorate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced brain inflammation, dopaminergic neuronal dysfunction and sensorimotor behavioral impairments.
Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of LPS (2 mg/kg) was performed in rat pups on postnatal Day 5 (P5), and celecoxib (20 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered (i.p.) five minutes after LPS injection. Sensorimotor behavioral tests were carried out 24 h after LPS exposure, and brain injury was examined on P6.
Our results showed that LPS exposure resulted in impairment in sensorimotor behavioral performance and injury to brain dopaminergic neurons, as indicated by loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity, as well as decreases in mitochondria activity in the rat brain. LPS exposure also led to increases in the expression of α-synuclein and dopamine transporter proteins and enhanced [3H]dopamine uptake. Treatment with celecoxib significantly reduced LPS-induced sensorimotor behavioral disturbances and dopaminergic neuronal dysfunction. Celecoxib administration significantly attenuated LPS-induced increases in the numbers of activated microglia and astrocytes and in the concentration of IL-1β in the neonatal rat brain. The protective effect of celecoxib was also associated with an attenuation of LPS-induced COX-2+ cells, which were double labeled with TH + (dopaminergic neuron) or glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) + (astrocyte) cells.
Systemic LPS administration induced brain inflammatory responses in neonatal rats; these inflammatory responses included induction of COX-2 expression in TH neurons and astrocytes. Application of the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib after LPS treatment attenuated the inflammatory response and improved LPS-induced impairment, both biochemically and behaviorally.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Journal of Neuroinflammation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brain inflammation via intracerebral injection with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in early life has been shown to increase risks for the development of neurodegenerative disorders in adult rats. To determine if neonatal systemic LPS exposure has the same effects on enhancement of adult dopaminergic neuron susceptibility to rotenone neurotoxicity as centrally injected LPS does, LPS (2 μg/g body weight) was administered intraperitoneally into postnatal day 5 (P5) rats and when grown to P70, rats were challenged with rotenone, a commonly used pesticide, through subcutaneous minipump infusion at a dose of 1.25 mg/kg/day for 14 days. Systemically administered LPS can penetrate into the neonatal rat brain and cause acute and chronic brain inflammation, as evidenced by persistent increases in IL-1β levels, cyclooxygenase-2 expression and microglial activation in the substantia nigra (SN) of P70 rats. Neonatal LPS exposure resulted in suppression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression, but not actual death of dopaminergic neurons in the SN, as indicated by the reduced number of TH+ cells and unchanged total number of neurons (NeuN+) in the SN. Neonatal LPS exposure also caused motor function deficits, which were spontaneously recoverable by P70. A small dose of rotenone at P70 induced loss of dopaminergic neurons, as indicated by reduced numbers of both TH+ and NeuN+ cells in the SN, and Parkinson's disease (PD)-like motor impairment in P98 rats that had experienced neonatal LPS exposure, but not in those without the LPS exposure. These results indicate that although neonatal systemic LPS exposure may not necessarily lead to death of dopaminergic neurons in the SN, such an exposure could cause persistent functional alterations in the dopaminergic system and indirectly predispose the nigro-striatal system in the adult brain to be damaged by environmental toxins at an ordinarily nontoxic or subtoxic dose and develop PD-like pathological features and motor dysfunction.
No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Developmental Neuroscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infection during early neonatal period has been shown to cause lasting neurological disabilities and is associated with the subsequent impairment in development of learning and memory ability and anxiety-related behavior in adults. We have previously reported that neonatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure resulted in cognitive deficits in juvenile rats (P21); thus, the goal of the present study was to determine whether neonatal LPS exposure has long-lasting effects in adult rats. After an LPS (1 mg/kg) intracerebral (i.c.) injection in postnatal day 5 (P5) Sprague-Dawley female rat pups, neurobehavioral tests were carried out on P21 and P22, P49 and P50 or P70 and P71 and brain injury was examined at 66 days after LPS injection (P71). Our data indicate that neonatal LPS exposure resulted in learning deficits in the passive avoidance task, less anxiety-like (anxiolytic-like) responses in the elevated plus-maze task, reductions in the hippocampal volume and the number of NeuN+ cells, as well as axonal injury in the CA1 region of the middle dorsal hippocampus in P71 rats. Neonatal LPS exposure also resulted in sustained inflammatory responses in the P71 rat hippocampus, as indicated by an increased number of activated microglia and elevation of interleukin-1β content in the rat hippocampus. This study reveals that neonatal LPS exposure causes persistent injuries to the hippocampus and results in long-lasting learning disabilities, and these effects are related to the chronic inflammation in the rat hippocampus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuroblastoma is a type of malignant extracranial tumor that occurs in children. Advanced neuroblastoma, and tumors with MYCN amplification in particular, have poor prognoses. Therefore, it is important to find an effective cure for this disease. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) disrupts gene function by specifically binding to target mRNA. In this study, we used siRNA against telomerase to treat neuroblastoma, to evaluate any anti-proliferative effect on these cells. We evaluated cell viability by WST-1 assay on neuroblastoma cells treated with or without telomerase siRNA. Nuclear condensation, an indicator for apoptotic cells, was determined by DAPI labeling following siRNA treatment. The effectiveness of telomerase siRNA on altering the neuroblastoma cell cycle was detected by flow cytometry. Our results indicated that telomerase siRNA reduces the viability of neuroblastoma cells and increases the percentage of cells in the cell cycle's sub-G1 phase. We found that telomerase siRNA increases the percentage of condensed DNA in neuroblastoma cells. In conclusion, using siRNA against telomerase could be further developed as a therapy for the treatment of neuroblastoma.
No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Journal of Neuro-Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously demonstrated benzodiazepine binding in the cortex and hippocampus of mu-opioid receptor knockout (KO) mice. It is known that benzodiazepine receptors are involved in regulating anxiety-like behaviors. Thus, the present study was designed to examine whether there are changes in anxiety-like behavior in mice lacking mu-opioid receptors. To produce anxiolytic activity (less anxiety), the prototype benzodiazepine receptor agonist chlordiazepoxide (CDP, 5mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered in wild type (WT) and mu-opioid receptor KO mice. We found that compared to WT mice, mu-opioid receptor KO mice showed enhanced anxiolytic activity to CDP, including increased number of entries into open arm, increased percentage of the time spent in open arms, and decreased percentage of the time spent in enclosed arms in the elevated plus-maze test. We also assessed protein expression of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) synthetic enzyme (glutamic acid decarboxylase; GAD). Western blotting data indicated that neither the lack of mu-opioid receptors nor CDP treatment altered cortical or hippocampal GAD(65) or GAD(67) protein expression. These data indicate that compared with WT, mu-opioid receptor KO mice experienced less anxiety and exhibited enhanced anxiolytic activity to CDP treatment, and these effects were not dependent on GAD(65) or GAD(67) protein expression. Our previous and present data suggest that the anxiolytic activity displayed in mu-opioid receptor KO mice is associated with upregulation of the benzodiazepine receptor system.
No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Brain research bulletin
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retinoblastoma is a malignant tumor of the retina usually occurring in young children. To date, the conventional treatments for retinoblastoma have been enucleation, cryotherapy, external beam radiotherapy, or chemotherapy. Most of these treatments, however, have possible side effects, including blindness, infections, fever, gastrointestinal toxicity, and neurotoxicity. More effective treatments are therefore imperative. Gossypol has been reported as a potential inhibitor of cell proliferation in various types of cancers, such as prostate cancer, breast cancer, leukemia, and lung cancer. This study investigates the possible antiproliferative effect of gossypol on retinoblastoma.
Human retinoblastoma cells were cultured with various concentrations of gossypol and checked for cell viability with a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Nuclear condensation caused by cell apoptosis was detected by staining retinoblastoma cells with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), counting those with condensed nuclei, and determining the percentage of apoptotic cells. In addition, the stages of apoptosis and phases in cell cycles were examined with flow cytometry. The possible signal transduction pathways involved were examined with a protein array assay and western blot analysis.
After incubation, the cell survival rate was significantly lower after treatment with 5, 10, and 20 µM of gossypol. The maximum antisurvival effect of gossypol was observed at 20 µM, and the number of apoptotic cells was higher in the preparations cultured with 10 and 20 µM of gossypol. The results in flow cytometry indicated that at concentrations of 10 and 20 µM, gossypol increased the proportion of early- and late-apoptotic retinoblastoma cells and induced cell arrest of retinoblastoma cells at the same concentrations. This antiproliferative effect was later confirmed by upregulating the expression of death receptor 5 (DR5), caspase 8, caspase 9, caspase 3, cytochrome C, tumor protein 53 (p53), and second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (Smac) in the signal transduction pathways.
We concluded that gossypol has an antiproliferative effect on retinoblastoma cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our previous studies indicated that the endogenous opioid system, particularly the mu-opioid receptor, may be involved in the modulation of methamphetamine (METH)-induced increases in locomotor behavior in mice. This study investigates the effects of naloxonazine, a specific mu-opioid receptor antagonist, on the locomotor behavioral response and phosphorylation pattern of dopamine and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of Mr32 (DARPP-32) in striatal dopaminergic transmissions induced by acute administration of METH to mice. Mice were injected with a single dose of naloxonazine (20 mg/kg, i.p.) 60 min before injecting (i.p.) either saline or 1 mg/kg of METH. After a 2-h behavioral test, striatal tissues were collected to determine the protein levels of DARPP-32 and the phosphorylated form of DARPP-32 at the Thr34 and Thr75 sites. Results show that pretreatment with naloxonazine significantly attenuated the acute METH-induced increase in locomotor activity and phosphor-Thr75 DARPP-32 levels. Our data indicate that the mu-opioid receptor blockade reduces the acute METH-induced increase in locomotor activity. This effect may be related to the inhibition of DARPP-32 phosphorylation at the Thr75 site in the striatum of the mice.
No preview · Article · May 2012 · Toxicology Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Repeated exposure to methamphetamine (METH) can cause not only neurotoxicity but also addiction. Behavioral sensitization is widely used as an animal model for the study of drug addiction. We previously reported that the μ-opioid receptor knockout mice were resistant to METH-induced behavioral sensitization but the mechanism is unknown.
The present study determined whether resistance of the μ-opioid receptor (μ-OR) knockout mice to behavioral sensitization is due to differential expression of the stimulatory G protein α subunit (Gαs) or regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS) coupled to the dopamine D1 receptor. Mice received daily intraperitoneal injections of saline or METH (10 mg/kg) for 7 consecutive days to induce sensitization. On day 11(following 4 abstinent days), mice were either given a test dose of METH (10 mg/kg) for behavioral testing or sacrificed for neurochemical assays without additional METH treatment.
METH challenge-induced stereotyped behaviors were significantly reduced in the μ-opioid receptor knockout mice when compared with those in wild-type mice. Neurochemical assays indicated that there is a decrease in dopamine D1 receptor ligand binding and an increase in the expression of RGS4 mRNA in the striatum of METH-treated μ-opioid receptor knockout mice but not of METH-treated wild-type mice. METH treatment had no effect on the expression of Gαs and RGS2 mRNA in the striatum of either strain of mice.
These results indicate that down-regulation of the expression of the dopamine D1 receptor and up-regulation of RGS4 mRNA expression in the striatum may contribute to the reduced response to METH-induced stereotypy behavior in μ-opioid receptor knockout mice. Our results highlight the interactions of the μ-opioid receptor system to METH-induced behavioral responses by influencing the expression of RGS of dopamine D1 receptors.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Journal of Biomedical Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brain inflammation in early life has been proposed to play important roles in the development of neurodegenerative disorders in adult life. To test this hypothesis, we used a neonatal rat model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure (1000 EU/g body weight, intracerebral injection on P5) to produce brain inflammation. By P70, when LPS-induced behavioral deficits were spontaneously recovered, animals were challenged with rotenone, a commonly used pesticide, through subcutaneous mini-pump infusion at a dose of 1.25 mg/kg per day for 14 days. This rotenone treatment regimen ordinarily does not produce toxic effects on behaviors in normal adult rats. Our results show that neonatal LPS exposure enhanced the vulnerability of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons to rotenone neurotoxicity in later life. Rotenone treatment resulted in motor neurobehavioral impairments in rats with the neonatal LPS exposure, but not in those without the neonatal LPS exposure. Rotenone induced losses of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons in the substantia nigra and decreased mitochondrial complex I activity in the striatum of rats with neonatal LPS exposure, but not in those without this exposure. Neonatal LPS exposure with later exposure to rotenone decreased retrogradely labeled nigrostriatal dopaminergic projecting neurons. The current study suggests that perinatal brain inflammation may enhance adult susceptibility to the development of neurodegenerative disorders triggered later on by environmental toxins at an ordinarily non-toxic or sub-toxic dose. Our model may be useful for studying mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of nonfamilial Parkinson's disease and the development of potential therapeutic treatments.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2011 · Neurobiology of Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our previous studies have shown that neonatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resulted in long-lasting dopaminergic injury and enhanced methamphetamine (METH)-induced increase of locomotion in the adult male rat. To further investigate the effect of neonatal LPS exposure-induced dopaminergic injury, we used our neonatal rat model of LPS exposure (1mg/kg, intracerebral injection in postnatal day 5, P5, rats) to examine the METH sensitization as an indicator of drug addiction in the adult rats. On P70, animals began a treatment schedule of 5 daily subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of METH (0.5mg/kg) or saline (P70-P74) to induce behavioral sensitization. Ninety-six hours after the 5th treatment with METH or saline (P78), animals received a single dose of 0.5mg/kg METH (s.c.) or saline. Neonatal LPS exposure enhanced the level of development of behavioral sensitization including distance traveled, rearing events and stereotypy to METH administration in both male and female rats. Neonatal LPS exposure also enhanced the reinstated behavioral sensitization in both male and female rats after the administration had ceased for 96h. However, neonatal LPS exposure induced alteration in the reinstated behaviors sensitization of distance traveled and rearing events to METH administration appears to be greater in male than in female rats. These results indicate that neonatal brain LPS exposure produces a persistent lesion in the dopaminergic system, as indicated by enhanced METH-induced locomotor and stereotyped behavioral sensitization in later life. These findings show that early-life brain inflammation may enhance susceptibility to the development of drug addiction in later life.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Behavioural brain research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Honokiol, an active agent extracted from magnolia bark, has been reported that induces anxiolytic action in a mouse elevated plus-maze test. However, the mechanism of anxiolytic action induced by honokiol remains unclear. This study was to investigate the change in two forms of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GABA synthesized enzymes) GAD(65) and GAD(67) in the cortex and hippocampus areas while the anxiolytic actions induced by chronic administration of honokiol in mice. Mice treated with 7 daily injection of honokiol (1mg/kg, p.o.) caused anxiolytic action which was similar to that was induced by 7 daily injection of diazepam (2mg/kg, p.o.) in the elevated plus-maze test. In addition, the activity of hippocampal GAD(65) of honokiol treated mice was significantly increased than that of the vehicle or diazepam treated groups. These data suggest that honokiol causes diazepam-like anxiolytic action, which may be mediated by altering the synthesis of GABA in the brain of mice.
Preview · Article · May 2011 · Phytomedicine: international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methamphetamine is a potent addictive stimulant drug that activates certain systems in the brain. It is a member of the amphetamine family, but the effects of methamphetamine are much more potent, longer lasting, and more harmful to the central nervous system. Repeated administration of methamphetamine induces behavioral sensitization, which is considered to be related to compulsive drug-seeking behavior. Although the mechanism responsible for methamphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization remains unclear, it is believed that the mesolimbic dopaminergic system in the central nervous system plays a critical role in the development of behavioral sensitization. Our previous studies indicate that the involvement of the μ-opioid receptor system underlies the development of methamphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization. Understanding the mechanisms of behavioral sensitization that are regulated by the μ-opioid receptor system would be helpful in developing therapeutic programs against methamphetamine addiction. This review briefly discusses the neural circuitry and cellular mechanisms that are known to play a central role in methamphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization and outlines the role of the μ-opioid receptor system in the development of methamphetamine-induced sensitization.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · DNA research: an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An increasing amount of data show that central inflammation contributes to many debilitating diseases and produces spontaneous pain and hyperalgesia (an increased sensitivity to painful stimuli), and these processes may be associated with the production of proinflammatory cytokines by activated microglia. In the present study, we demonstrate that neonatal intracerebral injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1mg/kg) in postnatal day 5 (P5) rats produced hyperalgesia that lasted into adulthood as indicated by decreased latency in the tail-flick test. Neonatal LPS administration resulted in a long-lasting increase in the number of activated microglial in the P70 rat brain. The effects of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and IL-1 receptor antagonists on hyperalgesia were determined to examine the possible role of inflammatory cytokines in LPS-induced hyperalgesia. Our data show that neonatal intracerebral injection of IL-1β (1 μg/kg) produced a hyperalgesic tendency similar to that induced by LPS. Neonatal administration of an IL-1 receptor antagonist (0.1mg/kg) significantly attenuated long-lasting hyperalgesia induced by LPS and reduced the number of activated microglia in the adult rat brain. These data reveal that neonatal intracerebral LPS exposure results in long-lasting hyperalgesia and an elevated number of activated microglia in later life. This effect is similar to that induced by IL-1β and can be prevented by an IL-1 receptor antagonist. The present study suggests that an IL-1 receptor antagonist effectively attenuates or blocks long-lasting hyperalgesia and microglia activation produced by LPS exposure in the neonatal period of rats.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our previous studies have shown that neonatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resulted in motor dysfunction and dopaminergic neuronal injury in the juvenile rat brain. To further examine whether neonatal LPS exposure has persisting effects in adult rats, motor behaviors were examined from postnatal day 7 (P7) to P70 and brain injury was determined in P70 rats following an intracerebral injection of LPS (1 mg/kg) in P5 Sprague-Dawley male rats. Although neonatal LPS exposure resulted in hyperactivity in locomotion and stereotyped tasks, and other disturbances of motor behaviors, the impaired motor functions were spontaneously recovered by P70. On the other hand, neonatal LPS-induced injury to the dopaminergic system such as the loss of dendrites and reduced tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the substantia nigra persisted in P70 rats. Neonatal LPS exposure also resulted in sustained inflammatory responses in the P70 rat brain, as indicated by an increased number of activated microglia and elevation of interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 content in the rat brain. In addition, when challenged with methamphetamine (METH, 0.5 mg/kg) subcutaneously, rats with neonatal LPS exposure had significantly increased responses in METH-induced locomotion and stereotypy behaviors as compared to those without LPS exposure. These results indicate that although neonatal LPS-induced neurobehavioral impairment is spontaneously recoverable, the LPS exposure-induced persistent injury to the dopaminergic system and the chronic inflammation may represent the existence of silent neurotoxicity. Our data further suggest that the compromised dendritic mitochondrial function might contribute, at least partially, to the silent neurotoxicity.